Bhagat Singh


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contribution of great hero towards india's independence... his thinking and how he did all....

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Bhagat Singh

  1. 1. National Hero – Shaheed Bhagat Singh
  2. 2. Born to Fight for freedom  It was way back in 1910, when a 3 year old boy was walking with his father and an elderly man.  Green crop delighted their eyes and the elders were walking along the edge of a field.  Suddenly, the boy's father noticed there was no sound of the footsteps of his son & he looked back.  The boy was sitting on the ground and seemed to be planting some thing. The curious father went near and asked, “What are you doing?" . Lets start with a small story
  3. 3.  The boy replied, "Look, father, I shall grow guns all over the field".  His eyes showed a strong faith that guns would grow in the field.  Both the elders were struck with wonder of the little boy's words. The boy was none other than SHAHEED BHAGAT , one of the most inspirational icons of the Indian freedom struggle,one of most influential revolutionaries of Indian independence movement, the patriotic who later fought like a hero for India's freedom and sacrificed his life.
  4. 4. Birth and Family  Bhagat Singh, a Sandhu Jatt was born on 28 September 1907 to Kishan Singh and Vidyavati at Chak No. 105, GB, Banga village, Jaranwala Tehsil in the Lyallpur of the Punjab of British.  His birth coincided with the release from jail of his father and two uncles, Ajit Singh and Swaran Singh.  His family were Sikhs, some of whom had been active in Indian independence movements, and others having served in Maharaja Ranjit Singh's army.  His father and uncles were members of the Gadar Party, led by Kartar Singh Sarabha and Har Dayal, Ajit Singh was forced to flee to Persia due to pending court cases against him, while Swaran Singh died at home in 1910 following his release from Borstal Jail in Lahore.
  5. 5. As a child  Bhagat Singh was a lovely child with a charming smile.  From his childhood he was highly interested in studies and was ahead of the others.  Very much liked by his class- mates, he was their leader. His seniors used to carry Bhagat Singh on their shoulders to the school and back home.  Bhagat was friendly even to cartmen and coolies, and the very men who swept the streets.
  6. 6. Small incident from chilhood  When he was in the fourth class, Bhagat Singh asked his classmates, "What do you wish to become when you grow up?"  Each boy gave a different answer.  But Bhagat Singh remarked, "is marriage a big achievement? Anybody can marry. On the other hand, I will drive the British out of India."
  7. 7.  It was the year 1919 when British soldiers opened fire on a gathering in Jallianwala Bagh, and there was no way of escape for the people.  Bhagat Singh was 12 yrs old that time and his mind was deeply disturbed by this event.  The next day he did not return home after the school hours.  Bhagat Singh went straight to the place of the tragedy. He collected a bottle of mud wet with blood of Indians and returned home.  On returning home he put the bottle in a niche and worshipped it with flowers. Jallianwala Bagh
  8. 8.  Even before entering ninth class, Bhagat Singh decided to take up the work of awakening people.  Bhagat Singh left the school and joined a Non Co - Operation movement in the country.  Bhagat Singh took part in this movement with zeal.  Right from his early days, he used to wear only Khadi. Every week he would collect foreign clothes, heap them up and burn them. Beginning of Revolutionary Career
  9. 9.  In 1922, the Congress organized a procession in the town of Chauri chaura in Gorakhpur District.  Then some rogues locked up twenty-two policemen together in a house, and burnt them alive.  Before this, similar acts of violence had occurred even in Bombay and Madras due to which Gandhi called off the non-cooperation movement.  It was a great disappointment to young Bhagat Singh as well as for the Nation.
  10. 10. Before that, the British Government had hanged a nineteen-year-old revolutionary named Kartar Singh. Then none of these supporters of non- violence raised any objection. Such thoughts weakened Bhagat Singh's faith in non-violence and non- cooperation movements.
  11. 11. Lost faith in gandhi… Quitting of government schools and other institutions. Re – admissions not accepted. What to do ?
