LTE Engg Seminar

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LTE Engg Seminar

  1. 1. 1 SEMINAR TOPICSEMINAR TOPIC ONON 3GPP LTE3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution)(Long Term Evolution) By: Rajdeep SatapathyBy: Rajdeep Satapathy Branch : CSEBranch : CSE Dated: 2010Dated: 2010
  2. 2. 2 ABSTRACTABSTRACT LTE is a 4G wireless broadband technology developed byLTE is a 4G wireless broadband technology developed by Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), an industrial trade group.Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), an industrial trade group. The 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) represents a majorThe 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) represents a major advance in cellular technology. LTE is a natural evolution of 3GPP GSM &advance in cellular technology. LTE is a natural evolution of 3GPP GSM & WCDMA networks. It is also an evolution candidate for 3GPPs CDMAWCDMA networks. It is also an evolution candidate for 3GPPs CDMA networks. LTE itself is a new paradigm in access, with a new modulationnetworks. LTE itself is a new paradigm in access, with a new modulation technique, OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex), and antennatechnique, OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex), and antenna technology, MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output). LTE is designed totechnology, MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output). LTE is designed to meet carrier needs for high-speed data and media transport as well asmeet carrier needs for high-speed data and media transport as well as high-capacity voice support well into the next decade. LTE is wellhigh-capacity voice support well into the next decade. LTE is well positioned to meet the requirements of next-generation mobile networks.positioned to meet the requirements of next-generation mobile networks. It will enable operators to offer high performance, mass-market mobileIt will enable operators to offer high performance, mass-market mobile broadband services, through a combination of high bit-rates and systembroadband services, through a combination of high bit-rates and system throughput – in both the up-link and down-link – with low latency.throughput – in both the up-link and down-link – with low latency. LTE infrastructure is designed to be as simple as possibleLTE infrastructure is designed to be as simple as possible to deploy and operate, through flexible technology that can be deployed into deploy and operate, through flexible technology that can be deployed in a wide variety of frequency bands. LTE offers scalable bandwidths, froma wide variety of frequency bands. LTE offers scalable bandwidths, from less than 5MHz up to 20MHz, together with support for both FDD pairedless than 5MHz up to 20MHz, together with support for both FDD paired and TDD unpaired spectrum. The LTE–SAE architecture reduces theand TDD unpaired spectrum. The LTE–SAE architecture reduces the number of nodes, supports flexible network configurations and provides anumber of nodes, supports flexible network configurations and provides a high level of service availability. Furthermore, LTE–SAE will inter-operatehigh level of service availability. Furthermore, LTE–SAE will inter-operate with GSM, WCDMA/HSPA, TD-SCDMA and CDMA.with GSM, WCDMA/HSPA, TD-SCDMA and CDMA.
  3. 3. 33 CONTENTSCONTENTS  Revolution towards LTERevolution towards LTE  What is LTE ?What is LTE ?  Why LTE?Why LTE?  GoalsGoals  3GPP Evolution3GPP Evolution  MotivationMotivation  LTE performance requirementsLTE performance requirements  Key Features of LTEKey Features of LTE  LTE Network ArchitectureLTE Network Architecture  System Architecture Evolution (SAE)System Architecture Evolution (SAE)  LTE Frame StructureLTE Frame Structure  OFDMOFDM  Multiple Antenna TechniquesMultiple Antenna Techniques  Business OpportunitiesBusiness Opportunities  ServicesServices  Is LTE ready ?Is LTE ready ?  Who is committed ?Who is committed ?  LTE vs WiMAXLTE vs WiMAX  ConclusionsConclusions  ReferencesReferences
  4. 4. 4 Revolution Towards LTERevolution Towards LTE  Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a 4G wireless broadbandLong Term Evolution (LTE) is a 4G wireless broadband technology developed by the Third Generation Partnershiptechnology developed by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), an industry trade group.Project (3GPP), an industry trade group. Introduction :Introduction :  Although 3G technologies deliver significantly higher bit ratesAlthough 3G technologies deliver significantly higher bit rates than 2G technologies, there is still a great opportunity forthan 2G technologies, there is still a great opportunity for wireless service providers to capitalize on the ever- increasingwireless service providers to capitalize on the ever- increasing demand for “Wireless Broadband” and take advantage of thedemand for “Wireless Broadband” and take advantage of the technology innovation that improves the economics of deployingtechnology innovation that improves the economics of deploying mobile broadband networks.mobile broadband networks.
