Prepared by: Rajeev Ranjan Rajeev Ranjan English Language Teacher B.ED(ENG)& PGDTE English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad Email. Id:- email@example.com 2/16/2011 4
Multiple Intelligences is an approach of teaching and learning. "If a child is not learning the way you are teaching, then you must teach in the way the child learns." Rita Dunn, (from Anne Bruetsch'sMultiple Intelligences Lesson Plan Book) 2/16/2011 5
An introduction Howard Gardner is an American Developmental Psychologist. He defined “Multiple Intelligence” in the “Frames of Mind” (1983). HG included the last two intelligences in “ Intelligence Reframed” (1999) 2/16/2011 7
Howard Gardner states that--- I now conceptualize an intelligence as a bio-psychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture...intelligences are not things that can be seen or counted. Instead, they are potentials—presumably, neural ones—that will or will not be activated, depending upon the value of a particular culture, the opportunities available in that culture, and the personal decisions made by individuals and/or their families, school-teachers, and others. (Gardner 1999) 2/16/2011 8
Intelligences are “part of our birthright." “No two people have exactly the same intelligences in the same combination.“ & “Our heroes teach us the way of courage. They look straight into the eyes of what others fear and speak out with their best voice.They listen intently to those whose voice is at times unsure. Our greatest heroes, with fearless eyes and caring heart, show us that there is power within us all.” 2/16/2011 9
HG proposes 9 stars of Multiple Intelligence. 2/16/2011 10
According to Gardner: All human beings possess all nine intelligences in varying amounts. Each person has a different intellectual composition. We can improve education by addressing the multiple intelligences of our students. These intelligences are located in different areas of the brain and can either work independently or together. These intelligences may define the human species. Drawing a picture, composing, or listening to music, watching a performance -- these activities can be a vital door to learning -- as important as writing and mathematics. 2/16/2011 11
Nine Stars of MI Verbal-Linguistic Logical/Mathematical Visual/Spatial Bodily/Kinesthetic Musical/Rhythmic Intrapersonal Interpersonal Naturalist Existentialist 2/16/2011 12
Learn best by saying, hearing and seeing words
Learning Activities of Verbal- Linguistic Performing poetry read aloud. Dictionary Game (find an unfamiliar word, challenge everyone to write imaginary definitions, read imaginary definitions along with real ones). Exploring a dictionary of synonyms to attune writers to fine differences in word meanings. Write critical analyses of famous art, music or drama. Debate controversial political or historical decisions, for example, High Court , Supreme Court decision, Government Decision 2/16/2011 15
Verbal- Linguistic Write math story problems for others to solve. Write poetry . Write an imaginative dialogue between two opposing political factions (current or historical). Class discussions of historical and contemporary issues in areas ranging from science, history, politics, etc. 2/16/2011 16
Visual/Spatial Linguistic: “Intelligence of pictures and images” VSL Intelligence: The ability to comprehend shapes and images in three dimensions Enjoys reading and writing Good at putting puzzles together Good at interpreting pictures, graphs and charts Enjoys drawing, painting and the visual arts Recognizes patterns easily 2/16/2011 18
Learning Activities of VSL Intelligence Examine alternate endings to a story to see which one gives a "sense of wholeness". Examine the language of architects, sculptors and other visual thinkers to see how it differs from common usage. Observe, discuss and write about slides showing scenery, architectural landmarks, art works, advertisements, cultural artifacts and people. Analyze the "spatial dimensions" of our language (under the weather, beside himself, feeling low, etc.). Observe the effect of font and typeface on the mood of expressive qualities of a piece. 2/16/2011 19
VSL Intelligence Have an artist talk to the class about his or her work. Visit a work of architecture that creates a special space. Students take notes using visual organizers such as flow charts, Venn Diagrams, caricature and matrices. Students create visual metaphors (charts, posters, etc.), representing historical and current events. Analyze art, posters and other visual media for evidence of political distortion, faulty logic, etc. 2/16/2011 20
Learning Activities of L/M Intelligence Have students write about the use of logical/mathematical thinking on the news and in science reporting. Writing exercises that focus on precision, fact checking, organization, focus, revision, outlining and analytical writing. Trace the patterns of historical development in, for example, the Old West. Predict what will happen next in a story. Use the scientific method for discovery (science lab). Analyze a culture’ development chronologically. Use a graphic organizer to analyze a scene/character in a play. . 2/16/2011 23
L/M Intelligence Students are given geographic, demographic, topographic and other data and are told to create a city on a given site, or even choose the site of a city based on these and other factors. Students construct a timeline of historical events. Students are asked to graph and analyze a process (economic trends/processes, natural processes such as chemical reactions, population changes, etc.). Students devise experiments to learn about everything from basic electricity to Einstein’s special relativity theory (mind experiments). Students conduct chemistry experiments involving prediction, detection of patterns, precise charting of results and careful titration and measurement techniques. 2/16/2011 24
Bodily- Kinesthetic Intelligence: The intelligence of the whole body and the hands. BK Intelligence: Expertise in using one’s body to express ideas and feelings as well as the facility to handle objects skilfully.