  12. 12.  Most students last ray of hope was National College started by the great patriot Lala Lajpat Rai.  Though he had not been to school for some years, Bhagat Singh had a good knowledge of history and politics.  The Principal was astonished and permitted him to join the college straight away.  During the day he would listen to the lessons in the class. In the evening he would collect several friends and discuss the coming revolution. This became his daily routine.  At college, Bhagat Singh took part in several plays. A teacher who saw him in the leading roles in 'Rana Pratap', 'Samrat Chandragupta' and 'Bharata-durdasha' remarked, "This boy will become a great man." Joining of National College
  13. 13.  Foreign literature  Biographies of revolutionars in different countries.  Various revolutions taking place in different part of world.  The more he read, the deeper grew his belief that war alone could bring freedom. Bhagat Singh’s hobby of Reading
  14. 14.  Commom motive of revolution and the idea of free and independent India was what united these great revolutionars and freedom fighters.  The feeling in their hearts about the sites of the brutal rule of british empire created a strong bond between them. Meeting with Sukhdev Singh
  15. 15.  Bhagat Singh established contact with the Revolutionary Party of the province.  The leader of the party was Sachindranath Sanyal.  Every member of the party had to accept one condition.  At the call of its leader, he had to be ready to revolution.  Bhagat Singh left home and went to Lahore. For sometime thereafter, nobody knew where he went. Joining of HRA
  16. 16. Before leaving home, Bhagat Singh wrote a letter; he said, "The aim of my life is to fight for India's freedom. I don't wish for worldly pleasures. At the time of my Upanayan (the initiation ceremony among the Hindus), my uncle had taken a sacred promise from me; I promised to sacrifice myself for the sake of the country. Accordingly I am now giving up my own happiness and going out to serve the country." Bhagat Singh letter to family
  17. 17.  Bhagat Singh reached Kanpur, the revolutionary capital of India.  First he earned his bread there by selling newspapers.  He came to know a revolutionary by name Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi. He got a job in the office of his periodical 'The Pratap'.  It was in Kanpur where he also learnt his first lessons as a revolutionary.  Revolutionaries generally change their names so that people may not know them. Bhagat Singh became Balawant Singh. Decomposition of HRA
  18. 18.  Village of Bhagat was too small for his activities so he went to Lahore.  There a union of revolutionaries by name 'Naujavan Bharat Sabha' was founded.  Bhagat Singh became the Secretary. The new union started teaching lessons of revolution to the people of Punjab.  Outwardly its objects were to spread Indian culture, to make the youth strong and fight.  Within few days, the ‘Sabha' started its branches in different places.  The celebration of the birthdays of revolutionaries became an important part of the program of the union. Foundation of new party and initiation of its activities
  19. 19.  The members would take out pictures of revolutionaries, decorated with Khadi and garlands.  They would cut their fingers and put a mark of blood on the foreheads of the heroes in the pictures.  They would lecture about them. It was in these days that Bhagat Singh gained good practice in public speaking.  He spread the message of revolution everywhere. By this time,  Bhagat Singh had caught the eye of the police. Spies carefully watched his movements.
  20. 20.  Once, as he was just leaving a train at Amritsar, the spies followed Bhagat Singh.  Trying to escape from them, he began to run. But where ever he went he could not escape.  At last he rushed into a lawyer's house and escaped from the police.  Then he travelled to Lahore. When the train reached Lahore, he was caught by the police and pushed into the Lahore Fort Jail. His first Arrest
  21. 21.  Bhagat Singh did not know why he was arrested.  A few days earlier some one had thrown a bomb on procession during the Dusehara Festival.  To find out the secrets of other revolutionaries, they tortured him in many ways. Bhagat Singh did not open his mouth.  Finally, a Magistrate decided that Bhagat Singh could be released only on a bail of sixty thousand  Yet, out of sheer affection for Bhagat Singh, two rich persons came forward. They were Duneechand and Daulatram. On their surety, Bhagat Singh was set free.
  22. 22.  The entire day he was busy with his dairy, but the night brought thoughts of revolution.  He joined his friends for discussions. At the same time, he got into touch with the newspapers, 'Kirtee' and 'Akalee'.  He wrote articles for them. A journal brought out a special issue to honor fighters who had been hanged; Bhagat Singh himself introduced some of the revolutionaries.  After attending a meeting of revolutionaries in Delhi in 1928, he never returned home. Setting up of clear thoughts on what to do
  23. 23.  In Delhi, Chandrasekhar Azad, a young revolutionary, was introduced to Bhagat Singh.  It was as if fire and wind were united. The activities of the revolutionaries gained new strength. Meeting with Chandra Shekhar Azad
  24. 24.  He realized that independence from british rule was not the only motive. They needed leaders to lead the nation to a rising phase.  There was a revolutionary party called the 'Hindustan Prajatantra Sangha' (The Indian Republic Party). The name was changed to 'Hindustan Samajvadi Prajatantra Sangha' (The Indian Socialist Republican Party).  Its aim was to establish a republic in India by means of an ARMED REVOLUTION.  Bhagat Singh went to Calcutta to learn to make bombs. There he bought as many bombs as he needed. He also learnt from Jatindranath Das, a revolutionary, how to make bombs. Starting of Armed Revolution
  25. 25.  In February 1928, the Simon Commission from England visited India.  Wherever the committee went, people protested with black flags, shouting "Simon, go back."  When the Simon Commission reached Lahore in October, it had to face a big procession opposed to it.  Its leader was Lala Lajpat Rai. Trouble started near the railway station itself. The revolutionaries did not allow the Simon Commission to proceed.  The police could not protect the members. By that time, the Police Superintendent, one Scott by name, ordered a lathi charge. The visit of Simon Commission
  26. 26.  Lala Lajpat Rai suffered of a powerful blow. People started running. But Lajpat Rai and his companions did not move.  A police officer by name Saunders rushed forward and hit Lajpat Rai on the chest.  It was a powerful blow. Lajpat Rai was old and ill.  The blow brought his death. He suffered for a month and died.
