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  2. 2. TIME STUDY & MOTION ECONOMICS [Type your address]  [Type your phone number]  [Type your e-mail address] DILIP SINGH  KUMAR SARVESH  RAJEEV SHARAN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING September 15, 2010What is Industrial Engineering?Definition of Industrial Engineering - The Work of an IndustrialEngineerThe field of engineering is subdivided in several major disciplines likemechanical engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering,electronical engineering, chemical engineering, metallurgical engineering,and also industrial engineering. Certainly this disciplines can also besubdivided further. Industrial Engineering integrates knowledge and skillsfrom several fields of science: From the Technical Sciences, EconomicSciences as well as Human Science - all these can also be supported withskills in Information Sciences. The Industrial Engineer comprehendsknowledge in those sciences in order to increase the productivity ofprocesses, achieve quality products and assures Labour safety. BFTECH-05 / 2008-12/ NIFT BANGALORE |
  3. 3. 9/15/2010Hence, we can define Industrial Engineering as given below:“Industrial Engineering is concerned with the design, improvement, andinstallation of integrated systems of people, materials, information,equipment and energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in themathematical, physical, and social sciences together with the principles andmethods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict, and evaluatethe results to be obtained from such system‖.(The above given formal definition of industrial engineering has beenadopted by the Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE)).Role of Industrial Engineering (IE):  To understand the role of industrial engineering (IE) it is helpful to learn the historical developments that were involved in the development of IE.  Principles of early engineering were first taught in military academies and were concerned primarily with road and bridge construction and with defenses.  Interrelated advancements in the fields of physics and mathematics laid the groundwork for practical applications of mechanical principles.  The first significant application of electrical science was the development of the telegraph by Samuel Morse (approximately 1840).  Thomas Edison‘s invention of the carbon lamp (approximately 1880) led to widespread use of electricity for lighting purposes.  The science of chemistry is concerned with understanding the nature of matter and learning how to produce desirable changes in materials.  Fuels were needed for the new internal combustion engines. Lubricants were needed for the rapidly growing collection of 3
  4. 4. 9/15/2010 mechanical devices. Protective coatings were needed for houses, metal products, ships, and so forth.  Five major engineering disciplines (civil, chemical, electrical, industrial, and mechanical) were the branches of engineering that came out prior to the 1st World War.  Developments following 2nd World War led to other engineering disciplines, such as nuclear engineering, electronic engineering, aeronautical engineering, and even computer engineering.Chronology of Industrial Engineering  Charles Babbage visited factories in England and the United States in the early 1800‘s and began a systematic recording of the details involved in many factory operations.  He carefully measured the cost of performing each operation as well as the time per operation required to manufacture a pound of pins.  Babbage presented this information in a table, and thus demonstrated that money could be saved by using women and children to perform the lower-skilled operations.  The higher-skilled, higher-paid men need only perform those operations requiring the higher skill levels.  Frederick W. Taylor is credited with recognizing the potential improvements to be gained through analyzing the work content of a job and designing the job for maximum efficiency.  Frank B. Gilbreth extended Taylor‘s work considerably. Gilbreth‘s primary contribution was the identification, analysis and measurement of fundamental motions involved in performing work.  Another early pioneer in industrial engineering was Henry L. Gantt, who developed the so-called Gantt chart. The Gantt chart was a significant contribution in that it provided a systematic graphical procedure for pre-planning and scheduling work activities, reviewing progress, and updating the schedule. Gantt charts are still in widespread use today. 4
  5. 5. 9/15/2010  During the 1920s and 1930s much fundamental work was done on economic aspects of managerial decisions, inventory problems, incentive plans, factory layout problems, material handling problems, and principles of organization.Scope of Industrial Engineering (IE)  The extent of industrial engineering is evidenced by the wide range of such activities as research in biotechnology, development of new concepts of information processing, design of automated factories, and operation of incentive wage plans.Diversity of Industrial Engineering (IE)  Industrial engineering is a diverse discipline concerned with the design, improvement, installation, and management of integrated systems of people, materials, and equipment for all kinds of manufacturing and service operations.  IE is concerned with performance measures and standards, research of new products and product applications, ways to improve use of scarce resources and many other problem solving adventures.  IE draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences, together with a strong background in engineering analysis and design and the management sciences to specify, predict, and evaluate the performance from such systems. 5
  6. 6. 9/15/2010What Industrial Engineers do??So what do industrial engineers do to increase productivity and assurequality?An Industrial Engineer can perform several activities to fulfil its task:Processes and Procedures of manufacturing or service activites can beexamined through Process Analysis.He can Use Work Study comprehending Method Study and Time Study.Method Study is the Study of How a job is performed examining andrecording the activities, operators, equipment and materials involved in theprocess. Time Study records and rates the times of jobs being performed.The mentioned activities are also called operations Management.Furthermore can Industrial Engineering involve inventory management tomake a manufacturing process more feasible and efficient. IndustrialEngineers are also involved in design activities for Products, Equipment,Plants an Workstations. Here ergonomics and motion economy play a role.Last but not least is the Industrial Engineer playing an important role indeveloping Quality Management Systems (as they i.e. should comply withthe ISO 9000 Standards). Here they often have job titles like QualityEngineer or Quality Manager.Employment  An Industrial Engineer may be employed in almost any type of industry, business or institution, from retail establishments to manufacturing plants to government offices to hospitals.  Because their skills can be used in almost any type of organization, and also industrial engineers are more widely distributed among industries than other engineers. 6
  7. 7. 9/15/2010  For example, industrial engineers work in insurance companies, banks, hospitals, retail organizations, airlines, government agencies, consulting firms, transportation, construction, public utilities, social service, electronics, personnel, sales, facilities design, manufacturing, processing, and warehousing.What activities…???  Develop applications of new processing, automation, and control technology.  Install data processing, management information, wage incentive systems.  Develop performance standards, job evaluation, and wage and salary programs.  Research new products and product applications.  Improve productivity through application of technology and human factors.  Select operating processes and methods to do a task with proper tools and equipment.  Design facilities, management systems, operating procedures.  Improve planning and allocation of scarce resources.  Enhance plant environment and quality of peoples working life  Evaluate reliability and quality performance  Develop management control systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis  Implement office systems, procedures, and policies  Analyze complex business problems by operations research  Conduct organization studies, plant location surveys, and system effectiveness studies  Study potential markets for goods and services, raw material sources, labor supply, energy resources, financing, and taxes. 7
