Effect of Yoga & Meditation      to Heal out Stress of            Teachers                                             By ...
ABSTRACT“Effect of Yoga & Meditation to Heal out Stress of Teachers” presents wide spectrum of21st century teachers’ chall...
CONTENTS1.   Chapter1: Introduction to Yoga and Meditation:           (5-10)     (i)  Traditional Branches of Yoga     (ii...
(ix) What is Occupational stress?     (x)    Yoga Techniques     (xi) Method: Sample     (xii) Training Session at a Glanc...
Chapter 1: Introduction to Yoga & MeditationYoga is a physical, mental and spiritual discipline, originating in ancient In...
In fact, traditionally, yoga is a method joining the individual self with the Divine, UniversalSpirit or Cosmic Consciousn...
subset of those used to induce relaxation or altered states such as hypnosis, progressiverelaxation, and trance- induction...
Problem StatementBy dint of our experience as a teacher, a teacher- trainer and co-ordinator of an internationalorganizati...
II.   To help teachers to come out with better result III.   To maximize teachers’ work efficiency IV.    To analyze the e...
Chapter 2: Review of LiteratureA lot of space can be found in all the probable and possible areas to have thorough deepstu...
Calming and soothing down mind and body when in an unstable or burned out situation iscalled relaxation and methods that c...
Chapter 3: Methodology Men, Method and Materials are the pillars in education. If these three pillars are good enough, lea...
provide them guidance. Similarly activities of the individual can be improved on the basis ofevaluation.Stress of Teachers...
Colonel Public School is a GEMS Network School. GEMS Education is the largest privatekindergarten to grade 12 school opera...
Harmeet Kaur                     B.A.PGDHRM                        PREHarmeet Kaur                     M.A.(Punjabi), B.Ed...
V.    Planning, preparing and presenting lessons that cater for the needs of the whole range        within their class  VI...
health of teachers is a crucial issue to be tackled by educationists and all those concernedwith the teaching profession.P...
What is Stress?Stress is the “Wear and tear” our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changingenvironment. Ac...
Four Types of Stress:Acute Stress:Digestive problemsVital-Sign disturbances: rise in blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, swea...
Figure 1 Stress                  20
What is occupational Stress?Occupation related stress among working population is drastically increasingworldwide. Stress ...
number of workers and costs heavy financial losses, human sufferings and mental illness.Occupation related stress comes in...
Yoga and Meditation plays vital role reduce stress and increase work efficiency. A teacher ofinternational school has to r...
PRANAYAMA:Pranayama is a compound term (‘prana’ and ‘yama’) meaning the maintenance of prana in ahealthy throughout one’s ...
more pronounced. According to Patanjalis Yoga Sutra, pranayama enables the mind toacquire the capacity to concentrate on a...
twelve poses. Ideally, this yoga postures is to be repeated 12 times with 12 mantras.ASHTANGA NAMSKARBasics of yoga aim to...
Method: SampleThis study was conducted on a sample of 60 teachers. The participants of YMTP were allteachers ranging from ...
Training Session at a Glance: Theory & Practice2   Starting of Programme with Gaytri Mantra                               ...
3 Vajrasana              29
4 Yoga Mudrasan5 GEMS CPS Teacher at Training Session                                         30
Chapter 4: MeasureOccupational Stress Index was developed by Dr. A. K. Shrivastava & Dr. A. P. Sinha,Banaras Hindu Univers...
the yoga and meditation practices. The YMTP was an integral package of yogic toolsincluding selected Asanas, Pranayamas, Y...
Chapter 5: Implication of StudyYoga is suitable for all people from young age to old age from family men to sadhus.Rather ...
CounsellingCounselling is a wonderful 20th century invention. We live in a complex, busy andcontinuously changing world. I...
Chapter 6 : ConclusionIt may be concluded that yoga and meditation practice have a highly positive impactin the management...
Reference:   1. Bhavanani, Ananda, Balyogi. (2007). Yoga and Stress. Yoga Vigyana. MDNIY, 1, 1, 9-6   2. Cranwell, Ward & ...
PRE-COURSE INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIREPersonal InformationFamily name ________________First name(s) ____________________Date...
Yoga and Meditation InformationDo you use practice Yoga?                         Never/Often/less                         ...
How do you like to learn?Tick the right answer.(a) In YMTP do you like to practice :       1.     individually?           ...
Yoga and Meditation Programme Information(a) How do you want the instructions to take place?      (i) in Hindi      (ii) i...
(ii) 12 Days     (iii) 15 DaysFEED BACK QUESTIONS  1. How do you find this “Yoga and Meditation programmes” ?     (i) Very...
11. Was the venue of the course convenient for you?   (i)Yes       (ii) NoIf no, what should be the venue? _________12. Ho...