  5. 5. 5 What is LTE ?What is LTE ?  LTE is a natural evolution of 3GPP GSM & WCDMA networks. It is alsoLTE is a natural evolution of 3GPP GSM & WCDMA networks. It is also an evolution candidate for 3GPPs CDMA networks. LTE itself is a newan evolution candidate for 3GPPs CDMA networks. LTE itself is a new paradigm in access, with a new modulation technique, OFDM (Orthogonalparadigm in access, with a new modulation technique, OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex), & antenna technology, MIMO (Multiple InputFrequency Division Multiplex), & antenna technology, MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output). LTE is designed to meet carrier needs for high-speed dataMultiple Output). LTE is designed to meet carrier needs for high-speed data and media transport as well as high-capacity voice support well into theand media transport as well as high-capacity voice support well into the next decade.next decade. Why LTE ?Why LTE ? LTE , combining OFDM & MIMO, will provide on 2 to 5 times greaterLTE , combining OFDM & MIMO, will provide on 2 to 5 times greater spectral efficiency than most advanced 3G networks, reducing the cost perspectral efficiency than most advanced 3G networks, reducing the cost per bit & allowing better economics for operators & end users. In addition tobit & allowing better economics for operators & end users. In addition to enabling fixed to mobile migrations of Internet applications such as Voiceenabling fixed to mobile migrations of Internet applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP), video streaming, music downloading, mobile TV & manyover IP (VoIP), video streaming, music downloading, mobile TV & many others, LTE networks also provide the capacity to support an explosion inothers, LTE networks also provide the capacity to support an explosion in demand for connectivity from a new generation of consumer devicesdemand for connectivity from a new generation of consumer devices tailored to those new mobile applicationstailored to those new mobile applications
  6. 6. 66 GOALS of LTEGOALS of LTE  GoalsGoals includeinclude  Significantly increase peak data rates, scaledSignificantly increase peak data rates, scaled linearly according to spectrum allocationlinearly according to spectrum allocation  improving spectral efficiencyimproving spectral efficiency  lowering costslowering costs  improving servicesimproving services  making use of new spectrum opportunitiesmaking use of new spectrum opportunities  Improved quality of serviceImproved quality of service  better integration with other open standardsbetter integration with other open standards
  7. 7. 77 3GPP Evolution3GPP Evolution  Release 99 (2000): UMTS/WCDMARelease 99 (2000): UMTS/WCDMA  Release 5 (2002) : HSDPARelease 5 (2002) : HSDPA  Release 6 (2005) : HSUPA, MBMS (MultimediaRelease 6 (2005) : HSUPA, MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Services)Broadcast/Multicast Services)  Release 7 (2007) : DL MIMO, IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem),Release 7 (2007) : DL MIMO, IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem), optimized real-time services (VoIP, gaming, push-to-talk).optimized real-time services (VoIP, gaming, push-to-talk).  Release 8(2009?) :LTE (Long Term Evolution)Release 8(2009?) :LTE (Long Term Evolution) Long Term Evolution (LTE)Long Term Evolution (LTE)  3GPP work on the Evolution of the 3G Mobile System started in3GPP work on the Evolution of the 3G Mobile System started in November 2004.November 2004.  Currently, standardization in progress in the form of Rel-8.Currently, standardization in progress in the form of Rel-8.  Specifications scheduled to be finalized by the end of mid 2008.Specifications scheduled to be finalized by the end of mid 2008.  Target deployment in 2010.Target deployment in 2010.