  8. 8. 9/15/2010The evolution of the industrial and systems engineering profession has beenaffected significantly by a number of related developments:1. Impact of Operations Research  The development of industrial engineering has been greatly influenced by the impact of an analysis approach called operations research.  This approach originated in England and the United States during 2nd World War and was aimed at solving difficult war-related problems through the use of science, mathematics, behavioral science, probability theory, and statistics.2. Impact of Digital Computers  Digital computers permit the rapid and accurate handling of vast quantities of data, thereby permitting the IE to design systems for effectively managing and controlling large, complex operations.  The digital computer also permits the IE to construct computer simulation models of manufacturing facilities and the like in order to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative facility configurations, different management policies, and other management considerations.  Computer simulation is emerging as the most widely used IE technique.The development and widespread utilization of personal computers is having an exciting impact on the practice of industrial engineering.3. Emergence of Service Industries  In the early days of the industrial engineering profession, IE practice was applied almost fully in manufacturing organizations. After the 2nd World War there was a growing awareness that the principles and techniques of IE were also applicable in non-manufacturing environments.  Thousands of Industrial Engineers are employed by government organizations to increase efficiency, reduce paperwork, design computerized management control systems, implement project 8
  9. 9. 9/15/2010 management techniques, monitor the quality and reliability of vendor- supplied purchases, and for many other functionsProductivityProductivity is a measure of output from a production process, per unit ofinput. For example, labor productivity is typically measured as a ratio ofoutput per labor-hour, an input. Productivity may be conceived of as ametric of the technical or engineering efficiency of production. As such, theemphasis is on quantitative metrics of input, and sometimes output.Productivity is distinct from metrics of allocative efficiency, which take intoaccount both the monetary value (price) of what is produced and the cost ofinputs used, and also distinct from metrics of profitability, which address thedifference between the revenues obtained from output and the expenseassociated with consumption of inputs.Productivity is the ratio of output to input and is normally represented inthe following way:PRODUCTIVITY = ( OUTPUT / INPUT)OUTPUT refers to goods or services producedINPUT refers to all resources used in producing the OutputThis includes one, or all, of the following:  Land and Buildings  Materials  Machines  PeopleThe use which is made of all of these resources combined, determines theproductivity of the enterprise. 9
  10. 10. 9/15/2010The Task of ManagementManagement is responsible for making sure that the best use is made of allresources, ie. Land and buildings, materials, machine and men. This can beachieved by co-ordinating the efforts to everyone in the organisation toachieve the best results, and to use the resources as effectively as possible.Economic growth and productivityProduction is a process of combining various material inputs (stuff) andimmaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something forconsumption (the output). The methods of combining the inputs ofproduction in the process of making output are called technology.Technology can be depicted mathematically by the production functionwhich describes the relation between input and output. The productionfunction can be used as a measure of relative performance when comparingtechnologies.The production function is a simple description of the mechanism ofeconomic growth. Economic growth is defined as any production increase ofa business or nation (whatever you are measuring). It is usually expressed asan annual growth percentage depicting growth of the company output (perentity) or the national product (per nation). Real economic growth (asopposed to inflation) consists of two components. These components are anincrease in production input and an increase in productivity. 10
  11. 11. 9/15/2010The figure illustrates an economic growth process (exaggerated for clarity).The Value T2 (value at time 2) represents the growth in output from ValueT1 (value at time 1). Each time of measurement has its own graph of theproduction function for that time (the straight lines). The output measured attime 2 is greater than the output measured at time one for both of thecomponents of growth: an increase of inputs and an increase of productivity.The portion of growth caused by the increase in inputs is shown on line 1and does not change the relation between inputs and outputs. The portion ofgrowth caused by an increase in productivity is shown on line 2 with asteeper slope. So increased productivity represents greater output per unit ofinput.Accordingly, an increase in productivity is characterised by a shift of theproduction function (steepening slope) and a consequent change to theoutput/input relation. The formula of total productivity is normally written asfollows:  Total productivity = Output quantity / Input quantityAccording to this formula, changes in input and output have to be measuredinclusive of both quantitative and qualitative changes. In practice,quantitative and qualitative changes take place when relative quantities andrelative prices of different input and output factors alter. In order toaccentuate qualitative changes in output and input, the formula of totalproductivity shall be written as follows:  Total productivity = Output quality and quantity / Input quality and quantityRelationship between higher productivity and higher living standardsHigher productivity can contribute to a higher standard of living and willalso provide: • Larger supplies of consumer goods and capital goods at lower costs and lower prices. • Higher real earnings . • Improvements in working and living conditions, including shorter hours of work. 11
  12. 12. 9/15/2010 • A strengthening of the economic foundations on which the well being of individuals is based.Main processes of a companyA company can be divided into sub-processes in different ways; yet, thefollowing five are identified as main processes, each with a logic, objectives,theory and key figures of its own. It is important to examine each of themindividually, yet, as a part of the whole, in order to be able to measure andunderstand them. The main processes of a company are as follows  real process  income distribution process  production process  monetary process  market value processProductivity is created in the real process, productivity gains are distributedin the income distribution process and these two processes constitute theproduction process. The production process and its sub-processes, the realprocess and income distribution process occur simultaneously, and only theproduction process is identifiable and measurable by the traditionalaccounting practices. The real process and income distribution process canbe identified and measured by extra calculation, and this is why they need tobe analysed separately in order to understand the logic of productionperformance. 12
