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  • 1. 1 BSL SUITINGS LTD TEXTILE INTERNSHIP REPORT [BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO TEXTILE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES OF BSL ] Submitted By: Dilip Singh Kumar SarveshDuration of Internship: Prashant Gaurav28th December 2010-8th January Rajeev Sharan2011 Department of Fashion Technology, NIFT, Bangalore Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFT BANGALORE
  • 2. 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTAny work can only be satisfactorily completed with the help of some individuals. Ourinternship at BSL, Mandapam, Bhilwara is not an exception to this rule.We are extremely grateful to Mr. A.K.Mehta, Vice-President, BSL for giving us such agolden opportunity to carry out our study in such a prestigious company.We would also like to extend our heartfelt gratitude to Mr. A.K. Jain ( head of spinningDepartment ) , Mr. D.B. Muley ( head of Weaving Department) , Mr. A. Zaroo ( head ofProcessing Department) , Mr. S.L. Somani ( head of Top Dyeing Department ) , Mr. S.G.Moghe (head of Design and Development Department ) , Mr. G. C. Jain (head of MarketingDepartment), Mr. Bhaskar Verma ( head of SQC ), Mr. C.S Sharma ( head of R& D ), Mr.Maheshwrai ( General Manager , Exports ), Mr. Kudeep ( Export officer) for guiding usduring our project at their department and giving their valuable inputs.We are also thankful to Mr. K.M.Kogata, Personal Manager, P&A, BSL for mentoring usduring our stay here.We would also like to express my gratitude to all the people who have contributed to ourknowledge of textile through our studies at National Institute Of Fashion Technology,Bangalore. We would also like to acknowledge Mrs Sudha Singh our mentor for the textileinternship.Last, but not the least, we would like to thank the supervisors and operators who helped us tounderstand the working of various machinery throughout our study. Thank You.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 3. 3 Table Of ContentsSr. No. Content Page No. 1. Introduction 4 2. Objectives Of the Study 5 3. Company Profile 6 4. Spinning Division 11 5. Statistical Quality Control Department 31 6. Weaving Division 36 7. Processing Division 53 8. Research & Development Department 74 9. Design Development & Marketing Department 80 10. Conclusion 89 11. Annexure 90Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 4. 4 IntroductionTraining in industry infuses among students a sense of critical analysis of the wholeproduction system and different situations arising in an organisation. Trainings are boldattempts to bridge the gap between the world of work and the knowledge at the institutions. Itenables us to see our theoretical knowledge in operation. It helps us make better professionalsand learn the practical knowledge of the production system. Our training at BSL, Mandapamwas no different it helped us gain the practical knowledge of the textile manufacturing. Theprocess of production extending for spinning of fibres, their conversion to fabric was morefascinating than it looked in the books.Textile manufacturing is one of largest business operations taking place in India. It givesemployment to a very large population of the country nest only to agriculture. For a studentof garment manufacturing technology knowledge of textile is very relevant because thegarment manufacturing is based completely dependent on the textiles. The thrust area of theinternship was to learn the complete production process of textile manufacturing. Our tendays long internship gave us the thorough knowledge of the textile manufacturing. It gave usthe knowledge about the various processes taking place in spinning of the fibre. It gave us theknowledge about the processes involving conversion of the fibre to the fabric through theweaving process. It also gave us the information regarding the various processing activitiestaking place in the finishing and dyeing of the fabric. This internship, we hope will help indeveloping us as better garment manufacturing professional as the knowledge of textile ispivotal in making good garment manufacturing professional. This internship has given us therequired confidence to face the various situations arising in a work place.This report is a written account of what we have observed and learnt during our ten day longinternship at BSL, Mandapam.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 5. 5 Objectives To study the organisational structure of an integrated textile mill. To study the processes of spinning, weaving & processing of textile. To study the equipments & machineries installed at the textile mill. To study the guidelines established for various divisions of textile manufacturing unit. To study the procedure of development of samples. To study the various activities of marketing division of the unit.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 6. 6 COMPANY PROFILETextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 7. 7In the days when the idea of manufacturing poly-viscose suiting was a unique concept inIndia, the second member of the LNJ Bhilwara Group, BSL Ltd., was born in the desert stateof Rajasthan. The year was 1971 and the town where this happened was Bhilwara. Over theyears, with the belief that there are no shortcuts to excellence, at BSL they have moved fromstrength to strength.Today, as a multi-million dollar company, and having put the Group firmly on theinternational map of premium suitings, they are one of the prominent members of the US$363 million LNJ Bhilwara Group.ExperienceWith over quarter of a century of experience in textile manufacturing, BSL is currentlyproducing over 12 million meters of fabric every year. Product profile covers materialranging from wool, wool-blended and premium lightweight fabrics, to wool modal, Trevirawool and other specialised fabrics blended with Lycra, Silk, Linen, Tencel etc.Products:1) Yarns to Fashion Fabrics: BSL is one of the leading manufacturers of fashion fabrics and yarns in India. They produce a wide range of polyester viscose fabrics and premium range of worsted suitings, including Cashmere, Mohair, Angora and Camelhair blends. They use the finest Australian Merino wool for making woollen fabrics & the Low Pill Trevira polyester for making wool blends, which are imported from Hoechst, Germany. For making special fibre fabrics, They use silk imported from China. The dyes and chemicals used for for manufacturing fabric are procured leading companies like Clariant, BASF, Ciba, Bayer and Henkel. And, keeping up with the rapidly changing consumer behaviTheir towards the readymade garments segment, BSL has made forays in this segment with ready-made trousers under La Italia brand name. It has also recently launched a range of premium readymade shirts and accessories under La Italia brand2) BSL Yarns: These are made from the finest Australian Merino wool that is spun to perfection on latest manufacturing systems. Meeting the most stringent international quality standards, yarns comprise a sizeable chunk of the companys export turnover. This is possible because of the companys stringent quality policy and attention to detail at every stage of production.3) Polyester Wool Blended Suitings BSLs polyester wool blended suitings offer a perfect blend of 100% Australian New Merino Wool ranging from 22.5 to 17 microns and Treveira/ Tergal polyester. This combination of natural and man-made fibers in 2/24 Nm to 2/100 Nm offers the best of both the worlds. The pure Merino Wool lends it the richness and sophistication, while the polyester endows it with an exciting fall and feel. This makes the fabric ideal for light winter, formal and party-Theyar for both men and women.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 8. 8 BSL also offers specialised fabrics of wool blended with Lycra, Linen, Silk, Tencel, Modal etc.4) Polyester Viscose & Polyester Cotton Blended Suitings These exciting modern fabrics are created through blends of the finest quality polyester, viscose and Polyester cotton.Thanks to the most advanced Theyaving and processing technology , BSL presents a fabric with yarns of 2/15 Ne to 2/60 Ne that are impeccable and finest in finish.5) Purewool Suitings Immaculate Purewool Suitings is created from the purest of raw materials--Australian New Marino Wool in 22.5 mocrons to 17 microns with yarns of 2/24 Nm to 2/80 Nm. Soft to touch and superior in drape, this is a result of a flawless blending of the finest wool with latest technology. BSL Purewool suitings are both fashionable and elegant. With an amazing natural softness, the fabric is ideal for fashioning Mens as Theyll as Ladies Theyar.6) Readymade Garments BSL is setting trends with its La Italia premium range in the world of fashion. Available in a variety of fabrics like cotton, polycotton, polywool and polyester viscose, the premium range of trousers has been a run away success in the readymade garment segment. The La Italia range of trousers is available in straight, relaxed and wrinkle-free fits. The recently launched readymade shirts and accessories range under the same name has been accepted by the discerning public.RewardsBSL‟s commitment to quality through technology and human ingenuity, has earned BSLnumerous laurels and awards like ISO 9002 quality certification besides the NationalCertificate of Merit for outstanding export performance. They are ready to meet the challengein the years to come and take BSL to higher pinnacles of success.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 9. 9Organisational structure of BSL (Processing Divison) PERSONNEL PERSONNEL GM (P & A) MANAGER PV DYEING DYEING SUPTD GREY FABRIC GM (FABRIC PROCESSING PROCESSING) OSPG QUALITY FINISHING QUALITY PV FINISHING COMMERCIAL CONTROL SUPTD CONTROL BPL FOLDING OFFICER PW FINISHING DGM MARKETING STORES DY MANAGER VICE PRESIDENT PURCHASE ASST MANAGER FIBRE DYEING GM TOPS & FIBRE DYEING MASTER DYEING SILK DYEING DYEING MASTER PLANT ENGINEERING CHIEF ENGINEER ENGINEER CHEIF ACCOUNTS ACCOUNTANT ASSST BUDGET COMMERCIAL SR MANAGER COSTING OFFICER EXCISE EDP DY GM EXCISE INCHARGETextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 10. 10ORGANISATIONAL CHART FOR SPINNING SECTION(POLYESTER VISCOSE) PRODUCTION PRODUCTION SUPRETENDENTS QUALITY QUALITY VICE PRESIDENT CONTROL CONTROL OFFICER ENGINEERING CHIEF ENGINEER PLANT ENGINEERORGANISATIONAL CHART FOR WEAVING SECTION (POLYESTER VISCOSE) GENERAL PRODUCTION PRODUCTION MANAGER SUPRETENDENTS INSPECTION INSPECTION SUPRETEDENTS QUALITY QUALITY VICE PRESIDENT CONTROL CONTROL OFFICER MENDING MENDING SUPRETENDENTD ENGINEERING CHIEF ENGINEER PLANT ENGINEERTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 11. 