It involves a natural sense of how one’s body should act and react in a demanding physical situation, including a sense of timing, a clear sense of goal.
Tends to remember by doing, rather than hearing or seeing
Learning Activities of B-K Intelligence Writing that closely describes an action or characterizes a person through gesture, rhythm and ways of moving. Use improvisation or mime to display an imaginary object to the class, then pass it on to the next person who will then transform it into a different object Interview people with kinaesthetic gifts such as athletes, gymnasts, dance artists, etc. Act out great moments or historical events from the past. Act out sun/lunar/planetary rotation/revolution. 2/16/2011 27
B-K Intelligence Learn to play games that are popular in different cultures. Physically embody geometry formula/fractions. Create a living painting/sculpture of an idea or feeling. Students setup a mock court or legislative assembly in the classroom, organizing in necessary subgroups and moving about the room to transact business, initiate discussion, get signatures, etc. Students play the game Scissors, Rock, Paper to simulate the development of capitalism and the Marxist critique of that system. 2/16/2011 28
Musical Intelligence : The intelligence of tone, rhythm, and timbre. M Intelligence: The capacity to perceive, compose, discriminate, transform and express musical forms (rhythm, pitch, harmony, timbre, etc.). Enjoy singing and playing musical instruments Recognizes musical patterns and tones easily Good at remembering songs and melodies Rich understanding of musical structure, rhythm and notes 2/16/2011 30
Learning Activities of Musical Intelligence Have students compare and contrast different recordings of a single piece of classical music, for example, Beethoven’s 5th Symphony. Intersperse music while students write about personal moments and themes in their life. Compare their writing before and after the musical "interlude". Have students interview several kinds of musicians and compare how these people think musically and create music. Learn about different periods of history by analyzing their music. Illustrate a piece of literature with music, sound and rhythm. Make a music tape to accompany different natural processes. 2/16/2011 31
Learning Activities of Musical Intelligence Write math operations, formulas and problem solving raps. Learn about math concepts embedded in musical/dance pieces. A music learning center where students listen to music while studying spelling words. Study songs and their uses from different cultures. Analyze and study song lyrics to gain greater cultural and historical understanding. Listen to music from various periods and cultures and analyze its elements as well as historical context. Create advertising jingles to sell a product and relate the jingle to the product/company image and target audience. 2/16/2011 32
Interpersonal Intelligence : The intelligence of social interactions I Intelligence: The ability to perceive and make distinctions in the moods, intentions, motivations and feelings of other people.
The ability to interact with others, understand them and interpret their behaviour.
