2004                                                           1Dye classificationDyeing processes                  Daniel...
2004                                                                     2   You can not assume that to dye any piece of f...
2004                                                                  3         Classification of Dyes   • No single class...
2004                                                                  4       Dye for Cellulosic Fibres:       • Direct Dy...
2004                                                                               5                Classification of dyes...
2004                                                                   6        DIRECT DYES   • Direct dyes for Cotton, Vi...
2004                                                                                  7                   DIRECT DYES     ...
2004                                                                    8                Classification of dyes           ...
2004                                                         9                  Azo Dye Synthesis                        C...
2004                                                                 10                 AZOIC DYES• The word Azoic is the ...
2004                                                                      11                      AZOIC DYES       • The f...
2004                                                                   12                   AZOIC DYES  • Normally it is d...
2004 following chart of basic range shows only a very limited number of colours13Thethat can be obtained by using combinat...
2004                                                                    14                 Classification of dyesDye      ...
2004                                                           15                                     VAT DYES            ...
2004                                                                       16                           VAT DYES       • A...
2004                                                                    17                                VAT DYES• This d...
2004                                                                       18                  VAT DYES - USE:       • Vat...
2004                                                                      19                          VAT DYES       • Whe...
2004                                                                       20           Classification of dyesDye         ...
2004                                                                       21                  SULPHUR DYES       • The fi...
2004                                                                       22                  SULPHUR DYES       • The ma...
2004                                                                     23           SULPHUR DYES - USE:       • The use ...
2004                                                                        24             SULPHUR DYES - USE:       • An ...
2004                                                                      25          Classification of dyesDye         Ge...
2004                                                                      26                 REACTIVE DYES       • This is...
2004                                                           27       REACTIVE DYES                         • The main f...
2004                                                                   28                       REACTIVE DYES• After this ...
2004                                                                    29              REACTIVE DYES - USE:• Reactive dye...
2004                                            Yellow 2GL                     30                                         ...
2004                                                                 31        Dye for Protein Fibres:       • Acid Dyes  ...
2004                                                                     32               Classification of dyes       Dye...
2004                                                                   33       ACID DYES   • These dyes comprise a large ...
2004                                                                     34                       ACID DYES       a. Level...
2004                                                                   35                      ACID DYESb. Acid milling dy...
2004                                                                 36                    ACID DYES  c. Pre-metalized dye...
2004                                                                       37                ACID DYES - USE:       • The ...
2004                                                                     38   ACID DYES for Wool, Nylon & Silk       • Sel...
2004                                                                           39             Classification of dyes   Dye...
2004                                                                             40                 Classification of dyes...
2004                                                                  41          Dye for Other Fibres:       • Disperse  ...
2004                                                                          42                Classification of dyesDye ...
2004                                                                         43            DISPERSE DYES       • The intro...
2004                                                                      44           DISPERSE DYES - USE:       • Basica...
2004                                                                          45           Classification of dyes Dye     ...
2004                                                                       46           CATIONIC & BASIC DYES       • MAUV...
2004                                                                        47 CATIONIC & BASIC DYES - USE:       Basic dy...
2004                                                             48                   Cationic dyes• Cationic dyes for dye...
2004                                                                                49          Chronology of Dye Companie...
2004                                                                    50        Colour Formulation• The choice of a spec...
2004                                                           51                  Colour Formulation                     ...
2004                                                                    52                                                ...
2004                                                                     53       Colour Formulation       • In actual pro...
2004                                                                        54          Colour Fastness       • A good dye...
2004                                                               55       Visual Assessment methods           Introducti...
2004                                                                      56       Principle of using Grey Scale       • T...
2004                                                             57       How to use Grey Scale         Introduction to Co...
2004                                                                  58          Common colour fastness:       • Launderi...
2004       Dye classes’ colour fastness                                 59               properties            Introductio...
2004                                                                     60                 Application of                ...