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Effect of Yoga and Meditation to Heal out Stress of Teachers

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Effect of Yoga and Meditation to Heal out Stress of Teachers

  1. 1. Effect of Yoga & Meditation to Heal out Stress of Teachers By Rajeev Ranjan PGDPC (Dr. HSGU, Sagar) PGDTE (EFLU, Hyderabad) B.ED (English) - (EFLU, Hyderabad) MA (English) – (BHU, VNS) UGD (Chinese)Rajeev Ranjan, presently Coordinator & Teacher Trainer at GEMS CPS has 6 years ofexperience in English Language Teaching especially developing teaching materials and teachertraining. He is keen interested in psychological counselling. It inspires him to think about theessence of yoga for the welfare of common man especially teacher community. 1
  2. 2. ABSTRACT“Effect of Yoga & Meditation to Heal out Stress of Teachers” presents wide spectrum of21st century teachers’ challenges in their day to day life and means to cope-up with thepersonal as well as professional stress.I firmly believe that in this modern era of anxiety and high expectation to perform thebest in this industrialized and materialistic global world. Yoga and Mediation play vitalrole to heal out individual’s stress. Modern world counts each and every moment ofindividual’s performance and contribution to a particular organization. People feel somuch stress in day to day life. They feel insecurity on daily basis. Meditation and Yogahelp individual to come up with the problem as well as prepare an individual to livehealthy, happy and prosperous life. 2
  3. 3. CONTENTS1. Chapter1: Introduction to Yoga and Meditation: (5-10) (i) Traditional Branches of Yoga (ii) Introduction to Meditation (iii) Statement of Intent (iv) Objective of Study2. Chapter 2: Review of Literature (11-12)3. Chapter 3: Methodology (13-31) (i) Stress of Teacher in International Organization (ii) School Teachers: Job Description and Activities (iii) Introduction to GEMS CPS (iv) Details of GEMS CPS Staffs (v) Activity of GEMS CPS staffs (vi) Teachers Role in the Society (vii) Problem Faced by School Teachers (viii) What is stress? 3
  4. 4. (ix) What is Occupational stress? (x) Yoga Techniques (xi) Method: Sample (xii) Training Session at a Glance4. Chapter 4: Measure (32-33) (i) Result and Discussion5. Chapter: Implication of Study (34) (i) Counselling6. Chapter: Conclusion (35)7. Reference (35)8. Evidence (i) School Certificate (ii) Pre- Course Information Questionnaire (iii) Feedback Questionnaire 4
  5. 5. Chapter 1: Introduction to Yoga & MeditationYoga is a physical, mental and spiritual discipline, originating in ancient India. The goal ofyoga, or of the person practicing yoga, is the attainment of a state perfect spiritual insightand tranquillity while meditating on the Hindu concept of divinity or Brahman. The word isassociated with meditative practices in Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism.The Sanskrit word ‘yoga’, the literal meaning of "yoke", from a root yuj meaning to join, tounite, or to attach. As a term for a system of abstract meditation or mental abstraction it wasintroduced by Patanjali the 2nd century BC. Someone who practices yoga or follows the yogaphilosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi or yogini.The goals of yoga are varied and range from improving health to achieving mokasha. Withinthe Hindu monist schools of Advaita, Vedanta, Shaivism and Jainism, the goal of yoga takesthe form of moksha, which is liberation from all worldly suffering and the cycle of birth anddeath (samsara), at which point there is a realization of identity with the Supreme Brahman.In the Mahabharata, the goal of yoga is variously described as entering the world of Brahma,as Brahman, or as perceiving the Brahman or Atman that pervades all things. For the bhaktischools of Vaishnavism, bhakti or service to Svayam Bhagwan itself may be the ultimate goalof the yoga process, where the goal is to enjoy an eternal relationship with Vishnu. 5
  6. 6. In fact, traditionally, yoga is a method joining the individual self with the Divine, UniversalSpirit or Cosmic Consciousness. Physical and mental exercises are designed to help achievethis goal, also called self-transcendence or enlightenment. On the physical level, yogapostures, called asanas, are designed to tone, strengthen and align the body. These posturesare performed to make the spine supple and healthy and to promote blood flow to all theorgans, glands and tissues, keeping all the bodily systems healthy. On the mental level, yogauses breathing techniques (pranayama) and meditation (dhyana) to quiet, clarify and disciplinethe mind. One should never forget that yoga is not a religion, but a way of living with healthand peace of mind. Beyond doubt Yoga originated in ancient India and is one of the longestsurviving philosophical systems in the world. It is the gift of the oldest Vedic philosophy tothe modern world. It is now an open secret that Yoga harmonizes mind with body thatresults in quantum benefits. Yoga through meditation works remarkably to achieve thisharmony. In fact these work together in achieving the common goal of unity of mind, bodyand spirit – a state of eternal bliss. This broadens outlook of a person towards life. Ouremotions seem to be associated with our mind and this is what makes human beingsdifferent from computer systems.TRADITIONAL BRANCHES OF YOGAUnder the Vedic system there are four main or primary yoga branches fromwhich most other types of yoga emerge.They are:1. Jnana Yoga - The path of wisdom. Covers Yama and Niyama and is thescience of acquiring proper knowledge.2. Bhakti Yoga - The Yoga of universal love and affection.3. Karma Yoga - The Yoga of selfless service that covers Pratyahra and isthe science of action.4. Raja Yoga - The highest Yoga. Covers Dharana, Dhyana, and Samashi and is the scienceof concentration and meditation.Introduction to MeditationThe word meditation is used to describe practices that self-regulate the body and mind,thereby affecting mental events by engaging a specific intentional set. These practices are 6
  7. 7. subset of those used to induce relaxation or altered states such as hypnosis, progressiverelaxation, and trance- induction techniques (Vaitl et al. 2005). The English wordmeditation comes from the Latin root word ‘ meditari’, which derives from the same root asthe word meaning- to heal. The practice of meditation set in motion process that leads to therestoration of a person’s physical, mental and spiritual well-being. The English connation ofthe word – meditation is therefore more associated with healing and relaxation(Adiswarananda, 2004).Meditation is also defined as concentration (Continuous thinking)and sometimes as contemplation (repetitive thinking). However, in yoigic understandingmeditation is not mere concentration but it is more than concentration. According to SwamiVivekanand – The power of attention of mind, when properly guided, and directed towardsthe internal world, will analyze the mind, and illuminate facts for us. The powers of mind arelike rays of light being dissipated; when they are concentrated they illuminate everything.the goal of meditation is complete absorption in the object of meditation(Samadhi), finallyleading to communion or union with the Ultimate Reality. The goal of meditation is thecessation of all miseries through the realization of the indwelling self, or ‘Purusa’, which isPure Consciousness. The benefits of meditation are threefold: physical, psychological andspiritual. I would like to state “Krishna” suggestion about Yoga.योग थ: कु कमा ण स गं य वा धनंजय । स य स यो: समो भू वा सम वं योग उ यते ।।(yoga-sthaḥ kuru karmani sanyugam tyaktvā dhananjaysiddhy-asiddhyoḥ samo bhutvā samatvam yoga ucyate)- Bhagavad Gita 2.48It means” "Be steadfast in yoga (yoga-sthaḥ), O Arjuna. Perform your duty (kuru karmani) andabandon all attachment (sangam) to success or failure (siddhy-asiddhyoḥ). Such evenness ofmind (samatvam) is called yoga."I firmly believe that in this modern era of anxiety and high expectation to perform the best inthis industrialized and materialistic global world. Yoga and Mediation play vital role to healout individual’s stress. Modern world counts each and every moment of individual’sperformance and contribution to a particular organization. People feel so much stress in dayto day life. They feel insecurity on daily basis. Meditation and Yoga help individual to comeup with the problem as well as prepare an individual to live healthy, happy and prosperouslife. 7