  13. 13. 9/15/2010Real process generates the production output from input, and it can bedescribed by means of the production function. It refers to a series of eventsin production in which production inputs of different quality and quantity arecombined into products of different quality and quantity. Products can bephysical goods, immaterial services and most often combinations of both.The characteristics created into the product by the manufacturer implysurplus value to the consumer, and on the basis of the price this value isshared by the consumer and the producer in the marketplace. This is themechanism through which surplus value originates to the consumer and theproducer likewise. Surplus value to the producer is a result of the realprocess, and measured proportionally it means productivity.Income distribution process of the production refers to a series of events inwhich the unit prices of constant-quality products and inputs alter causing achange in income distribution among those participating in the exchange.The magnitude of the change in income distribution is directly proportionateto the change in prices of the output and inputs and to their quantities.Productivity gains are distributed, for example, to customers as lowerproduct sales prices or to staff as higher income pay. Davis has deliberated [4]the phenomenon of productivity, measurement of productivity, distributionof productivity gains, and how to measure such gains. He refers to anarticle[5] suggesting that the measurement of productivity shall be developedso that it ‖will indicate increases or decreases in the productivity of thecompany and also the distribution of the ‘fruits of production‘ among allparties at interest‖. According to Davis, the price system is a mechanismthrough which productivity gains are distributed, and besides the businessenterprise, receiving parties may consist of its customers, staff and thesuppliers of production inputs. In this article, the concept of ‖distribution ofthe fruits of production‖ by Davis is simply referred to as production incomedistribution or shorter still as distribution.The production process consists of the real process and the incomedistribution process. A result and a criterion of success of the productionprocess is profitability. The profitability of production is the share of the realprocess result the producer has been able to keep to himself in the incomedistribution process. Factors describing the production process are thecomponents of profitability, i.e., returns and costs. They differ from thefactors of the real process in that the components of profitability are given atnominal prices whereas in the real process the factors are at periodicallyfixed prices. 13
  14. 14. 9/15/2010Monetary process refers to events related to financing the business. Marketvalue process refers to a series of events in which investors determine themarket value of the company in the investment markets.Surplus value as a measure of production profitabilityThe scale of success run by a going concern is manifold, and there are nocriteria that might be universally applicable to success. Nevertheless, there isone criterion by which we can generalise the rate of success in production.This criterion is the ability to produce surplus value. As a criterion ofprofitability, surplus value refers to the difference between returns and costs,taking into consideration the costs of equity in addition to the costs includedin the profit and loss statement as usual. Surplus value indicates that theoutput has more value than the sacrifice made for it, in other words, theoutput value is higher than the value (production costs) of the used inputs. Ifthe surplus value is positive, the owner‘s profit expectation has beensurpassed.The table presents a surplus value calculation. This basic example is asimplified profitability calculation used for illustration and modelling. Evenas reduced, it comprises all phenomena of a real measuring situation andmost importantly the change in the output-input mix between two periods.Hence, the basic example works as an illustrative ―scale model‖ ofproduction without any features of a real measuring situation being lost. Inpractice, there may be hundreds of products and inputs but the logic ofmeasuring does not differ from that presented in the basic example.Both the absolute and relative surplus value have been calculated in theexample. Absolute value is the difference of the output and input values andthe relative value is their relation, respectively. The surplus value calculation 14
  15. 15. 9/15/2010in the example is at a nominal price, calculated at the market price of eachperiod.Productivity modelThe next step is to describe a productivity model[6] by help of which it ispossible to calculate the results of the real process, income distributionprocess and production process. The starting point is a profitabilitycalculation using surplus value as a criterion of profitability. The surplusvalue calculation is the only valid measure for understanding the connectionbetween profitability and productivity or understanding the connectionbetween real process and production process. A valid measurement of totalproductivity necessitates considering all production inputs, and the surplusvalue calculation is the only calculation to conform to the requirement.The process of calculating is best understood by applying the term ceterisparibus, i.e. "all other things being the same," stating that at a time only theimpact of one changing factor be introduced to the phenomenon being 15
  16. 16. 9/15/2010examined. Therefore, the calculation can be presented as a processadvancing step by step. First, the impacts of the income distribution processare calculated, and then, the impacts of the real process on the profitabilityof the production.The first step of the calculation is to separate the impacts of the real processand the income distribution process, respectively, from the change inprofitability (285.12 – 266.00 = 19.12). This takes place by simply creatingone auxiliary column (4) in which a surplus value calculation is compiledusing the quantities of Period 1 and the prices of Period 2. In the resultingprofitability calculation, Columns 3 and 4 depict the impact of a change inincome distribution process on the profitability and in Columns 4 and 7 theimpact of a change in real process on the profitability.Illustration of the real and income distribution processesMeasurement results can be illustrated by models and graphic presentations.The following figure illustrates the connections between the processes bymeans of indexes describing the change. A presentation by means of anindex is illustrative because the magnitudes of the changes arecommensurate. Figures are from the above calculation example of theproduction model. (Loggerenberg van et al. 1982. Saari 2006).The nine most central key figures depicting changes in productionperformance can be presented as shown in Figure. Vertical lines depict thekey figures of the real process, production process and income distributionprocess. Key figures in the production process are a result of the real processand the income distribution process. Horizontal lines show the changes ininput and output processes and their impact on profitability. The logic 16
  17. 17. 9/15/2010behind the figure is simple. Squares in the corners refer to initial calculationdata. Profitability figures are obtained by dividing the output figures by theinput figures in each process. After this, the production process figures areobtained by multiplying the figures of the real and income distributionprocess.Depicting the development by time seriesDevelopment in the real process, income distribution process and productionprocess can be illustrated by means of time series. (Kendrick 1984, Saari2006) The principle of a time series is to describe, for example, theprofitability of production annually by means of a relative surplus value andalso to explain how profitability was produced as a consequence ofproductivity development and income distribution. A time series can becomposed using the chain indexes as seen in the following.Now the intention is to draw up the time series for the ten periods in order toexpress the annual profitability of production by help of productivity andincome distribution development. With the time series it is possible to provethat productivity of the real process is the distributable result of production,and profitability is the share remaining in the company after incomedistribution between the company and interested parties participating in theexchange.The graph shows how profitability depends on the development ofproductivity and income distribution. Productivity figures are fictional but inpractice they are perfectly feasible indicating an annual growth of 1.5 percent on average. Growth potentials in productivity vary greatly by industry,and as a whole, they are directly proportionate to the technical developmentin the branch. Fast-developing industries attain stronger growth in 17
