Vaccination for poultry
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Vaccination for poultry

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Vaccination for poultry Vaccination for poultry Presentation Transcript

  • WELCOME
  • ROLE OF VACCINATION IN PREVENTION OF DISEASES
  • STORAGE OF VACCINES
    • All vaccines should be protected from light.
    • All live vaccines must be stored between 2-8 C temperature and preferably in deep freezer.
    • Killed vaccines should be stored below 8 C and should never be frozen.
    • Diluents may be stored in room temperature, but prior to every vaccination the corresponding should be prechilled.
  • GUIDELINES FOR SUCCESSFUL VACCINATIONS
    • Always vaccinate only the healthy birds and keep them comfortable by providing adequate heat,feed,water and good ventilation.
    • Get the vaccines from a reliable source and transport always in thermos flask with ice cubes to maintain the cold chain.
    • Use Sterile needles and syringe for reconstitition.
    • Keep the reconstituted vaccine in the ice to maintain the cold chain.
    • Don't rush through the vaccination procedures. Use speed . . .
    • … .. but maintain accurancy
    • Use reconstituted vaccines within 2 hours.
    • Burn and destroy the unused vaccine and empty vials.
    • For killed vaccines frequently shake the bottle and care should be taken to avoid injecting in your own fingers.
    • For the success of any immunisation procedure, it is
    • Hold the chick with one eye turned up.
    • Take the reconstituted vaccine in a sterile syringe using a blunt needle if 16 gauge or take it into a dropper bottle.
    • Install one drop in the eye.
    • Ensure that the vaccine drop is completely absorbed in the eye.
  • Preparation of Vaccines
    • Store the diluent bottles in the refrigerator overnight before use to chill.
    • Using sterile needles and syringe withdraw approximately 5 ml. of pre-chilled diluent and transfer it to vaccine vial.
    • Suspend the vaccine pellet by shaking vaccine vial moderately
    • Using the same syringe, remove the diluted vaccine and transfer to the diluent bottle.
    • Rinse the vaccine vials twice with 5 ml. of diluted vaccine and transfer the same to the diluent bottle.
    • Mix the final vaccine by gently inverting the diluent several times.
    • During vaccination shake the bottle of reconstitued vaccine frequently and keep it on ice.
  • Preparation of Inactivated Vaccines
    • Remove the vaccine from the refrigerator the day before it is to be used and allow it to attend room temperature because viscosity of the emulsion increases during refrigeration.
    • Shake well before use and also during the frequent syring withdrawals.
  • INTRA 0CCULAR METHOD
    • Hold the chick with one eye turned up.
    • Take the reconstituted vaccine in a sterile syringe using a blunt needle if 16 gauge or take it into a dropper bottle.
    • Install one drop in the eye.
    • Ensure that the vaccine drop is completely absorbed in the eye.
  • SUB CUTANEOUS METHOD
    • Take the reconstituted vaccine in a holder, which is attached with an automatic syringe.
    • Inject subcutaneously in the lower half of the neck, under the loose skin at the point midway between the birds head and base of the neck.
  • INTRA MUSCULAR METHOD
    • Take the reconstituted vaccine in a holder, which is attached with an automatic syringe.
    • Inject the needle of the syringe into the pectoral (breast)/ thigh muscles of the bird and push the plunger of the syringe so as to deliver the required quantity of vaccine in the muscle.
  • WING WEB METHOD
    • Dip the sterile lancet in the reconstituted vaccine.
    • Prick the lancet in the wing web region of the bird.
    • The needles of the lancet should be dipped in the vaccine before every prick.
  • DRINKING WATER METHOD
    • The reconstituted vaccine should be mixed with a small quantity of water mixed with skimmed milk.
    • Subsequently this should be mixed in a total quantity of water in which the skimmed milk powder is dissolved.
    • Provide ample water space so that all birds can drink vaccine Treated water comfortably.
  • SPRAY METHOD
    • The reconstituted vaccine is mixed in a total quantity of water, which is required for spray vaccination.
    • By using sprayer, spray the vaccine on the birds with a hose.
    • Care is to be taken, that every bird gets exposed to the vaccine .
  • BEAK DIP METHOD
  • Precautions
      • A : General
      • Vaccine should have been manufactured by a reputed company which follows rigid quality standards for vaccines production.
      • Vaccines should be purchased from a shop which has refrigeration and freezer facilities.
      • Vaccine should not have passed its expiry date printed on its lable.
      • Viral live vaccine should be transported from the market to the farm on ice.
      • Instructions printed on the label of the vaccine should be strictly followed.
      • Exact dose of vaccine should be adminstered in the way it is recommended.
      • Vaccines should not be stored for a long time. It may be purchased when needed, but sufficiently in advance so that vaccination could be done on a scheduled date. One should keep an eye whether vaccine is in short supply.
      • Ailing flock should not be vaccinated. It may not respond to the vaccine or to the stress due to the vaccine, may aggrevate the disease present.
      • Very young chick should not be vaccinated. Maternal antibodies present in them may neutralize the virus and may not allow immune response to develop.
      • Live vaccines should not be used in areas where the disease has not existed.
      • Equipment used for vaccination should be cleaned and sterilised.
      • Vaccination should be done during the cold hours of the day.
  • Special Precautions for live viral vaccines
      • Live vaccines should always be kept in a refrigerator or in a freezer.