11 SPINNING DIVISIONTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 12. 12Process flow chart for polyester viscose spinning unit VISCOSE POLYESTER FIBRE BLENDER BLOW ROOM CARDING BREAKER DRAW FRAME FINISHER DRAW FRAME SIMPLEX RING FRAME AUTOCONER ASSEMBLY WINDING DOUBLING & WINDING CONDITIONING INSPECTION & PACKINGTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 13. 13RAW MATERIAL:Common raw materials used in synthetic spinning are polyester and viscose. They arereceived in the form of bale in grey condition.The polyester fibre is supplied by: 1. Reliance industries RECRON fibre – Bale of 375 - 400 kg. 2. Indorama polyester industries, Thailand – Bale of 350 kg 3. JCT – Bale of 350 kg 4. Future polyester fibre industries, manali – Bale of 300 kgThe viscose fibre is supplied by: 1. GRASIM industries Birla cellulose, Nagada – Bale of 200 – 250 kgThere are three godowns for raw material storage in weaving section: 1. Polyester godowns – to store grey polyester fibre 2. Viscose godowns – to store viscose fibre 3. Dyed polyester godowns – to store dyed polyester fibre.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 14. 14BLENDINGBlending is process of combining two or more kinds of fibre. Fibres in required ratio aretaken, opened and blended in blenders. During blending anti static sprays are given to thefibres. The mixing is blended once or twice to ensure proper blending to the fibres. Blendingis done to get desired properties in the finished products. It improves the fabric performanceand helps in maintaining the economy of the productDifferent blend composition 65/35, 80/20, 60/40 of polyester viscose blends yarn.Antistatic Finish:During blending the fibre is given Antistatic finish to prevent static charge generation as wellas fly generation in the case of manmade fibre.Chemicals used: LV40 – prevents static charge generation 2152P – prevents fly generationMachinery used:TRUTZSCHLER (Trumac India)Components of the TRUTZSCHLER blending machine: Feed lattice Inclined lattice Delivery roller Evener roller Creeper roller Stripper roller4 motors are used in the machine: 1st – Creeper roller 2nd – Feed lattice and inclined lattice 3rd – Evener roller and stripper roller 4th – Delivery rollerTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 15. 15Flow of material in the blender: FEED INCLINED EVENER DELIVERY BIN LATTICE LATICE ROLL ROLL ROOMBLOW ROOM:The mixing is further opened so that the wastes like hard chips are removed from the mixing,the tuft size is reduced and better blending of fibre is achieved. This mixture is converted intolaps to be feed in the carding machine.Following process takes place in the blow room line: 1. Opening – The material enters spinning mills in compressed form to enable optimum transport and storage. In blow room the bigger tufts of fibre are made into smaller with minimum possible change to the fibre. 2. Cleaning – To remove foreign seed particles leave from fibers. During opening and cleaning there is always loss of good fibers. So the blow room line is selected such that the optimum opening and cleaning is obtained with minimum loss of good fibers. The cleaning efficiency of cotton in blow room section is approximately 75– 80%. 3. Dust removal – To remove finer impurities like dust particles and very short fibres by suction units e.g. cages. As the opening of the material increases the dust removal capacity also increases. 4. Lap formation – Blow room line also facilitates the preparation of laps which are further fed into the carding machine.Humidity in the blow room – R.H. – 65% to 75%Variation:Standard intra lap variation = 1.0%.If the variation is more than 1.0% the lap shall be rejected.Lap parameters: Count Weight Length 8s - 10s 20.0 kg 36 yards 10s – 12s 16.5 kg 30 yards 15s – 20s 20.5 kg 38 yards 24s 20.0 kg 40 yardsTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 16. 16Blow room line:There are two types of blow room line 1. TRUSTZSCHLER ( Trumac engineering co. Pvt limited, Ahemadabad, India) 2. ZFA017 ( Zhengzhou Textile machinery co. Limited, China)Components of TRUSTZSCHLER blow room line: Feed lattice Creeper lattice Incline latticeTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 17. 17 Evener roll Cleaner roll Steeper roll Krishner beater Cage Shell lattice Piano roller Cleaner roll Steeper rollFeatures of TRUSTZSCHLER blow room line: Number of beating roller – 2 Krishner beater Speed of 1st krishner beater – 825 rpm Speed of 2nd krishner beater – 800 rpm Shell roll speed – 11.5 rpm Diameter of Shell roll – 10.5 inch Calendar roll pressure – 4.5 kg per sq. Cm Lap rod weight – 1.4 kgFlow of material in blow room line: FEED SPIKED PIANO KRISHNER CALENDER FEED ROLL SHELL ROLL LATTICE ROLL ROLL BEATER ROLLClearance setting: Between 1st beater and feed roll – 10/32 inch Between 2nd beater and feed roll – 10/32 inch Between inclined lattice and evener roll – 10 mm Between feed roll and pedal roll – 0.125 mmProduction capacity (at 85% efficiency) Weight of lap produced – 1700 kg/8hr/line Length of lap produced – 4000 yards/8hr/lineTotal production capacity of the unit – 10 tonTime taken to produce one lap – approx 4 – 6 min.No. Of laps produced per hour – approx 12Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 18. 18CARDINGIn carding the fibres are individualised, hard chips, soft fibres and entanglements areremoved. Lap produced in blow room are fed in the carding machine. The product ofcarding operation is card slivers.Objectives: Individualisation and partial parallelisation of fibres Fibre to fibre separation To affect thorough mixing of the Fibre Removal of remaining trash of B/R process Conversion of Lap or opened fibre into sliverHumidity: R.H. – 60% to 65%The machinery used for carding: Manufacturer Model Feed mechanism LMW LC 1/3 Lap feed LR LC 1/2 Lap feedVarious components of carding machine: Licker in Cylinder Doffer Feed roll Calendar roll Lap roll Redirecting roll Group rollTechnical parameter of LC 1/3 Diameter of lap roll – 162 mm Diameter of feed roll – 80 mm Diameter of licker in – 253 mm Diameter of cylinder – 1290 mm Diameter of doffer – 680 mm Diameter of calendar roll – 80 mmTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 19. 19 Speed of different moving parts Lap roller – 1.725 Feed roller – 2.875 Licker in cylinder – 840 Main cylinder – 360 Doffer – 30 Draft constant for LC 1/3 = 2.23 Draft for the machine = 102 (approx) Clearance setting for various parts: Licker in to feed plate – 18 TH Licker in to cylinder – 7 TH Cylinder to doffer – 4 TH Doffer to crush roll – 6 TH Licker in to combing segment – 16 THProduction in kg/hr at 85% efficiency = 19.4 kg/hourWire point specification: Manufacturer: Lakshmi carding company Parts Wire point specification Cylinder R 2520* 0.70 Licker in D 5505* 1.2 Doffer N 4030* 0.85R Flat PD 32/1 Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFT BANGALORE
  • 20. 20Stop motion for LC1/31. Limit switch for lap tool – it stops the card in case of shortage of lap.2. Limit switch over feed roll – it stops the card if the feeding of double lap takes place.3. Limit switch at front panel – it stops the cylinder if the front panel is opened.4. Limit switch over crush tool – it senses the lapping of the crush tool.5. Full can change motion – when the can is full of slivers the machine stops and the can is changed either by tenter or automatically. DRAW FRAMESThe card sliver is subjected to doubling and drafting process to parallelise the fibres, removemicro dust and make uniform slivers. Drawing is a two step process: 1. Breaker draw frame2. Finisher draw frame.Objectives: To parallelize the fibers of card sliver and align them to the axes of the sliver through drafting process. So that in final stage of spinning they can contribute maximum towards yarn strength. To improve the regularity in sliver weight per unit length though doubling of sliver. To mix different slivers to give a homogenous blended sliver. To straighten out the fiber and improve the fiber extent. To improve uniformity and evenness so that the final sliver become more regular resulting Uniform yarn.1. Breaker Draw Frame – During this process 8 slivers produced by carding machine are parallelized to produce one sliver. The machinery in use for breaker drawing frame: LDO/25 ( maker – Lakshmi industries) LDO/6 ( maker – lakshmi industries ) Features of LDO/25 Maximum speed – 400 metre per minute No. Of card sliver – 8 No. Of heads – 2 Drafting system – 3 over 5 Diameter of top roll – 40 mm Pressure of top roll – 68 – 72 kg Capacity of the can – 3000 m Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFT BANGALORE
  • 21. 21 Production capacity for 30s count sliver ( at 85% efficiency ) – 765 kg sliver/shift. Time taken to fill one can of 3000 m – 10 minutes. Stop motion in LDO/25 Breaker drawing frame: 1. Electrical creel stop motion: if broken sliver passes through the pair of drawing frame the drawing frame will automatically stop. 2. Full can stop motion: if pre-set length of sliver is delivered in the can drawing frame will automatically stop. 3. If the door of machine is opened while the machine is running the machine will automatically stop. 4. Calendar roll lapping stop motion: in case of sliver lapping over the calendar roll the machine will stop. Features of LDO/6 Drafting system – 3 over 3 Can size – 24 * 42 inch No. Of heads – 2 No. Of card slivers per head – 8 Maximum speed – 600 metre per minutes Production capacity for 30s count ( at 85% efficiency ) – 1100 kg/shift/drawing frame Stop motion for LDO/6: 1. Electrical creel stop motion: if broken sliver passes through the pair of drawing frame the drawing frame will automatically stop. 2. Full can stop motion: if pre-set length of sliver is delivered in the can drawing frame will automatically stop. 3. If the door of machine is opened while the machine is running the machine will automatically stop. 4. Calendar roll lapping stop motion: in case of sliver lapping over the calendar roll the machine will stop. The stop motion LDO/6 is similar to the LDO/25 the only difference being the LDO/6 starts automatically once the stoppage causing problem is sorted out.2. Finisher draw frame It is done to give further strength and stability to the sliver. The drawn sliver from breaker draw frame is again drawn. In this process the sliver drawn in the breaker draw frame further used. Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFT BANGALORE