  18. 18. 9/15/2010productivity. This is a traditional way of thinking. Today we understand thathuman and social capitals together with competition have a significantimpact on productivity growth. In any case, productivity grows in smallsteps. By the accurate measurement of productivity, it is possible toappreciate these small changes and create an organisation culture wherecontinuous improvement is a common value.Measuring and interpreting partial productivityMeasurement of partial productivity refers to the measurement solutionswhich do not meet the requirements of total productivity measurement, yet,being practicable as indicators of total productivity. In practice,measurement in production means measures of partial productivity. In thatcase, the objects of measurement are components of total productivity, andinterpreted correctly, these components are indicative of productivitydevelopment. The term of partial productivity illustrates well the fact thattotal productivity is only measured partially – or approximately. In a way,measurements are defective but, by understanding the logic of totalproductivity, it is possible to interpret correctly the results of partialproductivity and to benefit from them in practical situations.Typical solutions of partial productivity are: 1. Single-factor productivity 2. Value-added productivity 3. Unit cost accounting 4. Efficiency ratios 5. Managerial control ratio systemSingle-factor productivity refers to the measurement of productivity that is aratio of output and one input factor. A most well-known measure of single-factor productivity is the measure of output per work input, describing workproductivity. Sometimes it is practical to employ the value added as output.Productivity measured in this way is called Value-added productivity. Also, 18
  19. 19. 9/15/2010productivity can be examined in cost accounting using Unit costs. Then it ismostly a question of exploiting data from standard cost accounting forproductivity measurements. Efficiency ratios, which tell something about theratio between the value produced and the sacrifices made for it, are availablein large numbers. Managerial control ratio systems are composed of singlemeasures which are interpreted in parallel with other measures related to thesubject. Ratios may be related to any success factor of the area ofresponsibility, such as profitability, quality, position on the market, etc.Ratios may be combined to form one whole using simple rules, hence,creating a key figure system.The measures of partial productivity are physical measures, nominal pricevalue measures and fixed price value measures. These measures differ fromone another by the variables they measure and by the variables excludedfrom measurements. By excluding variables from measurement makes itpossible to better focus the measurement on a given variable, yet, this meansa more narrow approach. The table below was compiled to compare thebasic types of measurement. The first column presents the measure types,the second the variables being measured, and the third column gives thevariables excluded from measurement.National productivityProductivity measures are often used to indicate the capacity of a nation toharness its human and physical resources to generate economic growth.Productivity measures are key indicators of economic performance and thereis strong interest in comparing them internationally. The OECD publishes anannual Compendium of Productivity Indicators[7] that includes both labourand multi-factor measures of productivity.Labour productivity and multi-factor productivityLabour productivity is the ratio of (the real value of) output to the input oflabour. Where possible, hours worked, rather than the numbers ofemployees, is used as the measure of labour input. With an increase in part-time employment, hours worked provides the more accurate measure oflabour input. Labour productivity should be interpreted very carefully if usedas a measure of efficiency. In particular, it reflects more than just theefficiency or productivity of workers. Labour productivity is the ratio ofoutput to labour input; and output is influenced by many factors that are 19
  20. 20. 9/15/2010outside of workers influence, including the nature and amount of capitalequipment that is available, the introduction of new technologies, andmanagement practices.Multifactor productivity is the ratio of the real value of output to thecombined input of labour and capital. Sometimes this measure is referred toas total factor productivity. In principle, multifactor productivity is a betterindicator of efficiency. It measures how efficiently and effectively the mainfactors of production - labour and capital - combine to generate output.However, in some circumstances, robust measures of capital input can behard to find.Labour productivity and multifactor productivity both increase over the longterm. Usually, the growth in labour productivity exceeds the growth inmultifactor productivity, reflecting the influence of relatively rapid growthof capital on labour productivity.Importance of national productivity growthProductivity growth is a crucial source of growth in living standards.Productivity growth means more value is added in production and thismeans more income is available to be distributed.At a firm or industry level, the benefits of productivity growth can bedistributed in a number of different ways:  to the workforce through better wages and conditions;  to shareholders and superannuation funds through increased profits and dividend distributions;  to customers through lower prices;  to the environment through more stringent environmental protection; and  to governments through increases in tax payments (which can be used to fund social and environmental programs).Productivity growth is important to the firm because it means that it canmeet its (perhaps growing) obligations to workers, shareholders, andgovernments (taxes and regulation), and still remain competitive or evenimprove its competitiveness in the market place.There are essentially two ways to promote growth in output: 20
  21. 21. 9/15/2010  bring additional inputs into production; or  increase productivity.Adding more inputs will not increase the income earned per unit of input(unless there are increasing returns to scale). In fact, it is likely to meanlower average wages and lower rates of profit.But, when there is productivity growth, even the existing commitment ofresources generates more output and income. Income generated per unit ofinput increases. Additional resources are also attracted into production andcan be profitably employed.At the national level, productivity growth raises living standards becausemore real income improves peoples ability to purchase goods and services(whether they are necessities or luxuries), enjoy leisure, improve housingand education and contribute to social and environmental programs.‗Productivity isnt everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. Acountrys ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almostentirely on its ability to raise its output per worker. World War II veteranscame home to an economy that doubled its productivity over the next 25years; as a result, they found themselves achieving living standards theirparents had never imagined. Vietnam veterans came home to an economythat raised its productivity less than 10 percent in 15 years; as a result, theyfound themselves living no better - and in many cases worse - than theirparents‘.‗Over long periods of time, small differences in rates of productivity growthcompound, like interest in a bank account, and can make an enormousdifference to a societys prosperity. Nothing contributes more to reduction ofpoverty, to increases in leisure, and to the countrys ability to financeeducation, public health, environment and the arts‘.Sources of productivity growthIn the most immediate sense, productivity is determined by:  the available technology or know-how for converting resources into outputs desired in an economy; and  the way in which resources are organised in firms and industries to produce goods and services. 21