  8. 8. Problem StatementBy dint of our experience as a teacher, a teacher- trainer and co-ordinator of an internationalorganization with different personalities from different regions/states, I felt a great need touse “Yoga and Meditation” to heal out the stress of teachers. It will cater the various needs ofthe teachers in school.As a potential Counsellor/PGDPC participant at the Dr. Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya,Sagar, it is my prime duty to think about the best ways and means to heal out the mentalpressure of school teachers (since mental pressure in the private schools are very high and itis really difficult for the teachers to bear several tasks and problems at the same time) andhelp these teacher not only to be an effective teacher as well as facilitator but also to be goodhuman beings.Objective of Study:I have been working for last six years as a teacher trainer in various schools located indifferent regions in India. Everywhere I found that teachers are over burdened with differenttasks at school level. They felt embarrassing situation to handle multitasks on same day anddate. In fact, we are aware that in private organization, there are several factors which affectteachers’ personal as well as public life. Every day they have to perform same or other tasksi.e. syllabus completion, notebook correction, examination, discipline, completion of CCERegister as well as obeying boss meaningless order on daily basis. In nutshell, I can say thatteachers have to participate actively in “Scholastic and Co-scholastic Activity” on daily basis.Parents pose a difficult challenges before the teachers to develop their kids as hero of thesociety despite the students are cooperative or non cooperative. Teachers have really toughtime. As a coordinator I feel their pain very closely. In fact, my sole intention to provide thema sense of relief and maximize their efficiency level at the school.My objectives of this present study: I. To reduce the mental stress of teachers 8
  9. 9. II. To help teachers to come out with better result III. To maximize teachers’ work efficiency IV. To analyze the effect of Yoga and Meditation on work culture of teacher V. To compare and contrast the effect of Yoga and Meditation on teachers VI. To counsel teachers to perform betterVII. To counsel teachers for live better family lifeVIII. In fact, I’ll try my best to reach out final solutions of above mentioned problems through my present study. 9
  10. 10. Chapter 2: Review of LiteratureA lot of space can be found in all the probable and possible areas to have thorough deepstudy. An individual gets a number of opportunities to explore different research field. Yogaand Meditation are most scientific, practical and observable phenomena in not only in 21stcentury but right from the rise of civilization. India is the mother place of “ Yoga andMediation”. Of course, credit goes to Patanjali who explored the beauty of Yoga before theworld. Earlier there was some confusion regarding scientific and practical approach of yogain western civilization. It is really interesting facts that now each and every corner of theworld has been taken notice about the impact of yoga and meditation in day to day life.People of the whole world are aware about the impact of Yoga and Meditation in day to daylife. We are living in globalized village. Attitude and aptitude of person has been completelychanged. Much focus has been given to individual freedom and nuclear family. Materialisticworld became intruders of each one life. World became mechanistic. Everyone is runningbehind nothing. People are losing their self identity. Industrialization has its own impact oncommon man. People are living in such confusion and chaos life. In fact, individual is onverge to break into pieces.Yoga and Meditation become centre to provide relax as well as a sense of relief in day to daylife. Every year a number of researches have been carried out from all over world. People arekeen to learn Yoga and Meditation in day to day life. Every year thousands of journals, e-journals are published. There is a huge demand of Yoga Gurus in all over world.Westernized lifestyle and fast living have brought in stress in peoples’ lives and taken it to awhole new level today. Where earlier stress was a word used by a selected age group or thosewho worked long hours, today everyone from kids to the aged are well aware of stress orexhaustion. In such a scenario, Meditation subliminal relaxation has come up as a solution forfighting all the stress, pressures, fatigue and weariness people are experiencing these days.Not many know that meditation subliminal relaxation is one of the most effective relaxationtechniques and has the power to heel psychologically.Before understanding about meditation subliminal relaxation and how it benefits you, youshould know what relaxation techniques are and how and on what problems do they work. 10
  11. 11. Calming and soothing down mind and body when in an unstable or burned out situation iscalled relaxation and methods that can be used to achieve this heeling, is termed as relaxationtechniques. Since the technique that is being discussed is subliminal relaxation or meditationsubliminal relaxation, the problem that is to be cornered is more or mental and psychological.There are a bundle of relaxation techniques to fight those emotional and psychological stressand strain experienced by our mind, often these stress also lead to physical stress later on.Usually relaxation techniques are designed in a way that they can even be used together or incombination. Mediation subliminal relaxation is one such safe and easy technique that workswith the combination or conjunction of power of meditation and subliminal technology.While it is easy for a person to understand what meditation can do for budding stress andfatigue, not many know that subliminal technology is a relaxation technique in itself and canwork wonders for those emotional imbalance of a tired and stressful brain.India has many famous gurus in the field of Yoga and Meditation. Yoga institute of Munger(Bihar) plays vital role to spread qualities of yoga to the common man. Modern gurus likeShri Ravinsahnakr, Osho, Murari Bapu, Asharam Bapu and famous guru “ Ramdev”established “ yoga and meditation” on worldwide label. Even people from all over world arekeen interested to have through research on Yoga and Meditation which will surely help theupcoming fast metro-look , metro sexual and pub styles kids.I am trying my best to analyze the effect of Yoga and Meditation to heal out the stress ofteachers working in an international organization where they have to perform at optimumlevel on day to day basis. 11