Learning Activities of Interpersonal Intelligence Writing from personal experience (journals), writing about another person, writing to a specific audience and presenting an issue in terms of its impact on a single person. Composing of notebooks, diaries, journals for personal reflection and coming to terms with other’s behaviours. A learning centre where children work together to read material and complete a worksheet or answer a group of questions. Jigs awing, STADS, cooperative learning, group investigation, numbered heads, etc. Joint story telling with a partner. Conduct interviews with people from different cultures. 2/16/2011 35
Interpersonal Intelligence Panel discussions where students assume the role/perspective of a societal group (feminists, business executives, gays, etc.). Students create dramatic presentations to "bring to life" term such as totalitarianism, democracy, etc. Students create their own classroom bill of rights and rules. Students participate in Center Circles, problem solving class meetings, etc. Students are encouraged, for example through literature circles, to work collaboratively in small groups. 2/16/2011 36
Interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence are "inextricably" interconnected since true self knowledge requires a sensitivity to others and vice versa 2/16/2011 38
Intrapersonal: The intelligence of self-knowledge Intrapersonal Intelligence: The cognitive ability to understand our self- access to one’s own feeling life, the capacity to discriminate feelings, to find symbols for them and to draw upon them to guide one’s own life Good at analyzing their strengths and weaknesses Enjoys analyzing theories and ideas Excellent self-awareness Clearly understands the basis for their own motivations and feelings 2/16/2011 39
Learning Activities of Intrapersonal Intelligence All activities listed for interpersonal intelligence. Imagine having dialogues with past historical figures. Write a reflection on a life lesson derived from some piece of class literature or reading. Think and write about how math concepts help in daily living. Write a reflection on personal tastes in art, music, dance and/or drama. A learning center involving a fantasy writing activity, for example, a journey to Mars or a journey to the center of the Earth. Mock trial, for example, the Spanish Inquisition, where students would act out roles as jury, juror, accuser and accused. 2/16/2011 40
Intrapersonal Intelligence Students create their own classroom bill of rights and rules. Students participate in Center Circles, problem solving class meetings, etc. Students experience the sting of discrimination during a simulation of a "separate but equal" classroom in the American South during the 1950s. Students are asked to do a cultural portrait that involves interviewing a cultural role model and reporting on a culture’s "salient" characteristics. Students are asked to examine and discuss gender stereotypes found in their favourite music. 2/16/2011 41
Naturalistic Intelligence: Finding Patters and Relationships to Nature According to Gardner, individuals who are high in this type of intelligence are more in tune with nature and are often interesting in nurturing, exploring the environment and learning about other species. These individuals are said to be highly aware of even subtle changes to their environments.
Interested in subjects such as botany, biology and zoology
Good at categorizing and cataloguing information easily
May enjoy camping, gardening, hiking and exploring the outdoors
Doesn’t enjoy learning unfamiliar topics that have no connection to nature
Existential Intelligence Sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, why do we die, and how did we get here. Ability to contemplate phenomena or questions beyond sensory data, such as the infinite and infinitesimal. Careers which suit those with this intelligence include mathematicians, physicists, scientists, cosmologists and philosophers. 2/16/2011 45
Potential Career Choices Multiple Intelligence and its Product :-Potential Career Choices Visual-Spatial Intelligence: Architect,Artist,Engineer Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence: Writer / Journalist, Lawyer, Teacher Logical - Mathematical Intelligence: Scientist, Mathematician, Computer programmer, Engineer, Accountant Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence: Dancer, Builder, Sculptor, Actor 2/16/2011 46
Does MI theory help learners learn better???????????????? In Gardner's view, learning is both a social and psychological process. When students understand the balance of their own multiple intelligences they begin To manage their own learning To value their individual strengths Teacher understands the level of students. If a teacher knows the potential of each learner, s/he maximizes learning for the betterment of student i.e. will help to create opportunities where maximum potentiality can be explored. Students that exhibit comprehension through rubrics, portfolios, or demonstrations come to have an authentic understanding of achievement. 2/16/2011 48
Role of a teacher Teacher pushes his/her students from behind rather than pulling them from in front. S/he works with learners, rather than for them. S/he explores what pupils explore, discover what they discover, and often learn what they learn. Teacher’s satisfaction lies in learners’ enthusiasm for learning and independence, rather than in their test scores and ability to sit quietly Teacher becomes more creative and multimodal in his own thinking and his own learning The teacher’s role in the classroom should become less directive and more facilitative 2/16/2011 49
Impact of Multiple Intelligence in teaching and learning
Development of responsibility, self-direction and independence over the course of the year
Cooperative learning skills improve in all students
Academic achievement improve over course of the year
Opportunities for authentic learning based on students' needs, interests and talents
Impact of Multiple Intelligence in teaching and learning
The multiple intelligence classroom acts like the "real" world.