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Dyes classification

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Transcript of "Dyes classification"

  1. 1. 2004 1Dye classificationDyeing processes Daniel 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  2. 2. 2004 2 You can not assume that to dye any piece of fabric to a given colour, all you need to do is use a dye of that particular colour. No dye will dye all textile fabrics satisfactorily. This means, simply, that you must choose a dye that will suit the material (or a material that will suit the dye). Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  3. 3. 2004 3 Classification of Dyes • No single class of dye can dye all fibres. • A specific class of dye can only be applied to a given type of textile fibre. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  4. 4. 2004 4 Dye for Cellulosic Fibres: • Direct Dyes • Azoic Dyes • Reactive Dyes • Sulphur dyes • Vat Dyes Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  5. 5. 2004 5 Classification of dyes Dye Main General description Class application Direct Simple application; Mainly used for cheap; complete cellulosic fibres; colour range; can also be moderate colour applied on fastness but can be rayon, silk & improved by after- wool. treatment with copper salts & cationic fixing agents. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  6. 6. 2004 6 DIRECT DYES • Direct dyes for Cotton, Viscose, Silk & Nylon • Easy to dye - require only cooking salt & very hot to boiling water. • Dyes have a good light fastness but only moderate wash fastness . • It is possible to improve on wash fastness by after-treatment of dyed article with dye-fixing agent. • These dyes are principally used for “not so expansive” products or product with fewer washes such as T-shirts, curtains & theatre productions. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  7. 7. 2004 7 DIRECT DYES Yellow Pink Brown Turquoise Orange Red Violet Black Forrest Fushia Grey Green Green Scarlet Blue Wine China Blue Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  8. 8. 2004 8 Classification of dyes MainDye Class General description applicationAzoic Complicated application; Mainly(Naphthol) limited colour range (red, applied on orange, navy among the cellulosic best); bright shade at fibres, moderate cost; generally especially good wet fastness but on brilliant moderate to poor dry red shade. cleaning & rubbing fastness; also called naphthol dye due to the use of naphthol, or ice colour because & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan Introduction to Coloration of the usage of ice during application.
  9. 9. 2004 9 Azo Dye Synthesis Coupling• Blue component can be coupled with yellow or green component to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan Introduction to form two different dyestuffs.
  10. 10. 2004 10 AZOIC DYES• The word Azoic is the distinguishing name given to insoluble azo dyes that are not applied directly as dyes, but are actually produced within the fibre itself.• This is done with impregnating the fibre with one component of the dye, followed by treatment in another component, thus forming the dye within the fibre. O HO C NH NH2 CH3 NO 2 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  11. 11. 2004 11 AZOIC DYES • The formation of this insoluble dye within the fabric makes it very fast to washing. • The deposition of the dye on the surface of the fibre produces poor rub fastness, but once the loose dye is removed by boiling the fabric in soap, the dyeing becomes one of the fastest available. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  12. 12. 2004 12 AZOIC DYES • Normally it is dyed in cold for all natural fibers • Naphtol dyes are not sold in the form of a "finished dye" but in form of their components (Insoluble azo base & fast colour coupling compound) which combine on the fibre to produce a water insoluble azo dye of exceptional fastness properties. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  13. 13. 2004 following chart of basic range shows only a very limited number of colours13Thethat can be obtained by using combinations of Naphtol & Diazo.DIAZO SALT NAPHTOL G D or AS BO BT GR CHROME PALEORANGE GC ORANGE RED ORANGE APRICOT YELLOW BROWN CADMIUMRED RC BRILLIANT RED DEEP RED YELLOW YELLOW CRIMSONRED B CRIMSON OCHRE LAKE REDDISHBORDEAUX GP CLARET BORDEAUX YELLOW CHROMEVIOLET B VIOLET DARK VIOLET YELLOW GOLDEN DARKBLUE BB OR 3B BLUE NAVY BLUE GREEN YELLOW BROWNGREEN BB RED RUST BLUE GREEN DARK GREENGREEN GT LEAF GREEN BLUE GREEN Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev SharanBLACK B BLACK BLACK BLACK
  14. 14. 2004 14 Classification of dyesDye Main General descriptionClass applicationVat Difficult to apply (requires Commonly reduction treatment to make used for high soluble in water & oxidation to quality cotton resume insoluble state after goods, e.g. dyeing); most expensive; towel; incomplete colour range (strong specially used in blue & green but weak in in the dyeing brilliant red); good all round of denim fastness except indigo & fabric. sulphurised vat species; tending to decrease in topopularity due toSharan Introduction Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev increasing use of reactive dyes.