  8. 8. 88 MotivationMotivation  Need for higher data rates and greater spectral efficiencyNeed for higher data rates and greater spectral efficiency  Can be achieved with HSDPA/HSUPACan be achieved with HSDPA/HSUPA  and/or new air interface defined by 3GPP LTEand/or new air interface defined by 3GPP LTE  Need for Packet Switched optimized systemNeed for Packet Switched optimized system  Evolve UMTS towards packet only systemEvolve UMTS towards packet only system  Need for high quality of servicesNeed for high quality of services  Use of licensed frequencies to guarantee quality of servicesUse of licensed frequencies to guarantee quality of services  Always-on experience (reduce control plane latencyAlways-on experience (reduce control plane latency significantly)significantly)  Reduce round trip delayReduce round trip delay  Need for cheaper infrastructureNeed for cheaper infrastructure  Simplify architecture, reduce number of network elementsSimplify architecture, reduce number of network elements
  9. 9. 99 LTE performanceLTE performance requirementsrequirements  Data Rate:Data Rate:  Instantaneous downlink peak data rate of 100Mbit/s in a 20MHzInstantaneous downlink peak data rate of 100Mbit/s in a 20MHz downlink spectrum (i.e. 5 bit/s/Hz)downlink spectrum (i.e. 5 bit/s/Hz)  Instantaneous uplink peak data rate of 50Mbit/s in a 20MHzInstantaneous uplink peak data rate of 50Mbit/s in a 20MHz uplink spectrum (i.e. 2.5 bit/s/Hz)uplink spectrum (i.e. 2.5 bit/s/Hz)   Cell rangeCell range  5 km - optimal size5 km - optimal size  30km sizes with reasonable performance30km sizes with reasonable performance  up to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performanceup to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance  Cell capacityCell capacity  up to 200 active users per cell(5 MHz) (i.e., 200 active dataup to 200 active users per cell(5 MHz) (i.e., 200 active data clients)clients)
  10. 10. 1010 LTE performance requirementsLTE performance requirements (contd…)(contd…)  MobilityMobility  Optimized for low mobility(0-15km/h) but supports high speedOptimized for low mobility(0-15km/h) but supports high speed  LatencyLatency  user plane < 5msuser plane < 5ms  control plane < 50 mscontrol plane < 50 ms  Improved spectrum efficiencyImproved spectrum efficiency  Cost-effective migration from Release 6 Universal Terrestrial Radio AccessCost-effective migration from Release 6 Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) radio interface and architecture(UTRA) radio interface and architecture  Improved broadcastingImproved broadcasting  IP-optimizedIP-optimized  Scalable bandwidth of 20MHz, 15MHz, 10MHz, 5MHz and <5MHzScalable bandwidth of 20MHz, 15MHz, 10MHz, 5MHz and <5MHz  Co-existence with legacy standards (users can transparently start a call orCo-existence with legacy standards (users can transparently start a call or transfer of data in an area using an LTE standard, and, when there is notransfer of data in an area using an LTE standard, and, when there is no coverage, continue the operation without any action on their part usingcoverage, continue the operation without any action on their part using GSM/GPRS or W-CDMA-based UMTS)GSM/GPRS or W-CDMA-based UMTS)
  11. 11. 1111 Key Features of LTEKey Features of LTE  Multiple access schemeMultiple access scheme  Downlink: OFDMADownlink: OFDMA  Uplink: Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA)Uplink: Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA)  Adaptive modulation and codingAdaptive modulation and coding  DL modulations: QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAMDL modulations: QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM  UL modulations: QPSK and 16QAMUL modulations: QPSK and 16QAM  Rel-6 Turbo code: Coding rate of 1/3, two 8-state constituent encoders, and aRel-6 Turbo code: Coding rate of 1/3, two 8-state constituent encoders, and a contention- free internal interleaver.contention- free internal interleaver.  Bandwidth scalability for efficient operation in differently sized allocatedBandwidth scalability for efficient operation in differently sized allocated spectrum bandsspectrum bands  Possible support for operating as single frequency network (SFN) to supportPossible support for operating as single frequency network (SFN) to support MBMSMBMS