  • 22. 22 Machinery used: LRSB – 851 (RIETER) Features of LRSB – 851 (RIETER) Drafting system – 3 over 3 Total draft – 8 Number of head – 1 Number of card sliver feed – 8 Can size – 20*40 inch Number of motors – 4 Diameter of top roll – 38mm Diameter of calendar roll – 55 mm Function of motors: 1st motor – main motor for driving machine pulley. 2nd motor – for fan. 3rd motor – for driving servo motor for auto leveller. 4th motor – for automatic can changing. Production capacity of the finisher drawing frame – 850 kg/shift/drawing frames Stop motion for LRSB – 851: Electrical creel stop motion: if broken sliver passes through the pair of drawing frame the drawing frame will automatically stop. Full can stop motion: if pre-set length of sliver is delivered in the can drawing frame will automatically stop. If the door of machine is opened while the machine is running the machine will automatically stop. Calendar roll lapping stop motion: in case of sliver lapping over the calendar roll the machine will stop. Can change stop motion: After the can is filled and another vacant can is not available the machine will stop for itself unless the empty can is made available.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 23. 23 SPEED FRAME The drawn sliver is drafted, slightly twisted and wound on speed frame bobbin, this process is known as roving. Objectives: 1. To impart twist. 2. Conversion of sliver into roving. Machine specification: There are two types of machine.Type 1. Manufacturer LMW Model LF 1400A Year 1994 No. Of spindles 108 No. Of machine 1 Type 2. Manufacturer LMW Model LFS 1660 Year 2004/2005 No. Of spindles 120 No. Of machine 3Production- Under favourable marginal conditions Cotton- upto 13m.p.m. Man made – upto 40m/min Production capacity – 550 kg/shift/frame Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFT BANGALORE
  • 24. 24RING FRAMESpinning of roving bobbin into yarn of required count and twist is done here.Objective: 1.To impart twist 2.Conversion of roving into single yarnTechnical specifications of ring frame: Manufacturer LMW Model LR6/S Drafting system 3 over 3 Top roll diameter 32.5 mm Bottom roll diameter 30 mm Pressure 20 kg Motor pulley diameter 152 – 187 mm Total spindle 480Speeds, drafts and constants: Front roller speed – 245 rpm Spindle speed – 15000 rpmTotal production – 100 kg/shift/machine Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFT BANGALORE
  • 25. 25AUTOCONERObjective:To remove imperfection of spun yarn and make big package in the form of cone.Technical details Model Orion Manufacturer Savio Machine Tessili SPA, Italy Year 2005 No. Of cones 60Technical Specifications:•Drum speed -1300 rpm•Cone weight (Full) - 2 to 3 Kgs.•Cone weight (Empty) - 30 to 35 gms.•Magazine Creel capacity - 6 Ring tubes•Drum diameter – 3.14 inches Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFT BANGALORE
  • 26. 26Salient Feature:1. Pneumatic disc type tensioner.2. Splicer is used.3. Capacitance type electronic yarn clearer (Uster Quantum-2)4. Fully automaticCountwise Winding Speed: Type Count Winding speed Coarse 15-20s 1200 m/min. Medium 20-40s 1400 m/min. Fine 40s and above 1600 m/min.Machine sequence: WAXING YARN WINDING RING TUBE TENSIONER SPLICER CONE DEVICE CLEARER DRUMProduction capacity for autoconer – 800 to 1200 kg/shiftSpecial features of Autoconer: Autoconer is fed by magazine containing 6 reserve ring bobbins and one running ring bobbin. Automatic cutting and splicing of thick and thin places and restarting of the winding Its efficiency is upto 95%.CHEESE WINDING:Objective:To wind two or more threads from cone to cheese without inserting any twist. Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFT BANGALORE
  • 27. 27Machine information:PS MetlerName PS MetlerModel F.M.K.SManufacturer Peas engineering pvt. LimitedNo. Of machine 2Machine sequence SLUB STOP GUIDE WINDING CONE YARN GUIDE TENSIONER YARN GUIDE CHEESE CATCHER MOTION ROLLER DRUM Salient Feature: 1. Fix blade mechanical type slub catcher. 2. Dead weight type disc Tensioner. 3. Electrical stop motion Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFT BANGALORE
  • 28. 28DOUBLING:In doubling twist is imparted to yarn wound on cheese. There are two processes of doubling.1. T.F.O – In this process twisting and winding on cones is done simultaneously to provide knot free yarns. Objective: To impart two twist in one rotation of the spindle. Machine specification: 1. Name Veejay lakshmi Model VJ – 150 – HS Year 2004 No. Of machines 13 No. Of cones 144 2. Name Prerna Model PRN – 225 Manufacture Prerna textile industries Year 1998 No. Of machines 3 No. Of cones 144 Production capacity – 161.20 kg/shift Technical specification: Spindle RPM – 9000 to 10000 Traverse length – 155 mm TPI according to count Count TPI 18s 12 30s 17 40s 20 50s 20.5Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 29. 29Machine sequence: YARN GUIDE STOP TRASVERSE WINDING CHEESE SPINDLE YARN GUIDE CONE TRAVELLER MOTION GUIDE DRUM2. Ring doubling – Here only twist is provided to the parallel wound yarns. These yarns are the wound in cones at cone winding. At cone winding the yarn is cleared of doubling defects.CONDITIONING Before packing the yarns produced are subjected to a treatment in the conditioning room toincrease the moisture content of the cone according to the requirement. It increases theweight of the cone marginally.PACKINGIn packing department the cones produced by Autoconer / T.F.O are checked & thenpacked in bags. There are 5 checkers and a large number of packers for this purpose. Thedefects, which are checked during packing, are:- 1. Mixing of cones 2. 3-Ply 3. High twist / Low twist 4. Contamination 5. Snarling 6.Winding defect (Ribbon formation)Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 30. 30The standard weight of cone is 2 kgs. Tolerance is± 50 gms. In a bag 32 cones are packedthat is the weight of packed bag is approximately 64 kgs. 8-9 tons cone are packed perday.This is called loose packing.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 31. 31 STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENTTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 32. 32The work of statistical quality control department is to control the quality of product beingmanufactured through intensive testing during intermediate process and of final product togive quality assurance to buyers and maintain company standards.The daily jobs performed by this department are checking naps, counts, hanks, thick and thinplace in slivers, lea strength etc.Various equipments used and their description: 1. Evenness tester : Manufacturer: Star Twister No. Of machines: 2 It gives information about the evenness of the yarn. It works on the principle of the capacitance. The material is passed between the plates of capacitor, due to dielectric components of the material, a change in the capacitance of the plates is observed. The change in capacitance is directly proportional to mass or thickness of the material. A change is displayed on the display unit. 2. Hairiness tester: It gives detail about the fibres called hair based on the photoelectric principle. The tester gives no. Of hairs per unit length and classifies them according to the length. 3. Lea strength tester: Manufacturer: Kamal metal industries No. Of machines: 1 It provides information about average yarn strength. The strength can be read from the axial scale . 4. Warp blocks It prepares hank for testing.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 33. 33 5. Yarn appearance board: This is a white colour board on which the yarn is wound with the help of trasverse as in the case of warp reel. It may have more than one yarn each having a few layers. The board is then observed manually and unevenness in the yarn is observed through eye. These are then ranked by comparing with standard boards. 6. Physical balance: No. Of machines: 2 It is used for weight, lea‟s etc. The data is used for count calculation. 7. Classifault – 6 drums Manufacturer: KIESOKT No. Of machines – 1 It is attached with 6 drum miniature cheese winding machine. They have 6 sensor heads with cutters. It classifies the fault according to their diameter and length. The fault classification has fixed diameter, in some faults with adjustable length limits and in other the parameters are adjustable. 8. Twist tester Manufacturer: 1. Star STT 2. KAYCEE industries limited To test yarn is gripped in two jaws, one of which is fixed and the other can rotate. The rotating jaw is connected to a motor and control unit. We feed the maximum amount of turns required to untwist the yarn in the control unit along with the direction of the twist before starting the machine.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 34. 34 9. Stelometer No. Of machine: 1 It is used to check the strength of the blending/ mixing to check for the blend homogeneity of the mixture. 10. Electronic balance No. Of machine: 2 The balance has been attached to a computer and gives the count/hank of the material directly. 11. Torsion balance No. Of machine: 1 It is used for the denier estimation of polyester and viscose by cotton weight. The result is displayed in g/tex. 12. Mangnoscope No. Of machine: 1 It is used to check the number of fibre. 13. Electronic tensile tester No. Of machine: 1 It is used to check the yarn elongation strength of a single yarn.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 35. 35 14. Rapid drying unit No. Of machine: 1 It is used to check the moisture content in fibre. 15. Oil extracting machine No. Of machine: 1 It is used to check for the presence of oil in the material. 16. Top tester No. Of machine:1 It is used to check for the number of NEP per gram of the sliver.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 36. 36 WEAVINGTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 37. 37RAW MATERIAL SECTIONRaw material is stored at the raw material gowdon. The store in charge is responsible forkeeping a track of all the yarns coming to the weaving section. Most yarn required forweaving is produced at spinning section of the BSL limited. Other suppliers for the rawmaterials are: Reliance industries limited Rajasthan spinning and weaving mill Banswara synthex Sangam IndiaWARPING SECTIONObjectives of warping:1. To prepare continuous warp sheet beam according to given warp pattern, of requiredlength, width & no. of ends.2. All of ends must be under uniform tension.Process flow in warping section: CREELS WARPING DRUMS WARP BEAMTemperature & R.H. of section:• Temperature - 270 to 320 C•Relative humidity - 60% to 65%Machinery used (warping drum & beam):There are two models of machinery for the warping drum & beam. MODEL A:Manufacturer PRASHANT GAMATEXModel Lasertronic 1080Creel capacity 384No. Of machine 02Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 38. 