  27. 27.  The revolutionaries decided that they should take revenge and that they should kill Scott who ordered the lath-charge.  Plan was ready.  Jayagopal mistook Saunders for Scott.  The appointed day came. That evening Saunders came out of the police station and got on his motor bicycle. Jayagopal who was behind made a sign.  Next day posters appeared on the walls in all the streets of Lahore. They declared, "Lala Lajpat Rai's death is avenged. Saunders has been murdered.“ Revenge of Lala ji’s death
  28. 28.  The posters also contained the name of The Hindustan Samajvadi Prajatantra Sena (The Indian Socialist Republican Army) in red letters. So every one could know who were behind the murder of Saunders,  The people's respect for the Kranti Dal grew. Saunders' murder shook the British Government.
  29. 29.  Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Chandra sekhara Azad all three escaped from Lahore.  Bhagat Singh dressed himself as a foreign youth and wore a hat.  Durga Bhabhi, the wife of a revolutionary Bhagavaticharan, and their child followed Bhagat Singh, so that people would think they were Bhagat Singh's wife and child.  Rajguru left the place disguised as an ordinary worker. Azad traveled as a pundit (scholar).  The police searched and searched for Bhagat Singh and Rajguru, but could not find them. Three months passed. Escape from Lahore
  30. 30.  In April 1929, the Central Legislative Assembly met in Delhi.  The British Government wanted to place before the Assembly two bills which were likely to harm the country's interests.  Even if the Assembly rejected them, the Viceroy could use his special powers and approve them, and they would become laws. Assembly Bombing Plan
  31. 31. There were basically two motives Bhagat Singh’s plan of throwing bomb in Assembly:-  Oppositions of the bills.  Creating an image in the eyes of the country people. Motive behind this Plan
  32. 32.  Bhagat Singh chose Batukheshwar Dutt to accompany him .  On the 8th of April 1929 the two men took the bombs and entered the Assembly Hall. They sat in the visitors' gallery.  The session commenced. The Government placed the bills before the Assembly. The members rejected them.  In the end, a member of the Government began an announcement that the Viceroy had exercised his special powers.  At once, a bomb fell from above and exploded causing a fearful sound. Immediately another bomb fell. There were sounds of shooting, too. Execution of Plan
  33. 33.  The entire hall was filled with smoke. People ran helter skelter. Some were so frightened that they fell down unconscious.  By that time, red pamphlets fell from the visitors' gallery. In them, particulars of Prajatantra Sena (the Republican Army) were given and the Government was condemned. The Hall was filled with the slogan, Inqulab Zindabad (Long Live Revolution!)
  34. 34.  The police rushed to the spot.  Only Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt were there. They were holding pistols.  Afraid of them, the police moved back. But both threw down their pistols and got them hand- cuffed.  The bombs thrown into the Assembly Hall killed no one. Four or five persons received very minor injuries; that was all.  It was not the revolutionaries' object to kill any body.  The incident drew the attention of the entire world. The Kranti Dal's name became a household word. The British Government trembled.
  35. 35.  After the incident, the Government got scent of the factory at Lahore.  The Government seized enough material to make seven thousand bombs.  The Government too discovered another big factory at Shaharanpur.  Within a few days, most of the leaders of the Kranti Dal were arrested.  The Government filed a case against them, accusing them of executing the Lahore plot.  Bhagat Singh and his companions were kept in prison in Lahore. Government action after the blast
  36. 36.  The trial of the accused commenced.  In those days political prisoners were not treated properly in the jail. They were not given proper food. They were made to suffer in every possible way.  Bhagat Singh and his companions decided to fight against the wretched condition. All the revolutionaries went on fast.  But Jatin Das did not. He did not listen to anybody. On the 64th day of his fast, he died.  Bhagat Singh fasted for thirty-two days thereafter. Hunger Strike in Prison
  37. 37.  The trial of Bhagat Singh and his companions began.  It drew the attention of the whole world. The police heavily guarded the court. No spectators were allowed inside the court.  The prisoners were brought to the court in chains. They used to shout ' Inqulab Zindabad' and only then enter the court hall. Commencing of TRIAL Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt stated, "If the deaf are to hear, the sound has to be very loud. When we dropped the bomb, it was not our intention to kill anybody. We have bombed the British Government. The British must quit India and make India free."