  22. 22. 9/15/2010Average productivity can improve as firms move toward the best availabletechnology; plants and firms with poor productivity performance ceaseoperation; and as new technologies become available. Firms can changeorganisational structures (e.g. core functions and supplier relationships),management systems and work arrangements to take the best advantage ofnew technologies and changing market opportunities. A nations averageproductivity level can also be affected by the movement of resources fromlow-productivity to high-productivity industries and activities.National productivity growth stems from a complex interaction of factors.As just outlined, some of the most important immediate factors includetechnological change, organisational change, industry restructuring andresource reallocation, as well as economies of scale and scope. Over time,other factors such as research and development and innovative effort, thedevelopment of human capital through education, and incentives fromstronger competition promote the search for productivity improvements andthe ability to achieve them. Ultimately, many policy, institutional andcultural factors determine a nations success in improving productivity.Productivity studiesProductivity studies analyze technical processes and engineeringrelationships such as how much of an output can be produced in a specifiedperiod of time (see also Taylorism). It is related to the concept of efficiency.While productivity is the amount of output produced relative to the amountof resources (time and money) that go into the production, efficiency is thevalue of output relative to the cost of inputs used. Productivity improveswhen the quantity of output increases relative to the quantity of input.Efficiency improves, when the cost of inputs used is reduced relative thevalue of output. A change in the price of inputs might lead a firm to changethe mix of inputs used, in order to reduce the cost of inputs used, andimprove efficiency, without actually increasing the quantity of outputrelative the quantity of inputs. A change in technology, however, mightallow a firm to increase output with a given quantity of inputs; such anincrease in productivity would be more technically efficient, but might notreflect any change in allocative efficiency.The Ishikawa diagram, and related business process modeling, may be auseful tools for studying productivity. These methods list process inputs 22
  23. 23. 9/15/2010such as people, methods, machines, energy and materials and theenvironment.Energy efficiencyEnergy efficiency has played a significant role in increasing productivity inthe past; however, most industrial processes have exhausted the easyefficiency gains. The early Newcomen steam engine was 1% efficient,Watts improvements increased efficiency to 4%, and todays steam turbinesmay have efficiencies in the 40% range.Increases in productivityCompanies can increase productivity in a variety of ways. The most obviousmethods involve automation and computerization which minimize the tasksthat must be performed by employees. Recently, less obvious techniques arebeing employed that involve ergonomic design and worker comfort. Acomfortable employee, the theory maintains, can produce more than acounterpart who struggles through the day. In fact, some studies claim thatmeasures such as raising workplace temperature can have a drastic effect onoffice productivity. Experiments done by the Japanese Shiseido corporationalso suggested that productivity could be increased by means of perfumingor deodorising the air conditioning system of workplaces. Increases inproductivity also can influence society more broadly, by improving livingstandards, and creating income. They are central to the process generatingeconomic growth and capital accumulation. A new theory suggests that theincreased contribution that productivity has on economic growth is largelydue to the relatively high price of technology and its exportation via trade, aswell as domestic use due to high demand, rather than attributing it to microeconomic efficiency theories which tend to downsize economic growth andreduce labor productivity for the most part. Many economists see theeconomic expansion of the later 1990s in the United States as being allowedby the massive increase in worker productivity that occurred during thatperiod. The growth in aggregate supply allowed increases in aggregatedemand and decreases in unemployment at the same time that inflationremained stable. Others emphasize drastic changes in patterns of socialbehaviour resulting from new communication technologies and changedmale-female relationships. 23
  24. 24. 9/15/2010Labor productivityLabour productivity is generally speaking held to be the same as the"average product of labor" (average output per worker or per worker-hour,an output which could be measured in physical terms or in price terms). It isnot the same as the marginal product of labor, which refers to the increase inoutput that results from a corresponding increase in labor input. Thequalitative aspects of labor productivity such as creativity, innovation,teamwork, improved quality of work and the effects on other areas in acompany are more difficult to measure.Marx on productivityIn Karl Marxs labor theory of value, the concept of capital productivity isrejected as an instance of reification, and replaced with the concepts of theorganic composition of capital and the value product of labor. A sharpdistinction is drawn by Marx for the productivity of labor in terms ofphysical outputs produced, and the value or price of those outputs. A smallphysical output might create a large value, while a large physical outputmight create only a small value - with obvious consequences for the way thelabor producing it would be rewarded in the marketplace. Moreover if alarge output value was created by people, this did not necessarily haveanything to do with their physical productivity; it could be just due to thefavorable valuation of that output when traded in markets. Therefore, merelyfocusing on an output value realised, to assess productivity, might lead tomistaken conclusions. In general, Marx rejected the possibility of a conceptof productivity that would be completely neutral and unbiased by theinterests or norms of different social classes. At best, one could say thatobjectively, some practices in a society were generally regarded as more orless productive, or as improving productivity - irrespective of whether thiswas really true. In other words, productivity was always interpreted fromsome definite point of view. Typically, Marx suggested in his critique ofpolitical economy, only the benefits of raising productivity were focused on,rather than the human (or environmental) costs involved. Thus, Marx couldeven find some sympathy for the Luddites, and he introduced the criticalconcept of the rate of exploitation of human labour power to balance theobvious economic progress resulting from an increase in the productiveforces of labor. 24
  25. 25. 9/15/2010Sceular decline in productivityU.S. productivity growth has been in long term decline. U.S. GDP growthhas never returned to the 4% plus rates of the pre World War 1 decades.Resource depletion decreases productivity as more effort in the form oflabor, materials and energy are required for extraction and processing. Forexample, early U.S. onshore oil production yielded 100 barrels per footdrilled whereas by the 1990s yield was one barrel per foot.The long term decline in productivity may be viewed as a Kondratiev wave(see: Peak progress: 1870 to 1914) phenomenon. Modern Kondratiev waveresearch gives a clearer link between actual historical innovation andeconomic growth.Productivity paradoxDespite the proliferation of computers, productivity growth was relativelyslow from the 1970s threough the early 1990s. One hypothesis to explainthis is that computers are productive, yet their productive gains are realizedonly after a lag period, during which complementary capital investmentsmust be developed to allow for the use of computers to their full potential.Another hypothesis states that computers are simply not very productivity-enhancing because they require time, a scarce complementary human input.This theory holds that although computers perform a variety of tasks, thesetasks are not done in any particularly new or efficient manner, but ratherthey are only done faster. It has also been argued that computer automationjust facilitates ever more complex bureaucracies and regulation, andtherefore produces a net reduction in real productivity. Another explanationis that knowledge work productivity and information-technology (IT)productivity are linked, and that without improving knowledge workproductivity, IT productivity does not have a governing mechanism.Factors Tending to Reduce ProductivityExcess Work Content added bv Defects in Desiqn. or Specification ofProduct• The bad design of the garment prevents the use of the most economic 25
  26. 26. 9/15/2010methods of sewing.• The lack of standardisation prevents the use of high speed productionprocesses.• Incorrect quality standards cause unnecessary work.• The design of the garment may mean that an excessive amount offabric has",to be wasted in cutting, due to the shape of the pattern parts.• Large size ranges and colours reduce the number of sizes which canbe marked in, thereby increasing the cloth usage per size.Excess Work content added bv Inefficient methods of manufacture oroperation• The use of the wrong machine can cause reduced output.• If the method is not being adhered to, then productivity will b,e,reduced.• Bad workplace layout causes wasted movement.• An operators bad working methods cause wasted time and effort.Ineffective Time due to Shortcominqs of Manaqement/Supervisors• Excess Product variety adds to idle time, due to short runs.• The lack of standardisation adds idle time due to changeovers.• Design changes add ineffective time due to stoppages for re-training.• Bad planning of the work and orders reduces efficiency.• Lack of fabric due to bad planning causes waiting time. 26