38Salient features: Solid steel drum (3.14 meters circumference). Separate Warping & Beaming Structure. Automatic section tension control having precise close loop yarn tension monitoring by twin PLC. Ball screws for all servo systems. Pitch measuring through Laser Sensor. (Contactless) Linear guide on under carriage. Continuous Beam Oscillation. (adjustable) Reverse Drum Rotation. Automatic Leasing Function. User-friendly Handy Operating Panel for Beaming. Constant beaming tension Large colour touch screen for desired process data. Constant warping and beaming speed. Lost end memory & auto during beaming. Printer Interface.Technical specification:1. Working width – 1800 to 4200 mm2. Warping speed – 0 to 800 metre/min3. beaming speed – 0 to 100 metre/min (can be increased if required)4. beaming tension – 0 to 450 kg (can be increased if required)5. Maximum beam diameter – 800 mmTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 39. 39 MODEL B:Manufacturer PRASHANT GAMATEXModel A - 217Creel capacity 384No. Of machines 05Technical Specifications.1. Manufacturer: Prashant Gamatex Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad.2. Model: A – 2173. Creel: 2(side) x 8(vertical) x 24(horizontal) = 3844. Warping Speed: 0 - 650 meter /min (Maximum)5. Beaming Speed: 0 -100 meter / min6. Beaming Diameter: 800 mm – 1000 mmSalient Features: Reserve cone holders for next programme Fixed cone height Fully machined & Dynamically Balanced Metallic Drum Hydraulic Disc Brakes Auto Section Advancing Accurate Warp density adjustment & Alignment Frequency variable A/C Drive Micro-Processor based controls Electronic length measurement Four line display showing continuous monitoring of warp length speed, section width plus traverse & No. of section Constant warping speed Foot operated crawl speedTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 40. 40Warping creel:Machinery used – centrally controlled tensioner type (PRASHANT GAMATEX)Salient Features Quick and simple threading of yarn. Continuously rotating tensioners through motor. Positive spring loaded centrally controlled tensioners. Automatic section tension control. Optical sensing stop motion. Integrated AIR BLOW-OFF cleaningTechnical specifications:1. Creel capacity: 384Production information:Time taken to prepare 1 drum – 2 to 2.5 hoursTime taken to transfer the warp yarns from drum to beam – 40 mins-1 hoursSample warper Used mainly for silk Auto safety stop Software operatedTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 41. 41 Tensioning device to avoid loose yarnsTechnical specification:Model SW- 207Drum circumference 7 metreWarping yarn speed Upto 1000 metresWarping length 14 – 280 metresBeam flange diameter 1000mmFew warping defects and their remedies:Defect 1: High variation in tension within and between ends (slack ends).Remedies: 1. make sure that the end has not come out of the tensioning device. 2. Winding height should be changed.Defect 2: The surface of yarns, building on the beam, is not even and free, has ridges from one selvedge to the other.Remedies: 1. Comb width should match with the beam width. 2. Comb dents should be uniformly spaced.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 42. 42DRAWING-IN SECTION:Once the beam is prepared in the warping section, it comes to the drawing in section. Thebeam is kept on the beam stand and a person having complete details of the design, draft andpeg plan does the drawing in. Here one end of the warp yarn is passed through the healdframe, drop pins and reeds.Heald frame specifications:Type C – type and J –types simplexLength 331 mm, flat steelEye let size 5.5 * 1.2 mmStrip size 5.5 *0.30 mmManufacturer Unique impex, MumbaiDrop pin specification:Model Open, electricalSize 165*11*0.4 mmManufacturer Unique impex, mumbaiWEAVING SECTIONWeaving is a textile craft in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced to forma fabric or cloth. The threads which run lengthways are called the warp and the threads whichrun across from side to side are the weft or filling.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 43. 43Machineries used: Manufacturer Model Reed space No. Of machines Picanol Optimax Single width 12 85” Sulzer – Ruti P 7100 Single width 76 85” Sulzer – Ruti P 7100 Double width 16 153” Sulzer – Ruti G 6200 Single width 36 85” Total no. Of machine 140 Speed and efficiency: Single width projectile loom: 350 – 400 RPM Single width rapier loom: 300 – 350 RPM Double width rapier loom: 250 – 270 RPM Picanol: 375 – 450 RPM Production capacity: 105 – 110 metre per shift per machine Production capacitty: 105 – 110 metre per shift per machine Production capacity of unit: 30000 meter per day at an efficiency of 80% Accumulators: Following models of accumulators are used: Technomatex – Futura (Switzerland) IWF – Sweden ROJ – Electrotex AT – 1200 VIRIEL – Technomatex Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFT BANGALORE
  • 44. 44Accumulator Setting:Electronic head of Accumulator has one ON/OFF switch & 4 settings are there,1. Setting of winding Speed by a set screw.2. Intensity of photocell can be changed according to type of weft yarn Texture or spun.3. Amount of yarn wound on winding head by altering the position of photocell by the help ofrotating screw arranged with Rack-Pinion system.4. NT / RT settingVarious mechanisms:PROJECTILE LOOMWarp insertion mechanism: The key to the machine is the gripper projectile. In the picking position it takes over the thread drawn from the supply package. After picking, it carries the thread into the shed and is braked upon entering the receiving unit. The thread is now taken over by the projectile feeder, held by the selvedge grippers, cut by the scissors, released from the projectile and beaten up to the cloth. The tucking needles then tuck in the thread ends, forming firm tucked-in selvedge. Finally, the projectiles is ejected from the receiving unit and taken back to the picking position by conveyer. The projectiles are accelerated by a torsion bar. This is tensioned, storing the energy needed for a flight through the shed. Following the release of a lock, it accelerates the projectile smoothly and resumes its initial position at once. The flight velocity of the projectile is determined by the torsion angle of the bar and can therefore be matched.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 45. 45Beat Up mechanism: A double cam assembly is mounted on the main shaft. Both cams are working counter to each other. A rocker is resting on cam with anti friction bowl. This is fasten to sley sword. Sley sword keeps the reed support for final beat-up. The cams are so designed that they provide sufficient dwell (220-250) for the traverse of projectile.Take Up mechanism: Take - up drive of Sulzer draw and winds the cloth positively. Rate of take up can be adjusted by means or change wheel. A combination of four wheels A,B,C,D is fitted with a total of 12 change wheels it is possible to wheel weft density of 36 to 910 threads/ 10cm and forward up to1810picks/ 10cm by changing the worm gear.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 46. 46Let Off mechanism: The purpose of the let- off drive is to pay out the warp sheet through turning the warp sheet by warp beam and at the same time keeping the tension on warp constant. The whip roller plays as the control element. It adjusts its height to the tension of the warp and controls the let-off motion of let-off drive coupling by means of a bar. As the winding diameter of the warp beam decreases, the whip roller moves gradually downwards. As a result of this, the let-off increases and is matched automatically to the winding diameter of the drum take-up.Pick Finding mechanism: When a pick is broken to find its position clutch is brought to pick finding position (clutch is disengaged) and hand wheel is pull out and two turns are given to it. Then it is brought to pick holding position and turn the hand wheel till the clutch returns to earlier position. Thus dobby is turned on a pick back.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 47. 47RAPIER LOOMSWeft insertion mechanism: The key component of the machine is the set of rapier. There are two set of rapiers in the machine having positive motion. The rapier takes the weft yarn from the supply package. After picking it carries the yarn forward on a guide at the centre of the machine another rapier receives the yarn, can carry it. In this way, the intervals for rapier insertion and for rapier withdrawal are both used for weft insertion. Invariably, on full width looms, only a single pick of yarn from a given supply package is inserted, but it may be inserted as a loop up to the time of transfer, and the transferred loop straightened out during rapier withdrawal from the shed (the loop-transfer or Gabbler system). Yarn withdrawal from the weft package is thus completed at the time of transfer. It is the cut end of the weft which is transferred (end or tip transfer). The yarn clamps in the rapier heads is positively actuated at the transfer (in addition to any positive actuation at weft pick-up and release). .End Catching & Cutting mechanism: The end catcher and cutter are attached and mounted on the sley. The end catcher exchanges the weft yarn with the rapiers at the end of the withdrawal. The cutterTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 48. 48 comes into contact of the weft during beat up, due to the sley and reed motion, and cuts the weft.Technical specifications of P 7100 weaving machines: The machine handles practically all types of yarns: spun yarn, filament yarn, fancy yarn etc. In the weft the machine processes staple fiber yarns from Nm 0.5-160 and continuous filament yarns from 5000-10.8 denier. Weft density is between 0.83-181.5 picks/cm. Maximum weft insertion rate 1200 meter / min. and speed upto 400 rpm. Can work for upto four different weft colours. Nominal width 190-540 cm. Machine design is extremely compact.Technical specification of G 6200 weaving machines: Nominal width of the machine is 220 cms. Can work for upto four different weft colours. Stabuli jacquard for construction of selvadge. Maximum weft insertion rate 900 – 1100 metre per minute. Maximum working speed is 400 rpm.Light signals in use:Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 49. 