Health Need Assessment


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Health Need Assessment

  1. 1. Health Need Assessment
  2. 2. <ul><li>Need refers to lack of something. </li></ul><ul><li>Need is not an absolute concept </li></ul><ul><li>There are gradations of need </li></ul><ul><li>Importance is who perceives it. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors, sociologists, philosophers & economists all have different views of what need is. </li></ul>What is need?
  3. 3. Health Need <ul><li>Perceived needs -need for health services experienced by individual & which (s)he is ready to acknowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Professionally defined needs -need for health services experienced by health professionals from the point of view of benefit obtainable from advise, preventive measure, management or specific therapy </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Scientifically confirmed needs – the need confirmed by objective measures of biological, anthropometric or psychological factors, expert opinion or passage of time. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Health need determinants <ul><li>Populations have different health needs depending upon many factors: </li></ul><ul><li>demography </li></ul><ul><li>socioeconomic status </li></ul><ul><li>environmental situation </li></ul><ul><li>genes </li></ul><ul><li>behavior </li></ul><ul><li>health care </li></ul>
  6. 6. Importance of health need assessment <ul><li>Review of existing health planning </li></ul><ul><li>Basis of health planning </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures efficient use of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies the inequalities in health & access to services </li></ul>
  7. 7. Steps in health need assesment
  8. 8. Planning Step I
  9. 9. <ul><li>Planning involves </li></ul><ul><li>Funding of project </li></ul><ul><li>Goals & objectives of project </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of individual research staff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>roles assigning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responsibility allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>methodological design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>necessary supplies </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Step II Data Choice
  11. 11. <ul><li>Basic demographic data (age, socioeconomic status, sex etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Variables of interest in research </li></ul><ul><li>Both of these are decided in the first step of planning when the whole layout and procedure is made. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Types of data <ul><li>Primary data </li></ul><ul><li>collected for health need assessment by two major ways. </li></ul><ul><li>1.Surveys </li></ul><ul><li> 2.Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>(costly and time consuming) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Secondary data <ul><li>Census </li></ul><ul><li>Civil registration system </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital & indoor records </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Laboratories </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemiological Studies </li></ul><ul><li>National Sample Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Special Studies (World fertility survey, Demographic health survey, Multicluster indicator survey) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Research design identifies the data to be used
  15. 15. Step III Sampling Techniques
  16. 16. <ul><li>Most common sample survey </li></ul><ul><li>Different techniques of probability sampling are known </li></ul><ul><li>Some commonly used are </li></ul><ul><li>simple random sampling </li></ul><ul><li>stratified random sampling </li></ul><ul><li>cluster sampling </li></ul>
  17. 17. Simple Random Sampling <ul><li>Each individual in population has an equal chances of being selected </li></ul><ul><li>Generally done by using random tables </li></ul><ul><li>Some uses the digits of currency notes </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stratified Random Sampling <ul><li>Population is divided into two or more sub populations or strata </li></ul><ul><li>Sample is drawn out of those subunits </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cluster Sampling <ul><li>Numbering population </li></ul><ul><li>Randomly selecting units </li></ul><ul><li>Example - states, city blocks </li></ul>
  20. 20. Step IV Modes of Data Collection
  21. 21. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.Close ended questions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mail surveys </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone surveys </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In person surveys </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.Open ended questions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Disseminating Data
  23. 23. <ul><li>Preparing presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Brief summary of the assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Effective communication </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting population according to specifications (education etc.) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Benefits of health need assessment <ul><li>Strengthened community involvement in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Improved public participation </li></ul><ul><li>Professional developments of skills & experience </li></ul><ul><li>Improved patient care </li></ul><ul><li>Better use of scarce resources </li></ul>
  25. 25. Challenges of health need assesment <ul><li>Working across professional boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Developing shared language between sections </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining commitment from top </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing relevant data </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing target population </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining term impetus& commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Translating findings into effective action </li></ul>
  26. 26. References   1.Henderson RH and Sundaresan T. Cluster sampling to assess immunization coverage: a review of experience with a simplified sampling method. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1982;60(2):253-60. 2.   Lareau L. Needs assessment of the elderly: Conclusions and methodological approaches. The Gerontologist 1983;23(5):518-26.
  27. 27. <ul><li>3.Lareau L and Heumann L. The inadequacy of needs assessments of the elderly. The Gerontologist 1982;22(3):324-30. </li></ul><ul><li>4.McKillip J. Need analysis: Tools for the human services and education. Newbury Park (CA): Sage; 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Miles MB and Huberman AM. Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage; 1994. </li></ul>