  27. 27. 9/15/2010• Badly maintained machines cause idle time.• Machines in bad condition cause bad quality.• Bad working conditions prevent the operator from working steadily,feelingcomfortable and at home.• Accidents cause lost time.• Poor service operators cause delays, waiting for cotton etc.Ineffective time within the control of the Operator• Absence, lateness and laziness reduce productivity.• Careless workmanship causes bad quality.• Accidents due to carelessness cause absenteeism. 27
  28. 28. 9/15/2010Introduction to Work StudyBasically Work Study concentrates in two areas, the time it takes to do thejob (Work Measurement) and the best way to do the job (Method Study)  The first known practitioner of Work Study is Walter of Henley. As early as the year 1240 he wrote a letter to his son, a farmer, explaining the methods of ploughing a piece of land. He told him that by using a specific number of oxen and for the ploughman to work in a specified way, he would be able to plough a certain number of acres per day. He continued to explain that on some land it was advisable to use horses to pull the plough, although the number of acres ploughed would be less than if oxen were used, the horses were more sure footed and therefore stood less chance of being injured.  Leonardo da Vinci, Jean R Peronet, Charles Babbage, Boulton Watt & Sons, Robert Owen, and many more, are famous names who have been involved in Work Study techniques over the centuries.  An American, Frederick Winslow Taylor was the pioneer of modern scientific management. In 1874 he began an apprenticeship as a patte,rn maker and machinist in a small shop in Philadelphia. However, in 1878, as there was an industrial depression, Taylor was compelled to take a job at the Midvale Steel Works as an ordinary labourer. Within a period of nine years he was rapidly promoted to time clerk, lathe operator, gang boss, foreman of the machine shop and chief engineer of the works. When Taylor was appointed gang boss, he sought to increase output by putting pressure on the men. A serious struggle between gang boss and workers ensued. After two years, Taylor finally won the struggle, but the experience hurt him.Taylor was a humane and sincere man, and the forceful methods he had been compelled to employ to achieve the result, sickened him. He gave the matter thought and decided that the primary cause of such conflicts was the management, without 28
  29. 29. 9/15/2010knowing what was a proper days work, tried to secure output bypressure. If Management knew the best way to do a job and whatconstituted a proper days work, it could then obtain the output bydemonstration. He decided to investigate what constituted a fair dayswork for every operation in the shop.Taylor believed in high wages with low labour cost. His means ofattaining this objective was by accurate Time Study. It was in 1887whilst a foreman in the Midvale Steel Company of Philadelphia thatTaylor started to break down the cycle of an operating into smallgroups of motions called elements. 29
  30. 30. 9/15/2010What is Work Study???Work Study is the systemeatic examination of the methods of carrying outactivities such as to improve the effective use of resources and to set upstandards of performance for the activities carried out. Work Study Components of Work StudyAnother definition of Work Study could be:A generic term for those techniques, particularly method study and workmeasurement, which are used in the examination of human work in all itscontexts, and which lead systematically to to the investigation of all thefactors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situation beingreviewed, in order to effect improvementThis has to do with Productivity Improvement, but also improvement ofQuality and Safety. 30
  31. 31. 9/15/2010The Role of Work Study as a means of Increasing ProductivityWork Study covers many management techniques, but is defined broadly as:• Method Study: The systematic recording, examination and improvementof doing work in order to develop a better METHOD.The Value of Work StudyInvestigations and improvements of work at the work place is not a newtask. In fact good managers have been performing these tasks ever sincehuman effort became organized on a large scale. However, due to a shortsupply of skilled managers and increasing demands placed on them it isvirtually impossible to devote sufficient time and effort to investigating andproviding longer term solutions.  The main value of Work study is that by carrying out its systematic procedures it provides managers with results that are better and longer term than in the past.  Due to its systematic nature more time is needed to carry out a study of work, as a result, it becomes necessary to separate this task from that of a manager. Unless all the facts are know it is impossible to ensure that any alteration to current methods will be effective. Thus, it requires constant observation and study and should be the responsibility of a person who is not involved in the direct management duties.Work Study is thus a service to management and supervision and will ensurethe following benefits: -• It is a means of raising the productive efficiency of a factory ororganization with little or no capital investment.• It is systematic and ensures that no factor is overlooked.• It is the most accurate means of setting standards upon which productionplanning and control can take place• The resultant savings start at once and continue for as long as theoperations continue in the improved form.• It is a "tool" which can be applied everywhere.• It is one of the most penetrating tools of investigation available tomanagement. 31
  32. 32. 9/15/2010To achieve the full benefit of work study, it should be applied in all areas ofan organisation and continuously.The full effect of work study will only be felt in an organization when allemployees become accustomed to an attitude that:• Does not tolerate waste in any form, whether material, time effort orhuman ability .• The refusal to accept without question that things should be done in acertain way because it is the way it has always been done.RecordingThe Need for Records •A method of recording all the details and changes is needed to be able to bevisualized by those responsible for making the final decisions. It is alsoimportant to have a record to be able to compare the past and presentsystems and their pros and cons.Recordinq TechniquesRecording techniques fall into one of two categories depending on the natureof the job and the purpose for which the record is required. At times bothtechniques are used to present a complete record. The information for therecording techniques is obtained by the following methods:  Visual observation  Calculation  Photographic technique  Specialised knowledgeThe two types of recording techniques are:1. Charts  Outline process chart - principal operations and inspections  Flow process chart - activities of men, material or equipment  Two-handed process chart - activities of a workers two hands. 32
  33. 33. 9/15/2010  Multiple activity chart - activities of men and/or machines on a common time scale.  Simultaneous motion cycle (simo) chart - activities of a workers hands, legs, and other body movements on a common time scale.  Travel chart - movements of materials between departments, etc 2. Diagrams and models  Flow and string diagrams - movements of materials between departments, etc.  Two and three dimensional Models - paths of movement of men, materials or Equipment.  Cyclegraphs - layout of work-place or plant.  Chronocyclegraphs - high speed, short cycle operations Process Chart Construction The use of the following symbols recommended by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, simplifies the construction and interpretation of process charts..  These symbols are used to represent steps in the procedure or manufacturing process in the case of outline and flow process charts. 33