  12. 12. Chapter 3: Methodology Men, Method and Materials are the pillars in education. If these three pillars are good enough, learning teaching-can happen inside and outside the classroom. These three MMM are complement to each other.Merely, good materials dont help in teaching -learning situations. If a teacher knows how tohandle materials and which way to handle materials, then the objectives of programme willreach its height.Psychological research broadly falls under three categories, namely, personality; ability andaptitude; and attitude and interest. In psychology psychological principles are used in itsconstruction, validation and standardization of the research. There are several methodologyhas been used to collect particular research in certain area. It can be through: 1. Autobiography 2. Anecdotal Records 3. Rating Scales 4. Cumulative Records 5. Sociometric Techniques 6. Case study thorough using Tools and Techniques of EvaluationThe tools and techniques of evaluation can be categorized into four categories to identify theproblems and to find out the solution of the problems: I. Testing Procedure II. Self Report Techniques III. Observational Techniques IV. Projective TechniquesIn a “Testing Procedure” generally following methods are used for evaluation: A. Through written means B. Verbally C. Experimentally D. Administration E. Self developing methodSelf Reporting Test a) Questionnaire b) Autobiography c) Personal Dairy d) Discussion e) Direct QuestionIn fact, we know or identify the problems through evaluation of the situation and thepersons which they are living. Counsellor guides them on the basis of evaluation. One can befamiliar about the problems of concerned person /institutions through evaluation and 12
  13. 13. provide them guidance. Similarly activities of the individual can be improved on the basis ofevaluation.Stress of Teachers in International OrganizationSchool Teachers: Job Description and ActivitiesJob DescriptionSchool teachers develop schemes of work and lesson plans in line with curriculum objectives.They facilitate learning by establishing a relationship with pupils and by their organization oflearning resources and the classroom learning environment. School teachers develop andfoster the appropriate skills and social abilities to enable the optimum development ofchildren, according to age, ability and aptitude. They assess and record progress and preparepupils for the exams. They link pupils knowledge to earlier learning and develop ways toencourage it further, and challenge and inspire pupils to help them deepen their knowledgeand understanding.While dealing with my present research, it would be easy for me to observe my clients on dayto day basis. I stay with client almost 7 hours a day and 32-35 hours in a week on average.Most of the time, I assign work for them. They cannot escape from performing their expectedtasks. In fact in private organization boss knows only two words “Tasks and Output” likechanting mantras of God. There are no other remedies to save or avoid from the institutionalexpectation within a time frame. So teachers always feel stress to handle these situationssmartly; most of the teachers are facing problems all around, starting from family, foe andfriend, wife, husband and career growth so and so forth. Due to excessive stress teachers feelpity on them and become of the victim of the society and the organizations. I have chosenteachers of GEMS CPS to further study their stress level in day to day life. It is my primeduty to give particular details of my clients specially a brief history of the organization wherethey work and their different roles.Introduction of GEMS CPSColonel Public School (CPS) is being run by International Heritage and Education Society.Incepted in 1997, the society is led by eminent educationists and academicians and is activelyworking towards up-liftment of the education sector in Tohana. 13
  14. 14. Colonel Public School is a GEMS Network School. GEMS Education is the largest privatekindergarten to grade 12 school operators in the world with 50 years of experience, GEMSEducation is a global, multi faceted education group which owns and operates schools aswell as provides education support services to both the public and private sectors. GEMShas around 15 managed school and 7 owned schools cross the pre and post operationalphases in India. GEMS is working towards expanding its Indian network to 100 schools inthe next 5 years. Other than running its own schools, GEMS India offers total schoolmanagement solutions where it takes a partner school all the way from project inception topre operational phase to ongoing operations seamlessly. GEMS India also provides advisoryand consulting services to various private sector and government entities. It has a globalnetwork of world class international schools which provide high quality holistic educationto more than 100,000 students from 143 countries. It employs over 9,000 educationprofessionals, specialist and staff.Colonel Public School is spread over 4 and half acre eco- friendly campus. It has nearly 700students and 60 high qualified teachers. All the teachers’ belongs from different reason i.e.Kashmir to Kanyakumari. Colonel Public School has classes from Nursery to 12th Grade.Adoption of a method especially in research depends on the physical as well as mental levelof the students i.e. age, background, working styles, their expertise in different fields andexposure to language.I had gone through their special specific details of the each and every teacher i.e. theireducational qualifications, their taught subjects and their other role and responsibility onday to day school life.Details of GEMS CPS StaffsTeacher/Staff Qualification PostAashish Kumar Garg XII, DCA, DCH NTTAjitesh singh (10+2)Diploma NTTAmandeep Singh DCAP, CIC, PGDCA, M.Sc. (I.T.) PGTAnita Arora M.A.(English), B.Ed. PGTAnita Sharma M.A. (Hindi), B.Ed PGTBalRam Jakhar M.Sc. (Computer), B.Ed. PGTBhagwan Dass Jast B.Com. Sangeet Visharad Music TeacherDeepak Kumar M.Sc. B.Ed. PGTGurjit Kaur Sihag M.A. MPhil (English), B.Ed. TGT 14
  15. 15. Harmeet Kaur B.A.PGDHRM PREHarmeet Kaur M.A.(Punjabi), B.Ed., B.Lib. LibrarianKanika Kinra MCA NTTKaramvir Singh B.Sc., B.Ed TGTKrishan Kumar Kaushik M.A.(Pub.Adm. & Pol. Sci.), PGT B.Ed., UGC SLET QualifiedKuldeep Kaur Saharan M.Sc. (Physics) TGTKuldeep Kumar M.A. (Hindi), M.A. (Education), PGT B.Ed.Kulwant Kaur B.A., B.Ed., Giani, Steno Pbi PRTMahavir Singh Nain B.Com (Maths), B.Ed. TGTMeenu Verma M.A., B.Ed. TGTNaresh Devi Nain M.A., B.Ed. Prabhakar PRTNirdosh Kumari B.A. B.Ed TGTParul Garg M.Sc. (Chem), B.Ed. PGTPoonam Bhatia M.Com., Mphil (Finance), B.Ed. PGTRajeev Ranjan M.A. (English), B.Ed., PGDTE, COORDINATOR Chinese DiplomaRajinder Kaur B.A. Steno Hindi NTTRajiv Pandey BPED PTEReetu Grover B.A. Jr. COORDINATORRitu Soni Sangeet Vishard, Computer DANCE CourseSajal Singh M.A.(Georaphy), M.Ed, PGT Phd.(Georaphy)Sanjay Kumar M.A. (History & Economics), PGT M.Ed.Santosh Kumar Singh MA, M.Ed, B. Ed, MBA PRINCIPALSaroj Singh M.A. (Hindi & History), B.Ed PGTShaily Sircar Dutta B.Sc., PGDCA Jr. COORDINATORShekhar Jadhav BSC .,MBA ADMINISTRATORSonia Gunpal B.A., B.Ed. NTTSushila Kumari Nain M.Com., B.Ed. PRTUrmila Bishnoi B.Com., B.Ed., D.Ed. PRTVijender Singh B.Sc., B.Ed TGTMukesh M.Sc, B.Ed PGTMukati BFA Art TeacherACTIVITIES of GEMS CPS TEACHER I. Typical activities are broadly the same for all school teachers and include: II. Teaching all areas of the primary curriculum;III. Taking responsibility for the progress of a class of primary age pupilsIV. Organizing the classroom and learning resources to create a positive learning environment 15
