Group members address questions such as what ,when,where ,how of situation in which an which an incident developed.Clues are trackled down if they seem to offer reliable insight into why of the situation.And then decision is taken accordingly.
Because companies have made large dollar investments in training and education and view training as a strategy to be successful, they expect the outcomes or benefits related to training to be measurable.
LEVEL QUESTIONS REACTION Were the participants pleased with the program? LEARNING What did the participants learn in the program? BEHAVIOR Did the participants change their behavior based on what was learnt? RESULTS Did the change in plan positively effect the organization?
REACTION OUTCOMES: Contents, materials, method, activity. CAPABILITY OUTCOMES: Outcomes against participant’s expectation. APPLICATION OUTCOME: Application of training in work setting. WORTH OUTCOME: Organizations’ benefits in terms of money, efforts, time and resources.
IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVE: New knowledge, skills and attitudes required to reach intermediate objective. INTERMEDIATE OBJECTIVE: Change in employees work balance necessary for ultimate objective. ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE: Particular deficiency in the organization that will be eliminated.
This approach highlights that the evaluation of the programme should judge:
Change in behavior,
REACTION: A satisfaction rating that asks the trainees how valuable they found the program? TESTING: Pre- and Post-programme measurements in terms of knowledge and skills improvement. APPLICATION: Extent to which skills applied on the job and the results achieved. BUSINESS RESULTS: What IBM expected from the programme in the form of a return that?
ENTRY CAPABILITY: Prerequisites for the program evaluated. END OF COURSE PERFORMANCE: Whether trainees achieved the desired outcomes? MASELEY JOB PERFORMANCE: Whether trainees exhibit mastery performance under normal job condition? ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: Which programme participants meet or exceed the organizational targets?
CONTEXT EVALUATION: Needs analysis, this assists in forming goals. INPUT EVALUATION: Policies, budgets, schedules, proposals and procedures aids in programme planning. PROCESS EVALUATION: Reaction sheets, rating scales and analysis of existing records- guide’s implementation. PRODUCT EVALUATION: Measures and interprets the attainment of objective- helps in recycling decisions.
Brainstorming is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution to a problem. Although brainstorming has become a popular group technique, researchers have generally failed to find evidence of its effectiveness for enhancing either quantity or quality of ideas generated. brainstorming groups are little more effective than other types of groups, and they are actually less effective than individuals working independently.
Advantages ➔ Listening exercise that allows creative thinking for new ideas. ➔ Encourages full participation because all ideas are equally recorded. ➔ Draws on group's knowledge and experience. ➔ Spirit of cooperation is created. ➔ One idea can spark off other ideas.
Disadvantages ➔ Can be unfocused. ➔ Needs to be limited to 5-7 minutes. ➔ Students may have difficulty getting away from known reality. ➔ If not managed well, criticism and negative evaluation may occur. ➔ Value to students depends in part on their maturity level.