  34. 34. 9/15/2010  When necessary the operation activity can be subjected to a more detailed analysis.  The distinction is then made between make ready, put away and do operations."Make ready" and "put away" operations - these deal with thepreparation of material, plant or equipment t~ enable the "do" operations or"inspection" to be performed, and with the placing aside or clearing up afterthe "do" operation or "inspection"."Do" operations - the actual performance of work on the material or workwith plant and equipment. The "do" operation symbols can be shades tofacilitate subsequent examination in order of the importance to the overallprocess.Time Chart ConstructionThese are bar charts, where shading is used on a time scale to representdifferent activities in synchronizing work cycles also known as multipleactivity charts or Gantt charts. Various colours or shadings can be used tomake certain features stand out.Basic InformationThe information that is collected for the records must be easily understoodand recognised. The following information should always be provided:• A description of all the activities and/or movements used in the method,• Is the present or proposed method being shown,• A clear reference to the beginning and end of activities,• Distance and time scales used,• An explanation of abbreviations and/or special devices used,• The date of construction of the chart or diagram.Flow Process ChartThis chart shows transports, delays and storage as well as operations andinspections. It can show the process in terms of events as they affect thematerial being processed, or in terms of the activities of the man orequipment used. 34
  35. 35. 9/15/2010Flow process charts recording simultaneous activities of two or moresubjects can be presented alongside each other on the same sheet of paper.Only the activities of the particular subject which it refers, whether man,material or equipment, are recorded on any single chart.Construction of the chartThe conventions used in this chart are the same as for the outline processchart, except that all five symbols are used. The distance is recorded on the.left of the symbol. The total distance is entered at the foot of the chart.Amplifying the ChartThe charts value as a record may be increased by making full use ofcolouring and hatching in order to show up some particular aspect of aprocess.A clearer understanding of an activity that extends over a large areaincluding many workplaces, is obtained if they are separated on the chart. 35
  36. 36. 9/15/2010What is Method Study?Method Study is the systematic recording and critical examination of waysof doing things in order to make improvements. Method Study Flow Chart Process of a Method StudyObjectiveThe main objectives of method study are:• The improvement of processes and procedures.• The improvement of factory, shop and work place layout and design ofplant and equipment.• Economy in human effort and the reduction of unnecessary effort.• Improvements in the use of materials, machines and manpower.• The development of a better physical working environment. 36
  37. 37. 9/15/2010The key to successful method improvement is to follow a systematicapproach, and the good Work Study Officer always uses the following steps:  SELECT the job to be studied by making sure it is worthwhile spending time to improve it. For example - Economic Considerations Technical Considerations Human Factor  RECORD - every detail about the job, even if it seems to have no effect on the method; sometimes the most minor detail can lead to a method improvement failure. Technique — ASME symbols Therbliqs (The basic elements of hand work are termed Therbligs, i.e. Grasp — begins when hand or body member touches an object, consists of gaining control of an object, ends when control is gained).  EXAMINE - all the details by asking WHY? WHO? WHERE? WHAT?  CONSIDER - alternatives for improvement and DEVELOP the most suitable.  DEFINE - all jobs other than those performed on standard machine tools or specialized machine where the process and methods are virtually controlled by the machine.  INSTALL- the new method and make sure it is understood.  MAINTAIN- the new method by continually checking that it is still being performed correctly. It is important to realise that improving the method is not simply having good ideas, it is necessary to make sure that your "improved" method has been properly thought out and that it in fact gives the results you expected. 37
  38. 38. 9/15/2010 Method Study Steps  Selecting the work to be studied When considering whether a method study investigation of a job should be carried out, the following should be kept in mind: 1. Economic Considerations If the economic considerations of the job are small, there is no reason to continue a long investigation. Some questions to ask are — "Will it pay to begin a method study of this job?", and " Will it pay to continue the study?" Some early choices are - bottlenecks Movements of material over long distances Operations involving repetitive work 2. Technical considerations It must be clear if there is enough technical knowledge to carry out the study. Some examples are:  The loading of unfired ware into kilns in a pottery. A method change may bring increased productivity of plant and labour, however, there may be technical reasons not to make this change. Here advice should be given by a specialist in the field. A high-speed cutting tool could replace a slower tool that is causing a bottleneck. Can the machine be speeded up, or is the machine not strong enough to handle the excess speed. Seek advice from a specialist in this field.3. Human ReactionsAs mental and emotional reactions to investigations and changes of methodsplay a big part in the process, Human reactions are important factors to takeinto consideration. All the necessary Unions and personnel should beinvolved in the process. If at any time a particular process is causing unrestleave the process alone. 38
  39. 39. 9/15/2010Workplace LayoutThe working area:Before attempting to develop a new method, a Work Study Officer musthave a knowledge of the basic principles of Workplace layout.There is a definite limited area which the worker can use with minimumexpenditure of effort.This is known as the NORMAL WORKING AREA.The area immediately in front of the worker, where the arcs overlap, is thezone in which two handed work may be done most easily.If all the parts, materials or equipment cannot be located in the NormalWorking Area, then they should be placed within the MAXIMUMWORKING AREA. 39
  40. 40. 9/15/2010Objects placed between the Normal and Maximum Working Areas can bepicked up reasonably easily.Anything placed outside the Maximum Area can only be reached withdifficulty, involving body stretching or bending.As far as possible, materials should not be stored in the area directly in frontof the operator, as stretching forward is very tiring.Reaching too high or too low can also cause tiredness. The Supervisor andthe Work Study Officer must consider this.Location of MaterialsThe Work Study Officer should consider a number of points before decidingwhere parts should be placed. These include:  Garment parts should be located in the Normal Working Area, if possible,because it is easier to handle and see things within this area.  Any holders or shelves should be arranged so that the contents are used in the correct sequence. This assists when training the method. 40
  41. 41. 9/15/2010TherbligA therblig is the name for one of a set of fundamental motions required for aworker to perform a manual operation or task. The set consists of 18elements, each describing a standardized activity. These are listed below.  Search  Find  Select  Grasp  Hold  Position  Assemble  Use  Disassemble  Inspect  Transport loaded  Transport unloaded  Pre-position for next operation  Release load  Unavoidable delay  Avoidable delay  Plan  Rest to overcome fatigueThe therblig is used in the study of motion economy in the workplace. Aworkplace task is analyzed by recording each of the therblig units for aprocess, with the results used for optimization of manual labor byeliminating unneeded movements.The word therblig is a reversal of the word Gilbreth, with th treated as oneletter. It was the creation of Frank Bunker Gilbreth and Lillian MollerGilbreth, the American industrial psychologists who invented the field oftime and motion study. 41
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  43. 43. 9/15/2010SeamsIn sewing, a seam is the join where two or more layers of fabric or othermaterials are held together with stitches.Seams are classified by their position in the finished object (center backseam, side seam) and by their construction (plain seam, flat-felled seam)Types 1. BOUND SEAM construction of a bound seamA bound seam has each of the raw edges of its seam allowances enclosed ina strip of fabric, lace or net binding that has been folded in half lengthwise.An example of binding is double-fold bias tape. The bindings fold is 43