  12. 12. 1212 Key Features of LTEKey Features of LTE (contd.)(contd.)  Multiple Antenna (MIMO) technology for enhanced data rate andMultiple Antenna (MIMO) technology for enhanced data rate and performance.performance.  ARQ within RLC sub layer and Hybrid ARQ within MAC sub layer.ARQ within RLC sub layer and Hybrid ARQ within MAC sub layer.  Power control and link adaptationPower control and link adaptation  Implicit support for interference coordinationImplicit support for interference coordination  Support for both FDD and TDDSupport for both FDD and TDD  Channel dependent scheduling & link adaptation for enhanced performance.Channel dependent scheduling & link adaptation for enhanced performance.  Reduced radio-access-network nodes to reduce cost, protocol-relatedReduced radio-access-network nodes to reduce cost, protocol-related processing time & call set-up timeprocessing time & call set-up time
  13. 13. 1313 LTE Network ArchitectureLTE Network Architecture
  14. 14. 1414 System Architecture Evolution(SAE)System Architecture Evolution(SAE)  System Architecture Evolution (aka SAE) is theSystem Architecture Evolution (aka SAE) is the core network architecture of 3GPP's future LTEcore network architecture of 3GPP's future LTE wireless communication standard.wireless communication standard.  SAE is the evolution of the GPRS Core Network,SAE is the evolution of the GPRS Core Network, with some differences.with some differences.  The main principles and objectives of the LTE-SAEThe main principles and objectives of the LTE-SAE architecture include :architecture include :  A common anchor point and gateway (GW) node for all access technologiesA common anchor point and gateway (GW) node for all access technologies  IP-based protocols on all interfaces;IP-based protocols on all interfaces;  Simplified network architectureSimplified network architecture  All IP networkAll IP network  All services are via Packet Switched domainAll services are via Packet Switched domain  Support mobility between heterogeneous RATs, including legacy systems asSupport mobility between heterogeneous RATs, including legacy systems as GPRS, but also non-3GPP systems (say WiMAX)GPRS, but also non-3GPP systems (say WiMAX)  Support for multiple, heterogeneous RATs, including legacy systems asSupport for multiple, heterogeneous RATs, including legacy systems as GPRS, but also non-3GPP systems (say WiMAX)GPRS, but also non-3GPP systems (say WiMAX)
  15. 15. 1515 OFDMOFDM  LTE uses OFDM for the downlink – that is, from the base station to the terminal. OFDMLTE uses OFDM for the downlink – that is, from the base station to the terminal. OFDM meets the LTE requirement for spectrum flexibility and enables cost-efficient solutionsmeets the LTE requirement for spectrum flexibility and enables cost-efficient solutions for very wide carriers with high peak rates. OFDM uses a large number of narrow sub-for very wide carriers with high peak rates. OFDM uses a large number of narrow sub- carriers for multi-carrier transmission.carriers for multi-carrier transmission.  The basic LTE downlink physical resource can be seen as a time-frequency grid. In theThe basic LTE downlink physical resource can be seen as a time-frequency grid. In the frequency domain, the spacing between the subcarriers, Δf, is 15kHz. In addition, thefrequency domain, the spacing between the subcarriers, Δf, is 15kHz. In addition, the OFDM symbol duration time is 1/Δf + cyclic prefix. The cyclic prefix is used toOFDM symbol duration time is 1/Δf + cyclic prefix. The cyclic prefix is used to maintain orthogonality between the sub-carriers even for a time-dispersive radiomaintain orthogonality between the sub-carriers even for a time-dispersive radio channel.channel.  One resource element carries QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM. With 64QAM, each resourceOne resource element carries QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM. With 64QAM, each resource element carries six bits.element carries six bits.  The OFDM symbols are grouped into resource blocks. The resource blocks have aThe OFDM symbols are grouped into resource blocks. The resource blocks have a total size of 180kHz in the frequency domain and 0.5ms in the time domain. Each 1mstotal size of 180kHz in the frequency domain and 0.5ms in the time domain. Each 1ms Transmission Time Interval (TTI) consists of two slots (Tslot).Transmission Time Interval (TTI) consists of two slots (Tslot).  In E-UTRA, downlink modulation schemes QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM are available.In E-UTRA, downlink modulation schemes QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM are available.