  16. 16. V. Planning, preparing and presenting lessons that cater for the needs of the whole range within their class VI. Motivating pupils with enthusiastic , imaginative presentation VII. Maintaining disciplineVIII. Preparing and making to facilitate positive pupil development IX. Meeting requirements for the assessment and recording pupils’ development X. Providing feedback to parents on a pupil’s progress at parents’ meetings; XI. Coordinating activities and resources within a specific area of the curriculum, and supporting colleagues in the delivery of this specialists area XII. Taking part in school events and activities which may take place at the weekends or in the evening.XIII. Liaising with colleagues and working flexiblyTEACHERS ROLE IN THE SOCIETY Teachers are the real builders of the nation. They are the pillars to uphold the national aspirations of progress. The teachers’ role in the growth, development and prosperity of the nation is undeniable. It is the teachers who mould the future society and influence the coming generations towards successful achievement of the national goals. If the teachers have to perform their duties with dedication and sincerity they must possess adequate mental health. A mentally healthy teacher is one who has confidence in himself and his pupils, one who expects much and gets much, one who is concerned for the future citizens of India. Teachers are expected to be mentally healthy but the problems of teachers are more than what it was in the past. In addition to the loss of special recognition, the profession has been infested with a number of other problems, such as enormous rise in the work load, lack of security of service, too much domination by the political bosses under local board managements, growing indiscipline among the students, delayed promotions and poor school climate. The teacher has to cope with so many stressful and frustrating situations which results in mental ill health. A teacher, who is not mentally happy, will breed discontentment and dissatisfaction which will have a long term effect on the pupils. Therefore, mental 16
  17. 17. health of teachers is a crucial issue to be tackled by educationists and all those concernedwith the teaching profession.PROBLEMS FACED BY SCHOOL TEACHERSThe school teachers play a very important role in the society, as they are largely responsiblefor moulding the young and impressionable minds. There is growing concern amongeducators about teacher’s mental health. Job-related stress is an important factor in teacher’smotivation and retention. Teaching once was considered a rather routine job; however,within the last decade it has become an increasingly complex profession. Issues such aslitigation, liability, accountability, tenure, unions, along with increasingly diverseresponsibilities and fast changing ideas have made teaching more stressful.Two of the main sources of this stress were cited as work pressure and studentsmisbehaviour. This stress could be putting the school teacher’s health at risk, as many findthemselves unable to unwind out of school. Basically, school teachers play threedifferent roles at home, school and society. They need to face numerous problems whileplaying these three roles. So they are flooded with extreme stress, anxiety and tensionwhich finally affect their personality. The reasons for their stress can be channelized asfollows:1. HOME: Misunderstanding with the elders, financial problems, difficulty in nurturing their kids, etc.2. SOCIETY: Recognition problems.3. SCHOOL: Work pressure, children misbehaviour, frequent changes incurriculum, lack of job satisfaction, insufficient salary package, etc.4. PERSONAL: Physiological and psychological problems.All these problems have direct influence on the personality development and workefficiency of school teachers. Sometimes, the pressures/stress, which bear down uponthem threaten destruction or serious injury to their personality and then they judgethemselves helpless. 17
  18. 18. What is Stress?Stress is the “Wear and tear” our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changingenvironment. According to Hans Selve a pioneer researcher in stress reaction, “stress is thehuman responses to change that occur as a part of daily living.” Stress has a physical andemotional effect on us, and it can create positive or negative feelings. “Stress comes from anysituation and circumstances that requires behavioural adjustment. Any change, either goodor bad, is stressful, and whether it’s a positive or negative change, the physiological responseis the same”. (Lazarus, 2000)All of us have limitless potentials to develop, grow & gain health & happiness whichare precious. However, our life is made of stresses of various kinds. In order to remain happy& gain health coping with stress & anxiety is an everyday requirement. Since stress isinevitable but a necessary ingredient of life, the question is not "Do I experiencestress?" or "Am I under stress?" but rather "How am I coping with stress and and "Howcan I make stress work for me rather than against me.The answers to these questions involve all facets of our life & developing strategies fordealing with stressors that are really "Getting to us" Stress is a common experience inmeeting with the demands of life and a natural fabric of life. It is a transaction betweenthe person & the environment in which stressors are linked to anxiety reactions by theperception of threat. Stress is not always harmful; it can give motivation to overcomedifficulties. While stress may have positive effects as well as negative effects, thenegative effects often get most attention. Negative stress mainly leads to discomfort,anxiety, irritation and emotional instability.Coping is the ability to reduce the mismatch between resources & demand Most of us justassume that all the stressfulness of life is natural & is the only way to react ,butthere is a another way which is learning to cope with stress.Stress reaction is a natural response to fear or uncertainty. Chronic stress is a majorchallenge of technological era. Stresses can pile up without your noticing each tensionfeeding others, until you become chronically over stimulated, eventually; this isexpressed as physical disease or mental disorders. 18
  19. 19. Four Types of Stress:Acute Stress:Digestive problemsVital-Sign disturbances: rise in blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, sweaty palmsEpisodic Acute stress:Persistent headachesHypertensionChronic StressLoss of appetite, or overeatingFeeling of insecurity & inadequacyTraumatic Stress:Thoughts: flashbacks; vivid memory of event; inability to concentrateRelationship problems: strained, frequent arguments with family members and/or coworkers;withdrawal and isolation from group activity 19
  20. 20. Figure 1 Stress 20