Parent and community involvement in a school may increase. This happens as students demonstrate work before panels and audiences.
Students become more active, involved learners.
Students develop responsibility, self-reliance and independence as they take an active role in shaping their own learning experiences.
Impact of Multiple Intelligence in teaching and learning
Students will be able to demonstrate and share their strengths.
Building strengths gives a student the motivation to be a "specialist”.
Teaching- learning process is for understanding. Students accumulate positive educational experiences and the capability for creating solutions to problems in life.
Students become balanced individuals who can function as members of their culture. Classroom activities that teach to the intelligences foster deep understanding about the essential questions of life, such as: How does one lead a good life?
Designing a multiple intelligences lesson A great and challenging task for a teacher to prepare lesson plan for multiple intelligence where every learner should shine like a bright and unique star in the sky. However, it is really a learning experience for a teacher. He certainly grow day by day as a good teacher. , Lazear (1991) created a so called basic developmental sequence that can be considered an alternative to the general syllabus. It contains four stages: 2/16/2011 53
Lazear (1991) Stage1: Awaken the intelligence. A broad variety of sensory input should create students who are ready for the following lesson Stage2: Amplify the students. Students are supposed to tell, share and bring their own experiences and objects into the class and discussed them. Stage 3: Teach with/for the intelligence. This stage is the general traditional teaching phase with work done in group project work sheet and the amplified intelligence is used to solve the tasks and therefore enhance the learning Stage 4: Transfer of the intelligence. Students reflects on their previous experiences and try to relate this tasks toother school or real life problems. 2/16/2011 54
In 1998 Nicholsen –Nelson suggested another approach to applying MI in language teaching. Play to your students strength. Material should be structured according to the strength of students. Variety id the spice of life. Try to let every students participate in as many different intelligence as possible during the lesson and also try to find out many variation to make more effective. Pick a tool suited to the job. Language has many different dimension, aspects or functions. These different facets should be linked to the most appropriate function. 2/16/2011 55
Nicholsen –Nelson’ Approach One size fits all. Everyone has to participate in all the exercises to make sure that they use their all senses. Be aware that different cultures value different intelligence. Language learning needs to increase more than the students IQ and is also a progress of understanding, communication and culture. 2/16/2011 56
Advantages of Multiple Intelligence Each student is seen as an individual with his own strengths and weaknesses. The teacher learns how each student may learn best and may give suitable tasks to teach the content demanded by the curriculum. Students may be motivated and confident when using an intelligence they know is one of their strengths. Due to many different tasks the students are more intrinsically motivated 2/16/2011 57
Every student has an opportunity to specialize and excel in at least one area
Each student learns the subject matter in a variety of different ways, thereby multiplying chances of successfully understanding and retaining that information.
Learner’s intellectual needs are met by constantly being challenged and frequently exercising their creativity. At the same time, their emotional needs are met by working closely with others. They develop diverse strengths, and they understand themselves better as individuals.
Conclusion Multiple Intelligence makes teaching and learning experiences sacred. It solves the purpose of education to educate the learners to become an expert in 21st century. It provides expertise and expertise always gives self-reliance, self confident which is the most required individual’s quality to survive in this global village. Margaret Mead once quoted that if we educate to engage the "whole gamut of human potentialities" in the classroom, society will benefit by enabling "each diverse human gift to find its fitting place.“ In fact, credit goes to Howard Gardner to maintain the status of Individual entity sacred. 2/16/2011 59
References How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School Eds. Bransford, Brown, and Cocking Multiple Intelligences Lesson Plan Book by Anne Bruetsch Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century by Howard Gardner Seven Ways of Knowing: Teaching for Multiple Intelligences by David Lazear http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/mi/index_sub7.html http://www.context.org/ICLIB/IC27/Campbell.htm http://teflpedia.com/Multiple_Intelligences#Musical_intelligence Campbell, L., B. Campbell, and D. Dickinson. (1992). Teaching and Learning Through Multiple Intelligences, Tucson, Ariz.: Zephyr Press. Gardner, H. (1987). Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Books. The “Bible" of Multiple Intelligences. 2/16/2011 61