  15. 15. 2004 15 VAT DYES • INDIGO, probably the oldest dye known to man, is one of the most important members of this group. • Natural indigo extracted from the plant Indigofera tinctorie was used by the Egyptians in 200 BC. • The first synthetic indigo was introduced to the textile trade in 1897 & had the effect of completely replacing the natural product. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  16. 16. 2004 16 VAT DYES • Although the vat dyes may be divided into 3 chemical groups, they are similar in that they are insoluble in water & become water soluble when reduced in the presence of an alkali. • After dyeing, the fabric is oxidized & the dye again becomes water insoluble. • Because of the time consuming & costly procedure in reducing vat dye into a water- soluble complex, dye manufacturers have produced a stabilized water-soluble vat dye. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  17. 17. 2004 17 VAT DYES• This dye can be applied to cotton & viscose rayon by the methods used by applying direct cotton dyes.• After the dyeing, a simple treatment restores the vat dye to its normal insoluble state.• Solubilized vat dyes have an affinity for cellulose & animal fibres.Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  18. 18. 2004 18 VAT DYES - USE: • Vat dyes are used in cotton dyeing where high wash & boil fastness required. • Because of the high alkali concentration in the dye bath, pure vat dyes cannot be used on animal fibres, (wool, natural silk, & various hairs). • Bright red is absent in vat dye range. • Solubilized vat dyes, not requiring the presence of alkali, can be used for dyeing on animal fibres. • Because they are dyed at low temperatures, they are used in Indonesian batik dyeing for green shades. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  19. 19. 2004 19 VAT DYES • When the ultimate in wash & boil fastness is required. • Also used to dye over fibre reactive dyes for multi-layered dyeing. YELLOW GREEN ORANGE OLIVE B RED BROWN BLUE NAVY VIOLET BLACK Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  20. 20. 2004 20 Classification of dyesDye Main General descriptionClass applicationSulphur Difficult to apply Mostly used for (application similar to vat heavy cellulosic dyes); cheap particularly for goods in dark dark shade; incomplete shades. black, navy, khaki & colour range (strong in brown but no bright shade); poor washing & rubbing fastness & sensitive to chlorine; may cause fabric rendering of cellulose upon storage Rajeev Sharan Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- (aging).
  21. 21. 2004 21 SULPHUR DYES • The first Sulphur dye was discovered in France in 1873, & further work done by Raymond Videl enabled the manufacture of Videl black". • Its outstanding fastness to light, washing & boiling far surpassed any cotton black known at that time. • The general disadvantage of the Sulphur dyes that they produce dull shades & lack a red. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  22. 22. 2004 22 SULPHUR DYES • The main advantage lays in their cheapness, ease of application & good wash-fastness. • In their normal state, Sulphur dyes are insoluble in water but are readily soluble in the solution of Sodium Sulphide. • In this form they have high affinity to the all cellulose fibres. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  23. 23. 2004 23 SULPHUR DYES - USE: • The use of Sulphur dyes is restricted to dull brown, Khaki & Navy shades, where a good wash but not boil-fastness is required. • Most Khaki & Navy overalls are dyed with Sulphur dyes. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  24. 24. 2004 24 SULPHUR DYES - USE: • An outstanding member of this family is Sulphur black. • It dyes all cellulose fibres, but particularly linen & jute, to a lustrous & deep black with excellent wash & light fastness. • Sulphur dyes are dyed from a dye bath containing Sodium Sulphide & common or Glaubers Salt, & are oxidized by airing or with some oxidizing agents (Sodium Bichromate or Hydrogen Peroxide) in a fresh bath. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  25. 25. 2004 25 Classification of dyesDye General description Main applicationClassReactive Easy application; Commonly used for moderate price; all cellulosic goods complete colour range; especially in knitted good fastness due to fabric batchwise direct reaction with dyeing; selective fibres. dyes can also be applied on wool, silk & rayon; increasingly used in printing due to good fastness. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  26. 26. 2004 26 REACTIVE DYES • This is an entirely class of dye introduced to the market in 1956. • They react chemically with the fibre being dyed & if correctly applied, cannot be removed by washing or boiling. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  27. 27. 2004 27 REACTIVE DYES • The main feature of the dyestuff is its low affinity to cellulose; therefore large amounts of salt are required to force its deposition on he fabric. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  28. 28. 2004 28 REACTIVE DYES• After this has been achieved, addition of alkali causes the deposited dyes to react with the fibre.• Only a successfully concluded reaction guarantees a fast dyeing.• Basically there are two types of reactive dyes: the cold dyeing & hot dyeing types. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  29. 29. 2004 29 REACTIVE DYES - USE:• Reactive dyes are used where bright dyeing with high light & wash fastness is required.• Cold dyeing is used extensively in batik work.• Although some reactive dyestuffs have been specially modified to dye wool, their main usage is in dyeing cotton linen & viscose rayon.Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  30. 30. 2004 Yellow 2GL 30 Golden Yellow 2RL REACTIVE DYES Orange 2R Scarlet • Cold water fibre Red BG (primary) reactive dyes, suitable Red 4B (bluish red) for dyeing on cotton, Red 8B (magenta) silk, jute, rayon & Rubinole 5B hessian. Brilliant Blue 2R Brilliant Blue BL • Cannot be used on Violet 2R synthetics or fabric Turquoise 2G that has been coated Navy GRL with resin or drip-dry Brown 2R finish. Brilliant Green BL Black B (blue Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan base) Black 2B (green base)