  21. 21. What is occupational Stress?Occupation related stress among working population is drastically increasingworldwide. Stress at work has become an integral part of everyday life. In 1992 theUnited Nation identified job stress as a ‘20th century epidemic’. The World HealthOrganization called it a ‘worldwide epidemic’. In the USA, approximately one-quarterof the working population suffer from work related stress. The figures for India are notreadily available but there is not much doubt that occupational stress affects a significant 21
  22. 22. number of workers and costs heavy financial losses, human sufferings and mental illness.Occupation related stress comes in many shapes and forms. HSE (2004) definesoccupational stress as “The adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or othertypes of demand placed on them.” OS may have harmful physiological and psychologicaleffects on workers. Various studies have showed that workers suffering from stressexhibit decreased productivity, absenteeism, higher number accident, lower morale andgreater interpersonal conflict with colleagues and superiors. (Cranwell & Alyssa, 2005 ;HSE 2004) unfortunately, occupation related stress and associatedhazards are increasing day by day.Various statistical surveys proved that the prevalence of stress among teacher have beencausing many harmful impacts on the society, which is a warning that cannot be ignored.The growing stress level resulting in mental illness, resulting inmisbehaving with kids in the classrooms as well as their family life is tormented. (TOI,2007).In order to deal with problems the school management and CBSE are embracingthe various means and tools, out of them the Yoga and Meditation is being recognized asa highly effective and multi-beneficial one.Yoga and Meditation are holistic science of life which deals with physical, mental, emotionaland spiritual health. Various aspects of Yoga help in the management of stress (BabaRamdev, 2012 in Delhi)While reciting on Yoga for Stress Management, Lt. Col. D. R. Vaze (2007) hasthe opinion that “Approach of Yoga for stress management is unique. In one sentence it cancan be said that the pace of body , mind and intellect level and increase the awareness aboutchanges within. It is necessary to discuss here some of the techniques of Yoga. 22
  23. 23. Yoga and Meditation plays vital role reduce stress and increase work efficiency. A teacher ofinternational school has to responsible for different organizations. They know only one mantrathat is “Task” and “Out”. There is no if or but in between “Task” and “Out”.YOGA TECHNIQUESA combination of yogasanas, pranayama and meditation work wonders for those intent oncleansing both physical and subtle body.YOGASANA:A yogasana is a posture in harmony with ones inner consciousness. It aims at theattainment of a sustained and comfortable sitting posture to facilitate meditation.Asanas also help in balancing and harmonizing the basic structure of the human body,which is why they have a range of therapeutic uses too.Functions of Yogasanas:Asanas basically perform five functions:1. Conative2. Cognitive3. Mental4. Intellectual5. Spiritual 23
  24. 24. PRANAYAMA:Pranayama is a compound term (‘prana’ and ‘yama’) meaning the maintenance of prana in ahealthy throughout one’s life. More than a breath- control exercise, pranayama is all aboutcontrolling the life force or prana. Ancient yogis, who understood the essence of prana,studied it and devised methods and practices to master it. These practices are betterknown as pranayama. Since breath or prana is basic to life, the practice of pranayamahelps in harnessing the prana in and around us and by deepening and extending it,pranayama leads to a state of inner peace. The practices of pranayama—the correctbreathing technique helps to manipulate our energies. Most of us breathe incorrectly,using only half of our lung capacity. Pranayama is a technique, which re-educates our breathing process, helps us to release tensions and develop a relaxed state ofmind. It also balances our nervous system and encourages creative thinking. In addition, byincreasing the amount of oxygen to our brain it improves mental clarity, alertness andphysical well being .When practiced along with yogasanas the benefits of pranayama are 24
  25. 25. more pronounced. According to Patanjalis Yoga Sutra, pranayama enables the mind toacquire the capacity to concentrate on any given object of attention. It also says thatscientific breathing helps in unveiling true knowledge from the darkness of ignorance. Butit is eminently advisable to be aware of all the do’s and don’ts of pranayama before practicingthem.SURYA NAMSKARThe surya namaskar is one of the basic yoga poses. It literally means, salute to the sun. Thisasana or posture uses the entire body, from head to toe, to worship the sun. This yoga postureis practiced as a physical exercise for fitness by world at large. However, with a deeperunderstanding the same, a surya namaskar can be performed as total sadhana, whichaccomplished the asana, pranayama, mantra and chakra meditation. This exercise is supposed tobe done at sunrise to reach a spiritual arousal. A full surya namaskar, consists of two sets of 25
  26. 26. twelve poses. Ideally, this yoga postures is to be repeated 12 times with 12 mantras.ASHTANGA NAMSKARBasics of yoga aim to benefit your body in the best possible way. Ashtanga namaskar is aderivation of surya namaskar. Asht means eight in Sanskrit and anga means body. Thus comesthe nomenclature, meaning eight parts of the body saluting together for self healing andfitness. This yoga posture provides a thorough massage to every curve of your body andflexing and working on every important part of the body, thus giving it the required strengthand shape. Performing this yoga exercise helps the heart by providing much-needed exerciseto the cardiac muscles and arteries. With synchronized breathing and body movements ofashtanga namaskar and chanting of mantras, it lightens up the piled up anger, agitations andanger within.MEDITATIONYogic meditation is a means of training the being to tune itself to the workings of the DivineBeing. The central principle of such meditation is to concentrate ones mental faculties uponthe object of quest. But it requires long hours of practice for the mind to be able to attain suchsustainable levels of concentration and absorption. This discipline, above everything else, isthe essence of yogic meditation.The success of yogic meditation depends largely on the sincerity and strength of the personbehind it. It is not the duration but the intensity of the aspiring consciousness, which ismore important and ultimately effective. Fatigue is to be avoided at all costs, since itweakens the power of concentration and jades the mind.Yoga meditation puts the being of the meditating person in a condition of increasedand conscious receptivity to the workings of Yoga Shakti or the power of yoga. With adeepening of this state of mind there is often a total withdrawal from the externalenvironment. 26