49 Blue light blinking: warp thread breakage. Yellow light blinking: weft threads breakage. Yellow and red light blinking: shut down via emergency switch. Red light: mechanical fault. Red light blinking when machine is working: electronic projectile detector or weft detector switched off.Sensors and stop motion: Projectile sensor: It is a metallic sensor situated at the receiving side and it senses that projectile is reaching at correct angle or not. Let – off sensor: P7100 provides electronic let off. If tension in warp sheet decreases the sensor senses it by suitable arrangement and motor regulates warp sheet accordingly Weft sensor: To sense the presence and absence of weft supply at receiving side. Angle sensor: To stop the loom at correct angle at particular degree Warp stop motion: Electrical warp stop motion work together with drop pin attachmentsINSPECTIONGrey checking section:After weaving the fabric is brought to inspection section for grey checking. Here the fabric ischecked for any weaving related defect and the fabric are marked on the basis of number ofthe defects the woven fabric contains.Six automated fabric checking machines are used to check the fabric. Chalk is used to markthe defects. Each machine can check 3000 to 4000 metres of fabric every day.Grading of fabric on the basis of defect they contain are as follows: 0 -5 defects – A grade 6-12 defects – B grade 13 – 23 defects – C grade 24 and above defects – D gradeTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 50. 50Fabrics are checked for following defects during grey check: Starting mark: An isolated narrow bar running parallel with the picks, starting abruptly & gradually shading away to normal cloth. This is due to abrupt change in the pick spacing followed by gradual coming back to normal pick spacing. Causes of the defect. 1. Restarting weaving machine after pick finding. 2. Reed (loom) stops ahead from the place where it should stop (generally loom stops at 400),so that sufficient moment is not generated during the next pick beating and results in starting mark. Weft Bar: A bar due to difference in material, count, twist, lusture or shade of the adjacent groups of weft yarns. Reed Marks: Irregular spacing between the groups of warp yarns across the width of the fabric. The defect may be caused by a damaged or defected reed, i.e. dent opened or gap is more than normal between two dents. Missing ends / Ends out / Chira: This most commonly characterized by a gap of one or more warp end in the fabric. The main causes are:- 1. The weaver is careless, not mends broken ends immediately. 2. Missing ends in the beams. 3. Any end not passed from the heald & reed i.e. not drawn & remain missed. Patti: Take up roller jammed or move slowly in between the regular process due to some mechanical fault than a thick place or closer pick spacing results known as Patti or thick bar. Thin: Due to some mechanical fault take up roller moves little bit faster, gives a fault known as thin bar. Double pick: In plane weave if after loom stops due to pick breaking, loom is not turned back to its initial position than two pick are comes in the same shed, resulting the defect named double pick. Design Cut: If the above defect occurs in the dobby design, design gets disturbed & defect is known as design cut. Temple mark: Holes or surface disturbances along the selvedge of a fabric due to bad or improperly adjusted temples. Slub: Fly accumulated at drop pin or heald wire goes along with the warp in the fabric create slub in the fabric, gives defect in finishing if not removed.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 51. 51 Pattern Break: Shed not opened properly due to some mechanical fault, gives pattern break. Broken pattern: This defect may be due to wrong drawing of threads, inserting a pick in the wrong shed, incorrect lifting of warp threads. Cracks: A narrow streak parallel to the weft due to the pronounced opening between two adjacent yarns. Any loom condition that permits erratic operation of the sley or yarn of its parts will create cracks in the fabric. A loosed-reed, that is, one that has excess freedom in the sley, will also caused this defect. A take-up motion which is sticking may produce cracks in the fabric. Floats stitches: A place in the fabric where warp & weft yarns escape the required interlacement. This defect is caused by Entanglement of warp threads due to delay in repairing a broken end, knots with long tail ends, breakage of wire healds on running loom, unsatisfactory working of warp stop motion. With synthetic yarns, due to static electricity generation, there is a tendency for the adjacent ends to roll during weaving, this results floats or stitches less opening of shed. Stains: Stains on the fabric are measure serious problems in textile mills. Majority of the stains occur at loom shed only. There are various kinds of stains. E.g. oil, grease, rust, dirt, soil, carbon particles in air, sweat, crayon, box mark etc. Most of the stains can be traced back to poor material handling, lack of care on the part of workers and poor oiling and cleaning practices. Certain stains can be removed by solvent but it involves additional cost. Wrong warp pattern: Wrong order of drawing the ends through the reed or wrong order of drawing the ends through the healds.Few other weaving related defects are: 1. Loose picks 2. Loose ends 3. Selvadge damages 4. Yarn damages 5. Double twek. 6. LashingMENDINGTotally fault free fabric cannot be manufactured on the loom. They are some small or extrafaults that occur in fabric during manufacturing.But some faults along these could be mendable .They can be eliminated easily. Total number of mending table – 150 Total number of workers – 160Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 52. 52The particular fabric incoming from weaving department is firstly stored in grey mendingstore. Each fabric piece carries with their „PIECE TICKET‟ which is having variousparticulars about fabric. According to date of delivery, fabric pieces are arranged in sequencesystematic manner. Earlier fabric first took for mending. The fabric piece isGiven to mender for mending with its piece ticket. These are the following faults that willmend by the mending department:Broken end/ pick, missing end / pick, reed mark, floating ends, pattern mistake,contamination, naps, slubs, knots, oily yarn etc.After mending the fabric is rechecked again. The defect free fabrics are sent to the rollingdepartment to create rolls of the fabric. After rolls have been created the fabrics are sent tothe dispatch department, the fabrics from dispatch department are sent to BPL for furtherprocessing of the fabric.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 53. 53 PROCESSINGTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 54. 54TEXTILE PROCESSINGTextile processing is one of the important industries related with textilemanufacturing operations. This industry has a long history that begins with "Indigo dyeing" anatural colour, derived from a plant.Once the process of colouring textiles was considered as an art. According to ones creativityand imagination on those days numerous techniques were evolved in colouring differentmaterials such as cotton, bamboo, jute, earthen-ware and even mortar walls. Slowly thistechnique was evolved in to a science and so many artificial colouring matters calleddyestuffs had started coming in to existence.This evolution of colouring matters in to synthetic dyestuff and the application techniques onvarious textile materials are all put together is called Textile Processing,Textile processing is a general term that covers right from singeing (protruding fibreremoval) to finishing and printing of fabric.BSL LTD (PROCESSING DIVISION)It is the integrated unit/department of the LNJ Bhilwara Group for the post weavingprocessing.The department is divided into Tops & Fibre dyeing Department, Fabric dyeing & Processing Department, & Silk dyeing.FABRIC DYEING DEPARTMENTThis is the department for dyeing & finishing processes of the fabric supplied from weavingdepartment.Raw material godown:Its main objective is to store and warehousing of the fabric lot for dyeing and finishingprocesses. Fabric lot is supplied along with the lot memo & quality instructions.Types of fabric lot: FIBRE DYED FABRIC PIECE DYED FABRIC (GREY FABRIC)Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 55. 55Here fabric is stitched together to get the appropriate length of the fabric and passed for thenext processes.POLYESTER VISCOSE FIBRE DYED FABRICScouringScouring is the process of removal of natural oil substances like waxes, fats and pectins aswell as added impurities like lubricating oil, dust, dirt and residual starch in the cottonmaterials .Machineries in uses: Pacific jigger machine  Model: Pacific Jigger machine  Manufacturer: Harish industries limitedTechnical specification: 1. – C ( depends on the material being used ) 2. 1000 – 1200 meters of fabric can be loaded at once. 3. Time required – 5 to 6 hours 4. Steam pipes are located at both top and bottom of the chamber. 5. Double beam jiggers have two beams. No. of machines – 2 Jigger  Manufacture: Bennigner – Manekar Technical specification: 1. – C ( depends on the material being used ) 2. 400 – 500 meters of fabric can be loaded at once. 3. Time required – 4 to 5 hours 4. Double beam jiggers have only one beam. 5. Stem pipes are located at both top and bottom of the chamber. No. of machines – 16Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 56. 56 Jumbo Jigger  Manufacturer: Bennigner – Manekar Technical specification: 1. They are the high capacity jigger machine and works on the same principle. 2. Operating temperature – C ( depends on the material being used ) 3. 1200 – 1400 meters of fabric can be loaded once in the chamber. 4. Time required: 6 hours No. of machines: 3 Things to be kept in mind while using jigger machines: 1. The machine should be properly cleaned before loading the fabric in machine for processing. 2. Temperature should be properly maintained according to the requirement of the fabric being processed. 3. Care should be taken while using the chemicals and should be used according to the specifications given by the supervisors.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 57. 57 Relax Scouring Machine:  Manufacturer: Dhall Enterprises and Engineers Pvt. Ltd. Parts of the range: 1. Fabric feeding system, 2. Guide rollers, 3. Caustic soda tank, 4. Soap tank, 5. squeeze rollers, 6. Expander rollers, 7. Steam chambers- 2 continuous, separate chambers (drums within it), 8. Pleater, 9. Storage chamber, 10. Intermediate mangles, 11. Hot wash chamber 12. Acid wash chamber, & 13. Take off system Salient Features: Universal plant for woven pile and knitted fabrics. Maximum washing performance by specific use of mechanical washing elements, time, temperature, and chemicals. Uniform and gentle liquor flow through the fabric. Even fabric surface with best fastness value. Low tension and crease-free fabric run with minimum residual shrinkage values. Draft-free and safe fabric transportation even at highest speeds. Low consumption of water and energy due to specific fresh water metering, counter- current flow and optimized bath volume. Process control system. Easy-operation and easy maintenance of design. Excellent washing results, reproducible at any time and assurance of required degree of fastness. All range can be automated. Technical Specifications: Fabric width: 800 - 3000 MM In graduations of + 200 MM Roller faced width: Fabric width + 200 MM Guide rollers Dia: 125/150 Dia Squeeze rollers: Dia 254 MM Expander rollers: Bow type Sleeve Expanders 100, 125 MM Dia or Scroll Rollers driven in counter direction. Intermediate mangles: 0-3 tonnes Final mangles: T or 10 Tonnes NIP pressureTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 58. 