  31. 31. 2004 31 Dye for Protein Fibres: • Acid Dyes • Metal- complex Dyes • Chrome Dyes Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  32. 32. 2004 32 Classification of dyes Dye General Main Class description application Acid Easy application; Commonly complete colour used for wool, range with very silk & nylon. good bright shades; fastness properties may vary among individual dyes. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  33. 33. 2004 33 ACID DYES • These dyes comprise a large number of dyes used for the dyeing of wool, silk & nylon. • They vary considerably in their basic chemical structure, but have one common feature - they dye from an acid dye bath. • All acid dyes can be grouped in 3 sub groups: a. Level dyeing acid dyes b. Acid milling dyes c. Pre-metalized dyes Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  34. 34. 2004 34 ACID DYES a. Level dyeing acid dyes: • These dyes produce bright dyeing. • The main feature is their good leveling properties. • They are dyed from a dye bath containing strong acids (Sulphuric or Formic acid). • These dyes exhibit low wash & light fastness. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  35. 35. 2004 35 ACID DYESb. Acid milling dyes:• Selected because of their high & light fastness & are extensively used for dyeing woolen fabrics that are subsequently milled.• These dyes require great care in application because uneven dyeings are difficult or impossible to rectify.• The dye bath requires the presence of weak acid (acetic acid) or acid releasing salts (ammonium sulphate or ammonium acetate) from which acid is liberated during dyeing. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  36. 36. 2004 36 ACID DYES c. Pre-metalized dyes • These dyes represent an extension of mordant dyes. • The metal component being already incorporated in the dye during manufacturing process. • Very good light fastness even in pale shades Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  37. 37. 2004 37 ACID DYES - USE: • The family of acid dyes is very large & diverse, varying widely in their methods of dyeing, application & end use of the dyed fabric. • A choice of dyes should be made considering sometimes-incompatible factors: - level dyeing, fastness, brightness & ease of application. • Care must be taken to use the appropriate method as prescribed for a given dye. • A number of acid dyes are also used to dye nylon. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  38. 38. 2004 38 ACID DYES for Wool, Nylon & Silk • Selection of milling & pre-metallised dyes. Dyeing at boil with addition of Acetic Acid. Bright strong colours. Mixes of primary colours (*) produce large range of tertiary colours. Dyes have very high light & wash fastness. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  39. 39. 2004 39 Classification of dyes Dye Main General description Class application Metal- Relatively difficult to Mainly used complex apply; expensive; for wool & complete colour range but Nylon. duller shade than acid dyes; good fastness due to high molecular size & metal complex structure. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  40. 40. 2004 40 Classification of dyes General Main Dye Class description application Chrome Complicated Mainly used for Mordant application; wool products expensive; complete especially for colour range but the end use of very dull shade; carpet. good all round fastness. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  41. 41. 2004 41 Dye for Other Fibres: • Disperse Dyes for Polyester, Acetate • Cationic Dyes for Acrylic Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  42. 42. 2004 42 Classification of dyesDye Main General descriptionClass applicationDisperse Require skill in application Mostly used (either by carrier or under high for polyester temperature); moderate price; & acetate; complete colour range; limited can also be solubility in water (normally applied on dispersed in water for nylon & application); good fastness Acrylic. after reduction clearing treatment; sublimation property. to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan Introduction