  27. 27. Method: SampleThis study was conducted on a sample of 60 teachers. The participants of YMTP were allteachers ranging from the rank of NTT to PGTs. They were from different region and statesand were teaching from Nursery to Grade XII. Their age ranged from 22-45 years. Theeducation qualification ranged from graduate to higher educations. None of them hadprevious exposure to yoga practices and was practicing it.The YMTP was scheduled for 15 days particularly for teachers. It was spread approximatelyover 35 minute of two sessions each day in the morning and afternoon. All theparticipants were encouraged to attain the classes regularly. The YMTP was anintegrated yoga and meditation practice taught by post graduated certified yoga teacherfrom Brahmkumari,Hisar, Haryana.The morning session focused on somatically active asana practices followed bySavasana and Pranayamas, and were graduated into three intensity level is gentle,moderate and vagarious.The session consisted of the following:- Omkar and Gayatri Mantra recitation (Prayer) - 10 minutes• Asanas Practices - 15 minutesPryagya Yogasana (invented by Pandit Sriram Sharma Acharya, including 14 Asanas):Tadasana, Padahastasan, Vajrasana, Ustrasana, Yogamudrasana, Ardhatadasana,Bhujangasana, Sashankasana, Ardhatadasana, and Om Uccharan.Bhunamanasana,halasana,Chakrasana and Rajkapotasana.Savasana - 05 minutesThe afternoon session focused on predominantly mindfulness and relaxing practices asfollowing:• Omkar & Gayatri Mantra recitation (Prayer) - 10 minutes• Balancing Asanas - 15 minutesVrikshyasana, Garudasana, Tolasana, Padangusthasana, Sankatasana,Bakasana, Ekpadasana, Utthithasta padangusthasana, Merudandasana andVashisthasana.• Yoga Nidra - 10 minutes 27
  28. 28. Training Session at a Glance: Theory & Practice2 Starting of Programme with Gaytri Mantra 28
  29. 29. 3 Vajrasana 29
  30. 30. 4 Yoga Mudrasan5 GEMS CPS Teacher at Training Session 30
  31. 31. Chapter 4: MeasureOccupational Stress Index was developed by Dr. A. K. Shrivastava & Dr. A. P. Sinha,Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi to asses occupation related stress. The OSI consists of 46items, each to be rated on the five point scale from strongly agree to disagree. Out of the 46items 28 are true keyed and the remaining 18 are false keyed. These items relating tothe 12 factors of occupational stress i.e. Role overload, Role ambiguity, Role conflict,Group & political pressure, Responsibility for persons, Under participation,Powerlessness, Poor peer relations, Intrinsic improvement, Low status, Strenuous,Working condition and Unprofitability. The scores were divided into three categories:high (151-230), moderate (128-150) and low (46-127).Result & DiscussionThe result was found applying the statistical data analysis with respect to x2 test. Thesignificant difference was observed between the scores of pre and post test, which issignificant at 0.05% (p<0.05) and at 0.01 of confidence (table-1). This finding supports thehypothesis. This indicated that the YMTP caused the experiencing effect in reducingoccupational stress level of participants.(Table-1) showing the obtained scores (level) of occupational stressOccupational Low Moderate HighStressPre Test (before 20(33.3%) 28 12YTP) (46.7%) (20%) 30 (50%) 24 (40%) 6 (10%)Post Test (afterYTP)X2 = 5.605 df = 2 p < 0.05In considering the result, it may be argued that this change must be attributed mainly by 31
  32. 32. the yoga and meditation practices. The YMTP was an integral package of yogic toolsincluding selected Asanas, Pranayamas, Yoganidra and Omkar & Gayatri Mantra recitation.All these were practiced in synchronizing and gradual manner. Of course, practice of Asanasand Pranayamas has been shown improve and sustain physical as well as mental efficiency.This synchronized practice could bring them in balance of homeostatic efficacy onpsycho-neuro-immuno-endocrine network and which helped to enhance strength,endurance, vitality, body-mind harmony and balance. Thus, this could contribute to reducephysical and mental stress level. There are ample numbers of research evidencessupporting this finding. A feasibility study conducted at Washington DC, USA (2007)revealed that a particular approach of yoga and meditation have a positive healing effect onteachers suffering from stress disorder.Yoganidra which is recognized as a beneficial art and means of relaxation, it is known thatthe practice of Yoganidra creates a deep rest by improving physical, sensory and mentalequilibrium and control. This ultimately helps to have a counterfoil to existing stress,pressure or tension. A study conducted by Kamakhya Kumar (2004) also showed thepositive effect of Yoganidra for reducing stress & anxiety which is responsible forimproving overall well-being. Therefore it seems to appear that study also may beresponsible to fall the stress level.However, Omkar and Gayatri mantra was part of YMTP. There are various researchevidences regarding Omkar and Gayatri mantra recitation which reported the positive impactin reducing stress by improving neuro-psycho spiritual benefits. As we know that suchrecitations contribute to create the positive stimulation and vibration on nerve plexusand chakras whereas concentration on meaning of mantra may encourage the positivethinking. This is because the participants may experience reduction of stress level. Anearlier research conducted by Bhogal et al., (2000) is in harmony with this finding whichreported that Omkar and Gayatri mantra recitation caused significant reduction onneuroticism among police trainees. Thus, it was observed that YTP had significantcontribution for reducing stress level. Moreover, the subjective feelings of participants werealso supportive towards the result. 32
  33. 33. Chapter 5: Implication of StudyYoga is suitable for all people from young age to old age from family men to sadhus.Rather the most of it are for social well being and mental peace in the normal life of the man.So every teacher has to know of it, has to practice it and make his pupils to follow it, so as tohave a balanced, awakened mind for the academic achievement, as well as, to have a totalhappy life.Development of physical fitness and health of the student is not the responsibility of theteachers of physical education alone. In fact every teacher has a role to play in this direction,and must have substantial exposure to physical education. It should be viewed as an integralpart of teacher education programmes at all levels.The work efficiency of the school teachers not only depend on their experience, intelligenceand knowledge but also on their complete personality. Their attitudes, self concept, modeof adjustment, reaction to frustrating situations are important in determining thedynamic aspects of their personality. The personality development of the school teachers willdefinitely be enhanced by a little practice of Yoga and Meditation regularly. The benefits theyget through yoga and meditation are as follows: 1. Stress- free living and joyful relationship. 2. Enhanced productivity, creativity and efficiency. 3. Heightened concentration, high memory and decision-making capabilities. 4. Stimulates the release of all physical, mental and emotional blocks. 5. A proven tool for preventive health that has helped relief from chronic diseases. The above said magnificient effects of yoga and meditation can definitely decrease the Stress and increase the productivity of school teachers so that they can mould the children Into the best citizens 33