      • While suspending the vaccine in a diluent, the diluent should be cooled to a temperature of 4 - 10O Centigrade.
      • Vaccine suspension should be prepared just before it is used and should not lie unused.
      • Only that much amount of vaccine should be suspended which will be used up within a period of two hours of its preparation.
      • Only a small amount of vaccine should be taken into a dropper or a vaccinator so that it could be used within 10-15 minutes to prevent transfer of heat from the hands of the vaccinating person.
      • Un-used vaccine and vaccine containers should be incinerated or deep burried.
      • Vaccination should not be interrupted. The whole flock should be vaccinated at a stretch
  • Precautions for vaccination through drinking water.
      • Since modern poultry farming raises a large number of birds, it is difficult to vaccinate individual bird and therefore administration of vaccine through drinking water is generally practised. But this mode of vaccination does not ensure up-take of vaccine by each bird. Vaccination through drinking water should not be followed for primary vaccination. Primary vaccination should be done by taking care of individual bird. Booster vaccination may be done through drinking water, taking certain precautions as follows:
      • Birds should be made thirsty by withdrawing water for about two hours before vaccination (in summer season one hour is sufficient).
      • All waterers and utensils to be used for vaccine preparation should be cleaned with non-medicated water.
      • Drinking water to be used for vaccine preparation should not contain any detergents or medicines that may kill the organisms in vaccine.
      • Water should be cooled if necessary by adding ice cubes. It should also contains 6% of skimmed milk powder. This stabilizes the virus in the vaccine and prevents the action of detergents if any present in water. Skimmed milk powder should be dissolved in water and formation of lumps should be avoided.
      • Vaccine should be suspended in such a quantity of water that it would be utilised by birds within two hours.
      • Sufficient waterers should be placed so that every chick should get water containing vaccine.
  • Inactivated Vaccines
    • There is no danger of organism multipling and causing an infectious reaction in a stressed, laying, or immunosupressed bird. Since no new living organism is brought in the farm. There is no danger ofrevertion to virulence or spread to susceptible birds.
    • Each bird is individually handled and given a uniform dose, the flocks immune response is more uniform even with the careful administration it can be difficult to achieve uniform exposure when using a live vaccine.
    • The humoral immune response (production of circulating antibody) is generally greater with inactivated products. This is an advantage when hyper immunising breeder hence in order to provide passive protection for chicks.
    • Also by stimulating very high titters , inactivated products may reduce or eliminate the need for revaccination for some disease in laying birds.
    • Since the vaccine organism is already killed, storage requirements are not as stringent and the shelf life for inactivated vaccine is usually longer than for live vaccines.
    • Since there are no infective components killed vaccines can be combined more easily than live vaccines.
    • Viral interference, as occurs when some live viral vaccines are administered together, is not a problem with inactivated vaccines.
  • Proper use of Inactivated Vaccines
    • As with any biologicals storage according to label direction is necessary.
    • Oil emulsion product should be well shaken before use.
    • Killed vaccines are mostly used for laying birds to stimulate long lasting immunity and to reduce or eliminate the need for revaccination during lay.
    • Most inactivated viral vaccine required that the bird first be primed with one or more live vaccination for optimum immunity.
    • Some killed products may be used without live vaccine priming where the live organism is less desirable as an immunising agent. e.g. Fowl Cholera Killed vaccine, Infectious Coryza killed vaccine etc.
    • Killed vaccines must be injected the usual sites include subcutaneously in the back of the neck and intra-muscularly in the breast or on thigh muscles.
    • The injection should not be given into the skin (intra-dermally) or into the neck muscles. Intra dermal injection can cause severe swelling and injection of the emulsion into the neck muscles can cause necrosis of the tissue and loss of ability to raise the head
    • For intra-muscular injection breast muscle is preferable as a site to thigh muscle because the thigh muscle is smaller and there is chance of injury to the prominent nerves or blood vessels.
    • The needle should be always pointed away from the head.
    • The size of the needle depends upon personal preference, site of injection and age of bird, but usually ranges from half to one inch, 18 to 20 gauge.
    • Needles should be kept sharp and clean. If disposable needles are used, they should be changed with every bottle (500 to 1000 doses).
    • Self-injection of emulsion vaccine can cause severe local reaction and are especially dangerous when the tips of the finger are involved in such cases physician should be seen immediately and told that an oil emulsion vaccine is involved
  • Common Errors in Vaccinations
      • Vaccine Handling
      • Vaccine stored in an inoperative refrigerator.
      • Two much vaccine mixed before use (over 2 hrs.). Reconstituted vaccine quantity is more (not consumed by birds within two hours).
      • Vaccine carried to house without ice.
      • Water Vaccination
      • Unclean waterline would lead to inactivation of vaccine.
      • Enough water not used for vaccination.
      • Water lines not filled before vaccination commences.
      • Water line sanitizers not removed in adequate time before vaccination
      • Spray Vaccination
      • Incorrect droplet size used for spraying
      • Too little vaccine mixture applied / not all birds exposed to vaccine
      • Flock improperly primmed before spray vaccination
      • Lights not dimmed during spraying
      • Ventilation system not turned off during spraying
      • Ventilation system not turned off after spraying
      • Wing Web or Eye Drop Vaccination
      • Grant inoculators not held vertically during use.
      • Too much vaccine mixed before use.
      • Wing web vaccine given by eye drop and eye drop vaccine given by wing web.