  16. 16. 1616 Multiple AntennaMultiple Antenna TechniquesTechniques  MIMO employs multiple transmit and receive antennas to substantiallyMIMO employs multiple transmit and receive antennas to substantially enhance the air interface.enhance the air interface.  It uses space-time coding of the same data stream mapped onto multipleIt uses space-time coding of the same data stream mapped onto multiple transmit antennas, which is an improvement over traditional receptiontransmit antennas, which is an improvement over traditional reception diversity schemes where only a single transmit antenna is deployed todiversity schemes where only a single transmit antenna is deployed to extend the coverage of the cell.extend the coverage of the cell.  MIMO processing also exploits spatial multiplexing, allowing different dataMIMO processing also exploits spatial multiplexing, allowing different data streams to be transmitted simultaneously from the different transmitstreams to be transmitted simultaneously from the different transmit antennas, to increase the end-user data rate and cell capacity.antennas, to increase the end-user data rate and cell capacity.  In addition, when knowledge of the radio channel is available at theIn addition, when knowledge of the radio channel is available at the transmitter (e.g. via feedback information from the receiver), MIMO can alsotransmitter (e.g. via feedback information from the receiver), MIMO can also implement beam-forming to further increase available data rates andimplement beam-forming to further increase available data rates and spectrum efficiencyspectrum efficiency
  17. 17. 1717 Advanced Antenna TechniquesAdvanced Antenna Techniques Single data stream / userSingle data stream / user  Beam-formingBeam-forming  Coverage, longer battery lifeCoverage, longer battery life  Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA)Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA)  Multiple users in same radio resourceMultiple users in same radio resource Multiple data stream / user DiversityMultiple data stream / user Diversity  Link robustnessLink robustness  Spatial multiplexingSpatial multiplexing  Spectral efficiency, high data rate supportSpectral efficiency, high data rate support
  18. 18. 1818 Business opportunities  LTE provides 2 to 5 times greater spectral efficiency than most advanced 3G networks, reducing the cost per bit and allowing better economics for operators and end users.  It is affordable mass market wireless broadband services -boosting Operator profitability.  Faster downloads, video sharing, true Mobile TV with more channels and better quality.  Increased peak data rates, with the potential for100 Mbps peak downstream and 50 Mbps peak upstream, reduced latency, scalable bandwidth capacity, and backwards compatibility with existing GSM and WCDMA-HSPA and HSPA+ systems.  Future developments could yield peak throughput of the order of 300 Mbps
  19. 19. 1919 ServicesServices
  20. 20. 2020 Is LTE ready?  Standards are complete (Release 8 – March 2009)  LTE has global acceptance by leading operators worldwide  On December 15th2009, TeliaSonera launched the world’s first commercial LTE services, in Sweden and Norway  Spectrum is available to support initial system deployments  LTE performance consistently meets or exceeds expectations  Several trials and commercial deployments on-going throughout the world 110 operators in 48 countries are investing in LTE 80 firm network deployment commitments 30 “pre-commitment” trials, studies
  21. 21. 2121 Who is committed? 80 LTE network commitments in 33 countries Up to 22 LTE networks in service by end 2010 Up to 45 LTE networks in service by end 2012 30 additional pre-commitment LTE trials
  22. 22. 2222 LTE vs WiMAXLTE vs WiMAX  First, both are 4G technologies designed to move data rather than voice and both areFirst, both are 4G technologies designed to move data rather than voice and both are IP networks based on OFDM technology.IP networks based on OFDM technology.  