  34. 34. CounsellingCounselling is a wonderful 20th century invention. We live in a complex, busy andcontinuously changing world. In this world, there are many different types of experience thatare difficult for people to cope with. Counselling is not just something that happens betweentwo people. It is also a social institution that is embedded in the culture of modernindustrialized societies. It is an occupation, discipline or profession of relatively recentorigin. Working place consists of different types of people and their behavioural approach aswell as attitudes and aptitude differs with one and another.Workplace counselling is one of a number of human procedural interventions which makeup the human strategy of organisations to achieve a safe, positive and productive workenvironment. In fact, it was very difficult to bring almost all indifferent people at a platformfor “Yoga and Meditation” training programme. Credit goes to those teachers who helped mea lot first than themselves by participating in this programme and giving their valuable timeto us.At first stage to convince teachers for the Yoga and Mediation programme for continuous 15days was in fact an difficult tasks however at the completion of this training programmesbrought a lot of changes in their behaviour as well as their efficiency level went high duringthe session. They Feel more confident and seem less stressful. Teachers’ confidence level tellsthe success of this training programme. 34
  35. 35. Chapter 6 : ConclusionIt may be concluded that yoga and meditation practice have a highly positive impactin the management of stress related problems. The strong need is that the variousaspects of yoga may suitably be embraced as a part of regular training particularly amongthe teachers. This finding also encourages the scope to carry out the various research studiesin this very regard. A good quality of life can be attained only through a good quality ofeducation.Education is an important social activity, closely bound with intellectual, economic,cultural, emotional and social life of the human race. The “Pillars” upholding theaspirations of progress in education are the school teachers. Teachers are the realbuilders of the nation. The teachers’ role in the growth, development and prosperity ofthe nation is undeniable. If the teachers have to perform their duties with dedication andsincerity they must possess adequate mental health. Teachers are expected to be mentallyhealthy but the problems of teachers are more than what it was in the past. With properpractice of YOGA, school teachers can create the right kind of chemistry, where they arenaturally peaceful, joyous and loving within themselves. This inner science of Yoga helpteachers liberate from their problems and sufferings, both physically and psychologically.Yoga ultimately makes the school teachers work in harmony and mould the best citizensof the country. There should be a trained Yoga teacher in each and every school. In fact, yogaand meditation create a great impact on efficiency level of teachers. It helps human beings tolead a happy, prosperous and peaceful life in this global village. 35
  36. 36. Reference: 1. Bhavanani, Ananda, Balyogi. (2007). Yoga and Stress. Yoga Vigyana. MDNIY, 1, 1, 9-6 2. Cranwell, Ward & Alyssa, Abbey. J., (2005). Organizational Stress. Palgrave. Macmillan, New York-10010, USA 3. Health and Safety Executive (2004). Management Standards for Tackling Work- related Stress, www.hse.gov.uk/stress/standards. 4. Sharon, Staffy (2007) The Healing Effect of Yoga in PTSD 5. Vaze, D.R., Lt. Col. (2007). Yoga for Stress Management, Souvenir, National Yoga Week- 2007. Morarji Desai National Institute of Yoga: 106-109. 6. Snyder C.R. (2001) Coping With Stress: Effective People and Process, OU , NY 7. Introduction To Stress Management http://www.noah- health.org/english/illness/men- 8. Simple Things You Can Do Today to Control Stress http://stress.about.com/library/weekly/aa112600a.htm 9. Paula’s Story 10. Effect of Meditation (Research Paper ) by ICMR 11. Research Paper (Dr. A Malathy) 12. Stress Management after Disaster by Marta Stuart 36
  37. 37. PRE-COURSE INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIREPersonal InformationFamily name ________________First name(s) ____________________Date of Birth __________________ Mother tongue ________________Contact Address:____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Contact phone number(s) _____________________________________E-mail address_______________________________________________Professional InformationName of organization:Length of service: _____ Yrs____ Months_____ DaysDesignation:----------------------------------------------------------------------------Length of time in current job : _____ Yrs______ Months________ DaysWorking language of GEMS CPS : HINDI/ENGLISH/BOTH 37
  38. 38. Yoga and Meditation InformationDo you use practice Yoga? Never/Often/less often/AlwaysDo you want to improve your working efficiency and reduce stress level?__________________________________________________________Will this YMTP help to make your current job better? Yes/NoYour jobPlease describe the roles and responsibilities of your current job.___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Analyze yourself(a) Are you overloaded with work? YES /NO(b) Have you attended YMTP earlier? Yes/No(c) If the medium of Instruction had been English, would Yes/Noit be better for you to understand the course? 38
  39. 39. How do you like to learn?Tick the right answer.(a) In YMTP do you like to practice : 1. individually? Yes/No 2. in pairs? Yes/No 3. in small groups? Yes/No 4. in one large group? Yes/No(b) Do you want to do home? Yes/NoIf so, how much time have you got for YM at home?_____ Hours a day. Or_____ Hours a week.(c ) Do you want to 1. Spend all the time in the classroom? Yes/No Or 2. Spend some time at ease and some time practicing Yogaand Meditation? Yes/No(e) Do you like to do Yoga and Meditation? 1. With trainer Yes/No 2. Without trainer Yes/No 3. By doing yourself? Yes/No 39
  40. 40. Yoga and Meditation Programme Information(a) How do you want the instructions to take place? (i) in Hindi (ii) in English (iii) Bilingual method.(b) Where do you want the training to be held? (i) In a closed space (ii) At open space (iii) At any other location.(c) At what time do you want the classes to be conducted? (i) in the morning. (ii) in the afternoon. (iii) in the evening.(d)What should be the time slot for one class? (i) 30 Minutes (ii) 45 Minutes (iii) 1 hour (iv) 35 Minute(e) How do you want the classes to be conducted? (i) 1 hour a day. (ii) 2 hours a day. (iii) 3 hours a day.(f) What should be the duration of the course? (i) 10 Days . 40
  41. 41. (ii) 12 Days (iii) 15 DaysFEED BACK QUESTIONS 1. How do you find this “Yoga and Meditation programmes” ? (i) Very bad (ii) bad (iii) good (iv) very good 2. Were the Yoga and Meditation programmes boring or interesting? (i)Little bit boring (ii) interesting (iii) very interesting (iv) good 3. Did the Yoga and Meditation programmes help you? (i) Yes (ii) a little (iii) no (iv) a lot 4. Did you follow the instructors Yoga and Meditation programmes ? (i)yes (ii)no (iii) sometimes difficult 5. Which types of problem did you face in the course? (i) With tutors (ii) with language (iii) with tasks (iv) with time 6. Was the course very fast? (i) No (ii) yes (iii) can’t say (iv) Sometimes 7. Do you feel confident enough after completion of the” Yoga and Meditation programmes” ? (i) Yes (ii)No (iii) A little bit (ii) 8. Were the “Yoga and Meditation” programmes helpful to you? (i)Yes (ii) Sometimes (iii) No 9. Was the instructor’s language simple or complex? (i)Simple (ii) Complex (iii) Very complex 10. Was the timing of the course suitable for you? (i)Yes (ii) No If no, what should be the timings of the course? ________ 41
  42. 42. 11. Was the venue of the course convenient for you? (i)Yes (ii) NoIf no, what should be the venue? _________12. How much time would you like to spend on the course?(i)8 hours (ii)10 hours (iii) 12 hours. 42

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