58DYEING MACHINES:At Bhilwara processosors limite following two types of dyeing machines are used: 1. Beam dyeing machine 2. Jet dyeing machineBEAM DYEING MACHINE:In beam dyeing machine the beam is created first by wounding the full length fabric on aperforated beam. After creating the beam the beam is inserted into the beam dyeing machine.In this type of dyeing the fabric is kept stationary and the dye liquor is circulated. This typeof dyeing have good colour fastness.Machinery in use:  Beam dyeing machine  Manufacturer – Dalal Engineering worksPH to be maintained – 4 to 5 – – cTime taken for one lot – 4 hours c and is allowed to work for half and hour, the temperature isincreased by certain amount to certain limit at regular interval of time.JET DYEING MACHINE:Jet dyeing is a very efficient contact between the dye liquor and fabric is obtained by both arein constant movement. This result improved level of dyeing shorter dyeing time. Fabric iscirculated through the dye bath in rope form. The movement of the fabric occurs bycirculating the dye-liquor through a venture jet.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 59. 59Machinery in use:  Manufacturer – hegatex industries limitedPH of the jet dyeing machine – 4 to 5Speed of fabric – 250 to 400 meters per minute.Length of fabric that can be fed at once – 550 to 600 metres – cTime taken to complete the process: 90 minutes to 2 hoursSTENTER MACHINE  Model: 6 chamber stenter machine  Manufacture: yammuna textile industriesStenter machine is used primarily for heat setting. But also give several finishes to the fabric.In this machine fabric is passed through a tank containing the chemicals required to providethe finish to the fabric, then it is passed through a padding mangle when the liquid issqueezed for the fabric. The chain in the machine then carry the fabric to the chambers wherethe temperature is high and there are two blowers one at the bottom and another one at the topto blow hot air in the chamber which is responsible for the heat setting.HEAT SETTINGIt is a term used in the textile industry to describe a thermal process taking place mostly ineither a steam atmosphere or a dry heat environment. The effect of the processgives fibers,yarns or fabric dimensional stability and, very often, other desirable attributeslike higher volume, wrinkle resistance or temperature resistance. Very often, heat setting isalso used to improve attributes for subsequent processes. Yarns tend to increased torquingjust after spinning, cabling or twisting. Heat setting can influence or even eliminate thistendency to undesirable torquing. 1. – c depending on the type of fabric being processed 2. Mangle pressure – 4 to 6 kg per cm sq.Number of stenter machine – 5SINGEING MACHINE:  Manufacturer – OSTOFF singeIn this process fuzzy and protruding fibres are removed by burning them off. The mainpurposes are the fabrics that are required a clear and smooth surface for printing Usuallyperformed on both sides of the fabricTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 60. 60In a singer, a fabric is passed over open flame at very high speed (200-400 mts/min) toprevent scorching, then passed through water ( or de-sizing bath) to extinguish any sparks.Uneven singeing may lead unlevel dyeing. Therefore, the fabric is passed through singerflat,in open width and under slight tension. The gas burner should be properly controlled andmaintained; otherwise streaky dyeing may occur .Specifications: Double Jet Burner Automatic Flame width adjustment Four singeing positions, centring devices, slat rollers, counter rotating scroll rolls Sequencing unit Speed – 100 metre/ mimute (can be maintained according the fabric requirement) Flame intensity can also be controlled.KIER DECATISISING MACHINE  Model - PF – 2000  Manufacturer – TMT, ItalyDecatising or decatizing, also known as crabbing, blowing, and decating, is the process ofmaking permanent a textile finish on a cloth.Specifications: 1. Working width: 1700 meters 2. 3 decatizing cylinders with a diameter of 460 mm 3. Two beams have wrapper above them and one of them is vacant. 4. Exit with roll device. 5. Length of fabric rolled at once is 800 metres.1 roll take half an hour for decatising out which th machine is placed in kier for 15 to 20 mins. Other 10 minutes are for cooling. It complete the chemical finishes being given to the fabric by baking the fabric using stem.Production capacity of the machine - 25000 m everyday approximately.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 61. 61CALENDERING MACHINE:  Model - 3 bowl calendar machine  Manufacturer – prabhat textile corporationCalendering is a finish process given to the fabric to give shine and lusture to the fabric. It isdone to enhance the aesthetic appeal of the fabric.Specifications: Running speed – 5 to 30 meter per minute , it is generally operated at 25 to 28 meter per minute speed. Pressure – 2 to 35 tons – c Roller face diameter – 600 mm to 3800 mm Top bow diameter – 200 mm Embossing roll diameter – 460 mm Heating element – electric pipe heatingNo. Of Calendering machine - 2SUPER FINISHING MACHINE  Manufacturer – Prabhat textile corporationSuper finishing is another finish process given to the fabric. It has the same function as that ofthe Calendering machine i.e. to enhance the physical finishes of the fabric, but the finishproduced by this machine is superior in quality to that of the Calendering machine. It isgenerally done on expensive fabric or on the specification of the buyer.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 62. 62Specifications: 1. No. Of bowls – 6 2. Speed of the machine – 25 to 30 meter per minute 3. – cDRYING RANGE:  Manufacturer: yammuna textiles machineryDrying range is used to dry the fabric after scouring, dyeing and several such processes. Themachine contains a tank where washing of the fabric takes place prior to dry on the seamheated drums.Specifications: 1. Total number of drums – 20 2. Number of Teflon coated drums – 10 3. Speed of the machine – 50 metre per minute ( can be controlled according to the requirement) 4. Pressure of the steam in the drum – 1.5 to 4 kg per cm sq. 5. Mangle pressure – 2.5 to 5 kg.The fabric is passed through the soap solution in tank one which washes the fabric. Then it ispassed through a padding mangle which squeezes the water out of the fabric, after that fabricis passed through 1st set of Teflon coated rollers where 75% of the drying takes place. Afterthat the fabric passes through the 2nd set of stainless steel roller where the fabric is completelydried out and a certain level of shine also comes to the fabric.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 63. 63PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR FIBRE DYED FABRIC (POLYESTER VISCOSE) GREY FABRIC GREY SCOURING DRYING HEAT SET SINGENING DECATISING FINISHING FOLDINGTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 64. 64PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR PIECE DYED (POLYESTER VISCOSE) GREY SCOURING ROPE OPENING(IF REQD.) DRYING HEAT SET POLYESTER DYEING DRYING SINGEING VISCOSE DYEING DRYING DECATISING FINISHING FOLDINGTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 65. 65PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR POLYESTER WOOL AND WOOL WORSTEDFABRICS (FIBRE DYED) GREY FABRIC HEAT SET SINGEING SCOURING HYDRO EXTRACTION DRYING / CHECKING SHEARING MECHANICAL FINISH FOLDINGTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 66. 66PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR POLYESTER WOOL FABRIC (PIECE DYED) GREY FABRIC SCOURING DRYING HEAT SET DYEING HYDRO EXTRACTION DRYING & CHECKING SINGEING SCOURING HYDRO EXTRACTION DRYING & CHECKING SHEARING MECHANICAL FINISH FOLDINGTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 67. 67TOPS & FIBRE DYEING DEPARTMENTIt is the department where the fibres, tops & yarns are being dyed.Raw material gowdown:Here the fibres, tops(slivers) & yarns are stored. Raw material is stored with its proper detail. Fibres (supplied from spiinning raw material section) tops (supplied from Raw Material spinning section/exported) yarns (supplied from spinning section/exported)DYEING ROOM:Spring convertor:Here the cones of yarns are converted into the spring (which is suitable for the carrier ofyarns in dyeing).HT/HP DYEING MACHINE:HT/HP dyeing machine is used for following processes: Fibre Dyeing Tops Dyeing Yarn dyeing. Wool Scouring.The machine has specific carriers for each of the above mentioned dyeing processes.Dyeing carriers are classified into 3 sections according to their weights:Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 68. 68 1 kg, 1.5 kg and 2kg carriers are used for fibre and tops dyeing depending upon the requirement of the quantity to be dyed.Tops are loaded in the carrier with the help of pressing machine and spindles while yarns andfibres are loaded and compressed manually in the specified carrier. Then the carriers areplaced into the dyeing machine (with the help of electronic carriers – which hangs the carrierand carry it to the vessel and place it into the vessel) and water is circulated in the dyeingchamber. The water is heated with the help of steam coils provided at the bottom of thedyeing m c the dye is added in thechamber (along with acetic acid, leveller and water softeners) and the temperature isgradually raised according to the specified requirements. The ph of dye bath is maintained at4.5-5 during the dyeing process. c cRequirements for HT/HP dyeing: Total time consumed for dyeing medium and light shades: 1.45 hours. Total time consumed for dyeing heavy shades: 2 hours. Softener used for dyeing: Metashear.The dyed materials are unloaded, with the help of electronic controlled loading/ unloadingdevice, from the vessel. Then the dyed material goes for the drying.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 69. 