  43. 43. 2004 43 DISPERSE DYES • The introduction of a new regenerated cellulose acetate fibre in 1920 led to the necessity to develop an entirely new range of dyes. • It was found that acetate (or Celanese) fibre had hardly any affinity for water-soluble dyes. • A new dyeing principle was introduced: dyeing with water dispersed coloured organic substances. • These finely coloured particles are applied in aqueous dispersion to the acetate material & actually dissolved in the fibres. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  44. 44. 2004 44 DISPERSE DYES - USE: • Basically developed for dyeing of acetate fibres, Disperse dyes are also used for dyeing of polyamide (Nylon) & acrylic (Orlon & Acrylan) fibres. • With the addition of carriers or swelling agents these dyes are also used in dyeing of Polyester (Terylene, Dacron, etc.) Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  45. 45. 2004 45 Classification of dyes Dye Main General description Class application Basic Careful application Mainly used (Cationic) required to prevent unlevel for acrylic. dyeing & adverse effect in hand-feel; complete colour range with very good brilliant shades. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  46. 46. 2004 46 CATIONIC & BASIC DYES • MAUVENE, the first to be discovered by Perkin, was a basic dye & most of the dyes which followed, including magenta, malachite green & crystal violet, were of the same type. • “Basic dyes” dye wool & silk from a dye bath containing acid but dye cotton fibres only in the presence of a mordant usually a metallic salt that increases affinity of the fabric for the dye. • Basic dyes include the most brilliant of all the synthetic dyes known, but unfortunately they have very poor light & wash fastness. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  47. 47. 2004 47 CATIONIC & BASIC DYES - USE: Basic dyes will dye wool & silk from an acid bath & are used where brightness is of prime consideration. With the introduction of cotton dyes possessing higher fastness properties their use for dyeing cotton has diminished. Basic dyes are used extensively for dyeing cut flowers, dried flowers, also dyeing jute sisal, coir & wood (toys). With the introduction of acrylic fibre a new range of modified basic dyes – “cationic dyes” were perfected for dyeing of this material. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  48. 48. 2004 48 Cationic dyes• Cationic dyes for dyeing acrylic (Acrilan, Courtelle, Orlon) paper, wood & dried flowers. Also used for dyeing silk & silk flowers in very brilliant colours. YELLOW BLUE ORANGE TURQUOISE RED VIOLET PINK GREEN RHODAMINE & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan Introduction to Coloration BLACK
  49. 49. 2004 49 Chronology of Dye Companies ICI Zeneca BASF Mobay Miles Bayer DyStar DyStar Sumitomo Hoechst Sodyeco Sandoz Sandoz Clariant Ciba + Geigy Ciba-Geigy Ciba Crompton and Knowles Yorkshire Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  50. 50. 2004 50 Colour Formulation• The choice of a specific colour for a particular material is the responsibility of the textile designer or colourist who perceives the colour to be in conformity with the fashion requirement.• It is the job of the textile dyer to match the designer ’s colour with the proper dyes or pigments as well as to meet the colour fastness requirements for the specific end-use of the material.• In brief,the designer ’s role is part of the world of artistry & creativity, while the dyer ’s role is in the world of science & technology. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  51. 51. 2004 51 Colour Formulation • Matching of colour shades by the dyer requires the skilful blending & formulation of different dyes & pigments, as well as an understanding of the nature of fibres & the numerous chemicals needed to carry the dyeing process. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  52. 52. 2004 52 Colour Formulation • Colour match recipes are first developed on a small laboratory basis. • Once the dyer has formulated a colour match & achieved a satisfactory sampling (often known as the lab-dip), this becomes the standard which all future dye lots or batches must follow. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  53. 53. 2004 53 Colour Formulation • In actual production, however, each dye lot is more or less different in shade from all other lots. • This lot-to-lot shade variation is caused by several factors such as differences in dyes / auxiliaries concentration, fabric lots & different dyeing machine settings, etc. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  54. 54. 2004 54 Colour Fastness • A good dye must withstand the subsequent treatment (e.g. laundering, dry cleaning, etc.) or environmental wearing (e.g.rubbing,light exposure, etc.). • The degree to which a dyed material can withstand such treatments & wearing is called colour fastness. • No dye or pigment is fast in all colour fastness. • Only a careful selection & formulation of dyes & auxiliaries can result in a desirable dyeing, & conform with the colour fastness requirements. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  55. 55. 2004 55 Visual Assessment methods Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  56. 56. 2004 56 Principle of using Grey Scale • The result of a colorfastness test is rated by visually comparing the difference in color or the contrast between the un- treated & treated specimens with the differences represented by the Scale. • The colorfastness grade is equal to the gray scale step which is judged to have the same color or contrast difference. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  57. 57. 2004 57 How to use Grey Scale Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  58. 58. 2004 58 Common colour fastness: • Laundering (washing), • light exposure, • dry cleaning, • perspiration & • rubbing (crocking). Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  59. 59. 2004 Dye classes’ colour fastness 59 properties Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan
  60. 60. 2004 60 Application of Pigments Popular especially in printing. Advantages : • easy to apply with good shade matching from lot to lot; • full colour range; & • can be applied on all textile fibres & their blends. Introduction to Coloration & Finishing- Rajeev Sharan

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