  38. 38.  They also explained the objects of their association. The whole world came to understand their aim and activities because of the press reports.
  39. 39.  Meanwhile as the Trial was persuing, the file of Sauunder’s murder case was re – opened .  Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Thappar and Rajguru were found guilty.  Finally judgment was given. Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were to be hanged by neck. Re – Opening of Saunder’s murder case
  40. 40. 23rd march, 1931
  41. 41.  On the day of their hanging they were fearless. They were cheerful.  They competed with one another to be hanged first. It was decided that first Sukhdev would be hanged and then Bhagat Singh and finally Rajguru.  All the three climbed the platform. Kissing the rope, they themselves put it round their neck.  They died with the name of Bharat Mata on their lips. Such was the end of the three champions of freedom.
  42. 42. Bhagat Singh Last Letter साथियं, स्वाभाववक है कक जीने की इच्छा मुझमं भी होनी चाकहए, मं इसे थछपाना नहीं चाहता। ऱेककन मं एक शतत पर जजंदा रह सकता हूं कक मं कै द होकर या पाबंद होकर जीना नहीं चाहता। मेरा नाम कहंदुस्तानी क्रांथत का प्रतीक बन चुका है और क्रांथतकारी दऱ के आदशो और कु बातथनयं ने मुझे बहुत ऊं चा उठा कदया है-इतना ऊं चा कक जीववत रहने की जस्िथत मं इससे ऊं चा मं हरथगज नहीं हो सकता। आज मेरी कमजोररयां जनता के सामने नहीं हं। अगर मं फांसी से बच गया तो वो जाकहर हो जाएंगी और क्रांथत का प्रतीक थचह्न मविम पड़ जाएगा या संभवत: थमट ही जाए। ऱेककन कदऱेराना ढंग से हंसते-हंसते मेरे फांसी चढ़ने की सूरत मं कहंदुस्तान की माताएं अपने बच्चं के भगत थसंह बनने की आरजू ककया करंगी और देश की आजादी के थऱए कु बातनी देने वाऱं की तादाद इतनी बढ़ जाएगी कक क्रांथत को रोकना साम्राज्यवाद या तमाम शैतानी शवियं के बूते की बात नहीं रहेगी। हां, एक ववचार आज भी मेरे मन मं आता है कक देश और मानवता के थऱए जो कु छ करने की हसरतं मेरे कदऱ मं िी, उनका हजारवां भाग भी पूरा नहीं कर सका। अगर स्वतंत्र जजंदा रह सकता तब इन्हहं करने का अवसर थमऱता और मं अपनी हसरतं पूरी कर सकता। इसके थसवाय मेरे मन मं कभी कोई ऱाऱच फांसी से बचे रहने का नहीं आया। मुझसे अथिक सौभाग्यशाऱी कौन होगा? आजकऱ मुझे खुद पर बहुत गवत है। अब तो बड़ी बेताबी से अंथतम परीऺा का इंतजार है। कामना है कक यह और नजदीक हो जाए। आपका सािी, भगत थसंह
  43. 43.  “Revolution is made by labouring intellectuals and hardworking activists. Unfortunately, the intellectual side of the Indian Revolution has always remained weak. As a result, the essential elements of the revolution as well as the effects of work accomplished have not been sufficiently addressed. Therefore, it is necessary for a revolutionary to consider studying and reflection a sacred duty.” Bhagat Singh Philosophies and Thoughts
  44. 44. Government Cheap Thinking  In a shocking revelation, it has now come to light that Bhagat Singh, who sacrificed his life for the country, is not described as a martyr in government records.  The Home Ministry, while replying to an inquiry under Right to InformationAct, said it possesses no record to prove that Bhagat Singh has been declared a martyr.  In April, the ministry had been asked as to when Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were declared martyrs.  In May, the Home Ministry replied that the ministry had no record or document to show whether the trio had been declared martyrs.
  45. 45.  Arwind Kejriwal {ex Chief Minister} reply to government. People thinking about the Legend
  46. 46. Youth’s Thinking -