  44. 44. 9/15/2010wrapped around the raw edge of the seam allowance and is stitched, throughall thicknesses, catching underside of binding in stitching 2. HEMTo hem a piece of cloth (in sewing), a garment worker folds up a cut edge,folds it up again, and then sews it down. The process of hemming thuscompletely encloses the cut edge in cloth, so that it cannot ravel.A hem is also the edge of cloth treated in this manner.The hem may be sewn down with a line of invisible hem-stitch or blind-stitch or sewn down by a sewing machine, usually leaving a visible line ofsewing. Modern sewing machines designed for home use can make manydecorative or functional stitches, so the number of possible hem treatmentsis large. These home-use machines can also sew a reasonable facsimile of ahem-stitch, though the stitches will usually be larger and more visible.Clothing factories and professional tailors use a blind hemmer, or hemmingmachine, which sews an invisible stitch quickly and accurately. A blindhemmer sews a chain stitch, using a bent needle, which can be set preciselyenough to actually sew through one and a half thicknesses of the hemmedfabric. 3. SUPERIMPOSED SEAM (SS)The superimposed seam is used to join two or more pieces of material(fabric or otherwise) together. It is created by one ply of fabric being stacked(superimposed) upon another with their right sides (the one that will showwhen the item is worn or used) together (RST) and using thread to stitchthrough all layers. This is the one of the most recognized methods ofseaming and is used to construct most commercial garments. 44
  45. 45. 9/15/2010 4. PLAIN SEAM Construction of a plain seamA plain seam is the most common sort of machine sewn seam. It joins twopieces of fabric together face-to-face by sewing through both pieces, leavinga seam allowance with raw edges inside the work. The seam allowanceusually requires some sort of seam finish to prevent raveling.Either piping or cording may be inserted into a plain seam. 5. FRENCH SEAM 45
  46. 46. 9/15/2010 Construction of a French seam.In a French seam, the raw edges of the fabric are fully enclosed for a neatfinish. The seam is first sewn with wrong sides together, then the seamallowances are trimmed and pressed. A seond seam is sewn with right sidestogether, enclosing the raw edges of the original seam allowances 46
  47. 47. 9/15/2010 6. GERMAN SEAM Construction of an antique or old German seam.Antique or old German seam is the 19th century name for a hand-sewn seamthat joins two pieces of fabric edge-to-edge at their selvages. This type ofconstruction is found in traditional linen garments such as shirts andchemises, and in hand-made sheets pieced from narrow loom widths oflinen. 7. LAPPED SEAMThis class of seaming has the largest number of variations. A lapped seam isachieved with two or more pieces of fabric overlapping each other. LScommonly, but not always, have one ply of fabric fold under itself for afinished edge. Lapped seams are common when working with leather andsewing side seams on jeans and dress shirts. 47
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  49. 49. 9/15/2010OPERATIONS 1. HEMMING Purpose of the operation: To do the time study of the conventional method of the operation and propose a new method which is less time taking, more efficient and ergonomically more consistent. We are hemming the fabric for the finishing of garment. This is the foremost important operation of garment construction which is also considered as one of the finishing operations in the construction of any garment. Design of Parts  fabric of 8‖ x 8‖. 49
  50. 50. 9/15/2010TWICE FOLD THROUGH ½‖ INCHES 50
  51. 51. 9/15/2010Tolerance and specifications # PARTICULARS SPECIFICATIONS TOLERANCE1. FIRST FOLD ½‖ +/- 1/8‖2. SECOND FOLD ½‖ +/- 1/8‖Material used: Popeline fabric used, 3 ply thread used.Working condition# Particulars Standard Experienced1 Illumination 450 lux 383 lux2 Noise level >85 decibels 78 decibels3 Temperature 18-23oC 29-30oCErgonomics# Particulars Dimensions1 Machine table length 42 3/4‖2 Machine table width 21‖3 Machine table height 30‖4 Stool height 19‖5 Side table height from ground 24‖6 Side table width 17 7/8‖Conventional method:Setting and ToolsSingle needle lock stitch machine(SNLS)No extra template and folder used.Tools:Shear 51
  52. 52. 9/15/2010Elemental breakdown (Material handling) 1. Lifting fabric from the side table from left hand placing it on the sewing table. 2. Folding the fabric with both hands at the width of ½‖, twice. 3. Starting edge stitch of ½‖ distance from the folded end, giving back tack in the starting and end with back tack. 4. Cutting needle thread and bobbin thread with shear. 5. Placing stitched pieces on the side table with left hand. 52
  53. 53. 9/15/2010# ELMENTS1 Lifting fabric from the side table from left hand placing it on the sewing table.2 Folding the fabric with both hands at ½‖, twice.3 Start edge stich with backtack4 Cutting the threads with shear.5 Placing the finished sample on the side table.Revised method:Setting and ToolsSingle needle lock stitch machine(SNLS)Hem folder used.Tools:Shear 53
  54. 54. 9/15/2010Layout for revised method FOLDERElemental breakdown (Material handling) 1. Lifting fabric from the side table from left hand placing it on the sewing table. 2. Inserting the fabric with both hands. 3. Starting edge stitch of ½‖ distance from the folded end, giving back tack in the starting and end with back tack. 4. Cutting needle thread and bobbin thread with shear. 5. Placing stitched pieces on the side table with left hand. 54
  55. 55. 9/15/2010# ELMENTS1 Lifting fabric from the side table from left hand placing it on the sewing table.2 Inserting the fabric through folder.3 Start edge stich with backtack4 Cutting the threads with shear.5 Placing the finished sample on the side table.Time studySample Time taken By traditional/conventional Time taken by revisedNo. method method1. 44 sec 20 sec2. 38 sec 17 sec3. 40 sec 18 sec4. 41 sec 20 sec5. 33 sec 14 sec6. 36 sec 14 sec7. 34 sec 15 sec8. 28 sec 17 sec9. 33 sec 13 sec10. 30 sec 12 secAvg. 35.7 sec 16 secAvg saved time: 35.7-16= 19.7 sec/sample 55
  56. 56. 9/15/20102. BOUND SEAM Purpose of the operation: To do the time study of the conventional method of the operation and propose a new method which is less time taking, more efficient and ergonomically more consistent. We are bounding the fabric with a fabric strip for the finishing of garment. This is one of the common operation of garment construction which is also considered as one of the finishing operations in the construction of any garment. Design of Parts  fabric of 9‖ x 8‖.  Fabric strip of 1‖ x 9‖. 1” 8” 9” 9” ¼‖ Folded through these lines on both side 56
  57. 57. 9/15/2010Tolerance and specifications# PARTICULARS SPECIFICATIONS TOLERANCE1. FABRIC STRIPE 1‖ X 9‖ +/- 1/8‖2. SIDE FOLD ON ¼‖ +/- 1/8‖ STRIPEMaterial used: Popeline fabric used, 3 ply thread used.Working condition# Particulars Standard Experienced1 Illumination 450 lux 383 lux2 Noise level >85 decibels 78 decibels3 Temperature 18-23oC 29-30oCErgonomics# Particulars Dimensions1 Machine table length 42 3/4‖2 Machine table width 21‖3 Machine table height 30‖4 Stool height 19‖5 Side table height from ground 24‖6 Side table width 17 7/8‖Conventional method:Setting and ToolsSingle needle lock stitch machine(SNLS)No extra template and folder used.Tools:Shear 57
  58. 58. 9/15/2010Elemental breakdown (Material handling) 1. Lifting fabric from the side table from left hand placing it on the sewing table. 2. Lifting the fabric stripe. 3. Folding the stripe with both hands at the width of ¼‘, on the both sides. 4. Placing the stripe around the desired side of fabric. 5. Allignig the front & back side of stripe. 6. Starting edge stitch of ¼‖ distance from the central folded end, giving back tack in the starting and end with back tack. 7. Cutting needle thread and bobbin thread with shear. 8. Placing stitched pieces on the side table with left hand. 58
  59. 59. 9/15/2010# ELMENTS1 Lifting fabric from the side table from left hand placing it on the sewing table.2 Lifting the fabric stripe.3 Folding the stripe with both hands at ¼‖, on the both edges.4 Placing the stripe around the fabric.5 Aligning the front & back side of the stripe.6 Start edge stich with backtack7 Cutting the threads with shear.8 Placing the finished sample on the side table. 59