69 RF Drier for fibres. Tumble Drier (hydro extractor) & Hot Air Drier for tops and yarns.The dyed fibres/tops/yarns are packaged and sent to the concerned departments as per thespecified requirements.Salient features of HT/HP Dyeing:The top dyeing route allows us to make mixture or melange shades, which is not possible inother yarn dyeing systems. Top dyed production results in yarns for the highest quality woven goods, upholstery, machine knitwear, hosiery and hand-knitting. Dye from the finest to the coarsest of wools, and those that have been shrink resist treated for machine washable knitwear. Include ranges of natural fibres are noble fibres such as cashmere, alpaca, mohair, vicuna and silk. Polyesters and nylon tops are dyed, predominantly for blending with wool.Technical features of HT/HP dyeing machine: Uniform dyeing Low running cost Reversible pumpTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 70. 70 Injector pump Low ML Ratio 1:3 Fully automatic operationDRIERS: Radio Frequency Dryer R.F. TechnologyIn a radio frequency heating system the RF generator creates an alternating electric fieldbetween two electrodes. The material to be heated is conveyed between the electrodes wherethe alternating energy causes polar molecules in the material to continuously reorientthemselves to face opposite poles much like the way bar magnets behave in an alternatingmagnetic field. The friction resulting from molecular movement causes the material torapidly heat throughout its entire mass.The amount of heat generated in the product is determined by the frequency, the square of theapplied voltage, dimensions of the product and the dielectric loss factor of the material, whichis essentially a measure of the ease with which the material can be heated by radio frequencywaves.Advantages For those applications that require uniform heating and precise temperature control RF offers many advantages over conventional drying methods. Uniform heating through entire thickness 2 to 20 times faster than conventional drying methods Energy efficient Uniform moisture profiling Low maintenanceTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 71. 71PROCESS FLOWCHART FOR POLYESTER TOPS POLYESTER TOPS REBALLING & CENTRE PULLING PRESSING DYEING HYDRO EXTRACTION RF DRYING PACKING DESPATCHTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 72. 72PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR POLYESTER FIBRE POLYESTER FIBRE PRESSING DYEING FINISHING HYDRO EXTRACTION RF DRYING OPENING OF FIBRE PACKING DESPATCHTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 73. 73PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR WOOL TOPS: WOOL TOPS REBALLING & CENTRE PUL PRESSING SCOURING DYEING FINISHING HYDRO EXTRACTION RF DRYING PACKING DESPATCHTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 74. 74 RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT (FAST)Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 75. 75FAST is a simple system of fabric objective measurement for assessing appearance, handleand performance of fabrics. It can predict how a fabric will perform when made up into agarment – information of great importance to fabric manufacturers, suppliers, finishers andgarment makers.FAST works by measuring and interpreting those parameters, identified by CommonwealthScientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), as being critical to fabricappearance, handle, and performance during garment manufacturing operations.FAST consists of three instruments and a test method: FAST – 1 Compression Meter FAST – 2 Bending Meter FAST – 3 Extension Meter FAST – 4 Dimensional Stability TestFAST – 1 Compression MeterMeasures: Fabric thickness at various loads Surface layer thicknessThe fabric thickness is displayed with a micrometre resolution which enables the accuratemeasurement of surface layer thickness – a parameter which indicates the formability of afinishing routine and stability of the finish applied.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 76. 76Fast – 2 Bending MeterMeasures: Fabric bending lengthBending length is converted into bending rigidity which is directly related to fabric stiffness –an important component of fabric handle. Operator‟s error in aligning the sample iseliminated using an optical sensor.FAST – 3 Extension MeterMeasures: Fabric extension at various loads Bias extensionTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 77. 77Extension is displayed with a 0.1% resolution. Bias extension is converted to fabric looseness– another important component of fabric handle. Fabric extensibility is combined withbending rigidity to give formability – a parameter related to the incidence of seam pucker.FAST – 4 Dimension Stability TestMeasures: Relaxation shrinkage Hygral expansionThis test is completed in less than one hour. A forced convection oven, a template and a rulerare the equipment required.The final result for each complete set of FAST test are output in the form of a chart or“fingerprint” on which all the measured and derived properties are plotted.The result show a warning for the garment manufacturer if the properties are below thesuggested limit.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 78. 78Operations in garment manufacturing affected by fabric properties Laying cutting fusing sewing pressing appearance upRelaxation No No yes No yes yesshrinkageHygral No No yes No yes yesexpansionFormability No No No yes No yesExtensibility yes yes No yes No yesBending No yes No yes No yesrigidityShear yes yes No yes No yesrigidityThickness yes No No No No yesFollowing tests are also conducted: 1. Pilling test: pilling tester is used to assess the pilling resistance of the fabric.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 79. 79The sample of the fabric to be tested is kept in the tumbler of the pilling tester for about 5hours or and the tumble is allowed to move for 18000 rounds and then the fabric is evaluatedby observation using the following parameters. Rating Description What they look for No change No effect on the sample 5 Slight change Slight effect on the sample 4 Moderate change Moderate change on the sample 3 Significant change Significant number of pills on the fabric 2 Severe change A very large number of pills on the fabric 1Pilling test is done subjectively so, it requires the person conducting that test to be highlyexperienced and good observation skills.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 80. 80 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETINGTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 81. 81DESIGN DEVELOPMENTThe Design and Development department of the BSL Suiting is concerned with thedevelopment of samples of designs as per the customer specifications and requirements aswell as designs which are supposed to bring in more customers. These designs are developedafter discussions within the department executives after a detailed study of the customerfeedback and the market surveys which are carried out at regular intervals.Process Flow: Discussing of new Ideas for design and new products based on Market Survey Conversion into Warp Ticket Blanket Sampling Approval of Blanket from Marketing Receive Production installation from Marketing Release Requirement of Raw Materials Cloth Master Card Preparation Checking of Grey fabric with Fabric DetailsTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 82. 82Sample are produced in sampling section which are divided into Polyester Viscose and PureWool section.Polyester Viscose blankets are produced on Shuttle Loom. The warping is done according tothe Warp Tickets issued by the customers. The Weft Winding section is done on the basicwinding machine.The weaving is done on the looms which uses Shuttle as the weft carrier.The blankets produced on power looms are 3 ½ metre in length and 35 inches in width. Eachblanket comprises of 56 designs. 8 are in warp direction and 7are in weft direction. Some ofthese designs are developed based on the customer requirements and the remaining aredeveloped based on the market survey conducted by the Design and DevelopmentDepartment.The blankets are then sent to the customers. The designs approved by the customers are thensent to various processing departments for the mass production.BSL sampling section has 6 Shuttle looms.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 83. 83MARKETINGBSL Marketing Section deals with the sales in Domestic and International Market.Domestically largest sales region for BSL suiting is southern India and Maharashtra. 5 lakhmetres of fabric is sold domestically every month whereas the export volume of BSL Suitingsis 9 lakh meters of fabric per month.Organizational Chart (Domestic Sector): Vice- President General Manager Assistant General Manager Marketing Manager Sales Manager Field Staff (Deputy Sales Manager, Assistant Sales Manager, Senior Sales Officer, Sales Officer, Assistant Sales Manager, Sales Representative, Sales Assistant)Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 84. 84Organizational Chart (Exports): Vice- President General Manager Assistant General Manager Marketing Manager Sales Manager Assistant Sales Manager Export OfficerProcess flow for marketing section: Appointment of Agent Contract Review Production Advice and Co- ordination Inspection and Grading Warehouse and Dispatch of the finished FabricTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 85. 85Appointment of Agent:This activities establish a media to enter into market and establish an agent for looking afterthe marketing activities in particular territory.Activities (Domestic Sector) 1. Field Staff visits market and locate potential agents. 2. Asst. General Manager/Marketing Manager/Sales Manager receives communication from interested agent. 3. The top management discuss the ascertain potential of the future agent. 4. The finalization and appointment of the agents is done by the president. 5. The law firm then prepares the agreement. 6. Each agent is then assigned a annual target 7. Annual performance of the agent is reviewed at the end of the yearActivities (Exports) 1. The management visits a fair or exhibition to identify the potential agents/customers. 2. The samples are sent with required quotation to the interested parties. 3. Their Response is received. 4. If positive, then they are appointed as customers.Production Advise & Co-ordination:Activities (Domestic sector) 1. Production advice is prepared according to the accepted and anticipated order. 2. The advice is sent to development and commercial department. 3. Follow up is performed for process flow at various stages. 4. For piece dyed fabrics, issued dyeing program is sent to process house through godown.Activities (Exports) 1. Consolidation of orders according to the delivery schedule. 2. Finalisation of shipping quality per month. 3. Preparation of production programme. 4. Sent to the Commercial and Development department. 5. Follow up the process according to the delivery schedule.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 86. 