WiMAX is based on a IEEE standard (802.16), and like that other popular IEEE effort,WiMAX is based on a IEEE standard (802.16), and like that other popular IEEE effort, Wi-Fi, it’s an open standard that was debated by a large community of engineersWi-Fi, it’s an open standard that was debated by a large community of engineers before getting ratified. In fact, we’re still waiting on the 802.16m standard for fasterbefore getting ratified. In fact, we’re still waiting on the 802.16m standard for faster mobile WiMAX to be ratified. The level of openness means WiMAX equipment ismobile WiMAX to be ratified. The level of openness means WiMAX equipment is standard and therefore cheaper to buy — sometimes half the cost and sometimesstandard and therefore cheaper to buy — sometimes half the cost and sometimes even less. Depending on the spectrum allotted for WiMAX deployments and how theeven less. Depending on the spectrum allotted for WiMAX deployments and how the network is configured, this can mean a WiMAX network is cheaper to build.network is configured, this can mean a WiMAX network is cheaper to build.  As for speeds, LTE will be faster than the current generation of WiMAX, but 802.16mAs for speeds, LTE will be faster than the current generation of WiMAX, but 802.16m that should be ratified in 2009 is fairly similar in speeds.that should be ratified in 2009 is fairly similar in speeds.  However, LTE will take time to roll out, with deployments reaching mass adoption byHowever, LTE will take time to roll out, with deployments reaching mass adoption by 2012 . WiMAX is out now, and more networks should be available later this year.2012 . WiMAX is out now, and more networks should be available later this year.  The crucial difference is that, unlike WiMAX, which requires a new network to be built,The crucial difference is that, unlike WiMAX, which requires a new network to be built, LTE runs on an evolution of the existing UMTS infrastructure already used by over 80LTE runs on an evolution of the existing UMTS infrastructure already used by over 80 per cent of mobile subscribers globally. This means that even though developmentper cent of mobile subscribers globally. This means that even though development and deployment of the LTE standard may lag Mobile WiMAX, it has a crucialand deployment of the LTE standard may lag Mobile WiMAX, it has a crucial incumbent advantage.incumbent advantage.
  23. 23. 2323 ConclusionsConclusions  Thus we Studied 3GPP LTE as :Thus we Studied 3GPP LTE as :  LTE is a highly optimized, spectrally efficient, mobile OFDMA solutionLTE is a highly optimized, spectrally efficient, mobile OFDMA solution built from the ground up for mobility, and it allows operators to offerbuilt from the ground up for mobility, and it allows operators to offer advanced services and higher performance for new and wideradvanced services and higher performance for new and wider bandwidths.bandwidths.  LTE is based on a flattened IP-based network architecture thatLTE is based on a flattened IP-based network architecture that improves network latency, and is designed to interoperate on andimproves network latency, and is designed to interoperate on and ensure service continuity with existing 3GPP networks. LTEensure service continuity with existing 3GPP networks. LTE leverages the benefits of existing 3G technologies and enhancesleverages the benefits of existing 3G technologies and enhances them further with additional antenna techniques such as higher-orderthem further with additional antenna techniques such as higher-order MIMO.MIMO.
  24. 24. 2424 ReferencesReferences  http://www.3gpp.org/http://www.3gpp.org/  Towards 4G IP-based Wireless Systems,Tony Ottosson Anders Ahl´en2 AnnaTowards 4G IP-based Wireless Systems,Tony Ottosson Anders Ahl´en2 Anna Brunstrom, Mikael Sternad and Arne Svensson,Brunstrom, Mikael Sternad and Arne Svensson, http://db.s2.chalmers.se/download/publications/ottosson_1007.pdfhttp://db.s2.chalmers.se/download/publications/ottosson_1007.pdf  The 3G Long-Term Evolution – Radio Interface Concepts and PerformanceThe 3G Long-Term Evolution – Radio Interface Concepts and Performance EvaluationEvaluation  http://www.ericsson.com/technology/http://www.ericsson.com/technology/  White Paper by NORTEL -Long-Term Evolution (LTE): The vision beyond 3GWhite Paper by NORTEL -Long-Term Evolution (LTE): The vision beyond 3G  http://www.nortel.com/solutions/wireless/collateral/nn114882.pdfhttp://www.nortel.com/solutions/wireless/collateral/nn114882.pdf  [Long Term Evolution (LTE): an introduction, October 2007 Ericsson White[Long Term Evolution (LTE): an introduction, October 2007 Ericsson White Paper]Paper]  www.gsacom.com  unite.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/lte  Technical Overview of 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) Hyung G. MyungTechnical Overview of 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) Hyung G. Myung http://hgmyung.googlepages.com/3gppLTE.pdfhttp://hgmyung.googlepages.com/3gppLTE.pdf
  25. 25. 2525 Questions?Questions?

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