86Final Inspection and Grading: The purpose is to ensure the customer‟s satisfaction according to their specification. Inspection Activities 1. Information of the Grey Fabric. 2. Information of the Finish fabric. 3. One piece of the random lot is taken and checked thoroughly. 4. Ensuring work instruction. a) If accepted, sent to the Grading department. b) If not accepted, the concerned department head is consulted. c) The retreatment is done and is then sent for the inspection department. Grading 1. After inspection delivery challan is issued for the fabric. 2. Packing material, screen, lot number is decided. 3. Grading instruction is issued. 4. A sample of 4.5 metre is issued. 5. Than is prepared 6. Weighting and stickering is done. Grading system for synthetic fibres: Lump – suiting and shirting from 1.5 metre and above. Fresh – suiting length form 7.20 metre and above, shirting length from 8.0 metre and above. B – lump with minor defects SL – suiting length from 2.4 metre to 7.1 metre, shirting length from 4.0 metre to 7.8 metre. TL/SST – 1.2/1.3 metre SP/SST – 2.25/2.4 metre TL 2 – 95 to 114 centimetre FENT – 45 to 94 centimetre Rags – 25 to 44 centimetre Chindies or wastage – below 25 centimetre Grading system for woollens: Fresh – 8.40 metre and above with no defects. B – 8.40 metre and above with minor defects. SLF I – 6 metre to 8.39 metre. SLF II – 1.2/1.3 metre. Second – 1.20 metre or above with defectTextile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 87. 87 TL 2 – 95 to 114 centimetre FENT – 45 to 94 centimetre Rags – 25 to 44 centimetre Chindies or wastage – below 25 centimetreDispatch The department is concerned with the dispatch of the fabric to the consumers according to their demands. 1. Finished fabric is received from the folding department. 2. The fabric is checked for details through the challans for details according to the production instruction. 3. The goods are packed in cartons according to the packing instructions specified. 4. The details of the packed goods are submitted to the excise department for clearance. 5. The balance stock is kept in the racks and the details are entered in the stock reports. 6. The finished fabrics are dispatched.Customer communication process: 1. Communication is received from the customer regarding requirement of product, delivery and post delivery activities and the record is maintained. 2. The communication regarding each contract and order is maintained with the customer. 3. Feedback is obtained and record is maintained.Handling of customer’s complaints: 1. Complaints are received from the market. 2. Complaints are sent to marketing manager, sales manager, field staff and is registered. 3. Nature of the complaint is analyzed. 4. The complaints are discussed with the dealers. 5. The complaints are reviewed and discussed with the concerned field staff which yields two results: a. The complaint is genuine, if the complaint is genuine following procedure is followed. 1. Settle the claim on commercial basis like rebates. 2. The concerned department is informed. 3. The corrective action is initiated. 4. The concerned department is informed to prevent the occurrence of the same defect in future.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 88. 88 b. The complaint is not genuine, if the complaint is not genuine following procedure is followed. 1. The agent dealer is informed. 2. The defective sample is received along with the nature of the complaint. 3. The sample is analysed and checked 4. The complaint is informed about the result of the analysis.EXPORT DEPARTMENT: BSL Export Department deals with the sales in the foreign countries. There are five exportofficers who deals with the agents or the customers directly for the export of the suitings andshirtings.BSL exports its finished products in approximately 55 countries. The major regions in theworld where BSL exports are the Latin America ( Peru, Equador, Chile, etc), Middle East(Egypt, Saudi Arabia), South Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia) and Europe (Spain,Germany). It has been in the export business since 1987-88.The export officers travel in various exhibitions and fairs to identify the potential buyers andagents. Tex World which are held in Paris, France twice a year( February and September ) isconsidered to be the Mecca for exhibition for textiles.The department need an irrevocable letter of credit for the order placement. In case of therisk, e.g. Export in African Countries, BSL gets the deposit of the part of the money inadvance. For the new customers, BSL sends some sample for their approval. 75-90 days leadtime is required for the export of Fibre dyed fabric and 10 days lead time is required for theexport of Piece dyed fabric.Shipment is done from the Mumbai Office of BSL at Nariman Point. Two types of shipmentis done- Loose Load Container(LLC) and Full Load Container(FLC).BSL has around 250 companies and retail buyers around the world for e.g. HAGER (U.S.A),JC PENNY (U.S.A) and C&A (Germany).The Export Department accounts for about 60% of the annual turnover of the company whichis around 250 crores.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 89. 89 CONCLUSIONTextile manufacturing is a multiple stage production system comprising of conversion offibres to yarns, yarns to fabrics and fabric finishing. Spinning is the operation in which thefibre is converted to yarns and various process that the fibre undergo to get its yarn form areblending in which the fabric is opened form is bale form and mixed with the desired fabric togive the desired finishes, blow room in blow room the bales are further opened and convertedinto lap form for further operation, the lap is further converted into sliver in cards in theprocess known as carding, the slivers are then parallelised to give more strength in thedrawing machine in drawing operation , then the slivers are imparted twist and are wound inthe form of roving in the speed frame, after the roving have been made the fibres areconverted to yarns in the ring frame, after pinning the defects from the yarns are removed inthe autoconer , after that the fabric are given twist if required and are packaged for furtheroperations.The yarns in weaving section are made into warp beams into warping section for using theminto further weaving operations, the fibres wound on the beams are then drawn in the drawingin department where they are passed through heald. These beams are then transported to theweaving loom where the formation of the fabric takes place. After fabric formation the fabricis sent to the inspection section where the defects in the fabric are checked and they are sentto the mending section for corrective action on the defect, after the fabrics have been mendedthey are rolled and sent to the processing department.In processing department the fabric are given fabric treatment according to the requirements,for yarn dyed fabric they are given the treatment like scouring to remove the dirt or impuritiesin the accumulated during the weaving process. They are also given treatments like heatsetting to give dimensional stability to the fabric, singeing is done to remove the protrudingfibres on the fabric surface, the fabric is then given treatments like Calendering , deacatistingor super finishing to give the required finish to the fabric. In case of yarn dyed fabric thefabrics are scoured first to remove the impurities, and then they are dyed in either jet dyeingmachine, beam dyeing machine or the jiggers. Then they are given the required treatment tofinish the fabric according to the buyer specification. Processing can also been done prior tothe fabric formation the fibres, tops or yarns can also be dyed which will produce the yarndyed fabric.Throughout the above stated procedure of conversion of fibres to fabric extreme care shouldbe taken and production process needs to be carefully monitored as even a slight variationmay cause huge loss to the organisation. The production plan is a well chalked out plan andutmost care is take to maintain the quality standards SQC and R&D are always working. Theproduction process is very closely monitored to minimize the defects while the productionprocess is being carried out and since a major portion of the fabric produced is for exportpurpose adhering to the world class quality standard is a must so the work of quality controland research and development department is of very high importance.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE
  • 90. 90ANNEXTUREMost interesting incident during the course of internshipOur internship at BSL was full of exciting and interesting moments apart from the knowledgewe gained there. The feeling of working at such a huge organisation was unbelieveable.Before the commencement of our internship, we had some share of luck against our side. TheGujjar movement was in its full flow when we left for the internship. Due to which train andbus routes were diverted or some of them were cancelled. Anyhow, we reached Bhilwara inthe evening of 27th December, 2010.We began our internship under the guidance of Mr. K.M. Kogata from 28th December.During the course of internship, we had some interesting moments which taught us a lessonor two.In our opinion the most interesting incident took place when we went to meet the VicePresident of BSL Ltd, Mr. A.K.Mehta . He enquired us about our visit and the knowledge wehave acquired while studying in NIFT. During the course of conversation while we wereexplaining to him about our course content he deduced that the course has to deal with thetailorabilty of the fabric he asked about FAST a testing mechanism for testing the tailorabilityof the fabric. Incidentally, we did not have much knowledge about this topic. We were sent tothe R&D lab to learn about FAST and to acquire knowledge about the test procedures relatedto it. The laboratory assistant taught us about it and we were shown the devices whichshowed the results of FAST. Due to some reasons, the results were inaccurate. The laboratoryassistant was as confused as we were. After some brain storming, we came to the conclusionthat the moisture content level of the laboratory was well above the standard conditions,thereby causing the inaccuracy in the results. On the next day when we went to see Mr.Kogata, he asked us again to visit research and development lab to know about the fast, sincethe quality officer was absent last day and he was not satisfied regarding the information thelaboratory assistant would have given us. So we had to undergo training for fast twicealthough we were clear about the concept on very first day only.The above incident was interesting as well as informative.Textile internship report – DILIP SINGH, KUMAR SARVESH, PRASHANT GAURAV, RAJEEV SHARAN- DFT-05/NIFTBANGALORE