My minor project


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programmable moving rover

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My minor project

  1. 1. Minor project OIST Electronics & Communication Group members: Aamir Hussain Abhikalp Gupta Alind Trivedi Anuj Koshti Bhrigu Raj Sharma
  2. 2. Prime Focus- <ul><li>Electronic components and circuitry involved </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical aspect </li></ul><ul><li>Programming part </li></ul>
  3. 4. Electronic components Atmega32 microcontroller Crystal oscillator Resistors capacitors Diode Drum switches H-bridge
  4. 5. Atmega32 Microcontroller
  5. 6. Key features… <ul><li>  8-bit Microcontroller </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 1 MIPS Throughput at 16MHz </li></ul><ul><li>On-chip Analog Comparator </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Voltages  - 4.5-5.5V for ATmega32 </li></ul><ul><li>Speed Grades  - 0-16 MHz for ATmega32 </li></ul>
  6. 7. Utility <ul><li>It is being used to operate the two motors </li></ul><ul><li>Led’s </li></ul><ul><li>The required programming is loaded in the flash memory, according to which the movement is controlled </li></ul>
  7. 8. Crystal oscillator
  8. 9. Utility <ul><li>Operates from 0 to 16 mhz. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the operating frequency for operation of microcontroller </li></ul>
  9. 10. H-bridge <ul><li>Enables a voltage to be applied across a load in either direction. </li></ul><ul><li>These circuits are often used in robotics and other applications to allow DC motors to run forwards and backwards. </li></ul>
  10. 11. H-bridge utility
  11. 12. Circuit of H-bridge
  12. 13. The two basic states of an H bridge
  13. 14. How H-Bridge works Off Forward Reverse
  14. 15. The following table summarizes operation, with S1-S4 corresponding to the diagram above. ACTION OF MOTOR S1 S2 S3 S4 Result 1 0 0 1 Motor moves right 0 1 1 0 Motor moves left 0 1 0 1 Motor brakes 1 0 1 0 Motor brakes
  15. 16. Others… <ul><li>Resistors- for control of current flow </li></ul><ul><li>Capacitors- for uninterrupted voltage </li></ul><ul><li>FET- for voltage control </li></ul><ul><li>Switches </li></ul><ul><li>Diodes </li></ul>
  16. 18. Actuators <ul><li>Actuators are mechanical devices which converts energy into motion </li></ul><ul><li>The energy can be hydraulic, pneumatic or electric. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to avoid the complexity we have chosen dc motor as actuator. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Parameters for selecting a motor <ul><li>Revolution per minute of shaft (rpm) </li></ul><ul><li>Velocity of wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Torque </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage </li></ul><ul><li>Current </li></ul>
  18. 20. RPM of Motor <ul><li>rpm of motor is defined as speed of the shaft without any load </li></ul><ul><li>The rpm depends on the load </li></ul><ul><li>The rpm is inversely proportional to torque. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Velocity <ul><li>It is the rotating speed of the wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on the rpm & radius of the wheel. </li></ul><ul><li>V =2*∏*r* ω </li></ul><ul><li>For a constant wheel radius, rpm can be used to control the velocity. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Torque <ul><li>Torque α (1 / rotational speed or rpm) </li></ul><ul><li>On increasing the torque rpm will decrease & vice versa </li></ul><ul><li>Having a small load on robot we choose a motor having less torque & more speed </li></ul>
  21. 23. Power <ul><li>Motor Power = Torque * rpm </li></ul><ul><li>Required power = Force * velocity </li></ul><ul><li>Required power will depends on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mass of robot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>radius of wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To drive robot efficiently:- </li></ul><ul><li>Motor power > Required power </li></ul>
  22. 24. Voltage <ul><li>DC motors are non polarized i.e. on reversing the polarity the direction of rotation of wheel changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Torque is directly proportional to applied voltage. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Current <ul><li>The operating current is the average current drawn by the motor which is required to drive the robot. </li></ul><ul><li>To turn the wheel clockwise or anticlockwise, the direction of current is reversed which is done through H-bridge. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Selection of motor <ul><li>With all parameters including rpm, velocity, torque, power, current and voltage required to drive the motor efficiently a geared dc motor of following specifications is selected: </li></ul><ul><li>100RPM 9V DC with Gearbox </li></ul><ul><li>6mm shaft diameter with internal hole </li></ul><ul><li>125gm weight </li></ul><ul><li>1.2kgcm torque </li></ul><ul><li>No-load current = 60 mA(Max), Load current = 300 mA(Max) </li></ul>
  25. 28. What is Differential drive? <ul><li>The differential drive is a two-wheeled drive system.  </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>The drive wheels are usually placed on each side of the robot and toward the front </li></ul>
  27. 30. Non driven wheel (metal ball)
  28. 31. Pros: <ul><li>Simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>Effective for plane surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Effective </li></ul><ul><li>Power Efficient </li></ul>
  29. 33. Programming …………….. <ul><li>For programming software used: </li></ul><ul><li>Win AVR </li></ul><ul><li>AVR studio 4 </li></ul><ul><li>PL2303 USB driver </li></ul><ul><li>USB programmer </li></ul>
  30. 34. Why AVR studio 4…………? <ul><li>AVR Studio 4 includes a debugger that supports </li></ul><ul><li>run control </li></ul><ul><li>source and instruction-level stepping </li></ul><ul><li>Registers </li></ul><ul><li>I/O views </li></ul><ul><li>target configuration and management </li></ul>
  31. 35. Standard program <ul><li>This program is made on AVR STUDIO 4 in the high level language (user friendly language) which includes libraries for the compiling and designing of program. </li></ul><ul><li>#include  <avr/io.h> </li></ul><ul><li>int  main() </li></ul><ul><li>{ </li></ul><ul><li>Step  1    Set  pin2  (PD0)  and  pin3  (PD1)  as  output  pin; </li></ul><ul><li>Step  2    Set  pin15  (PB1)  as  output  pin; </li></ul><ul><li>Step  3    Send  0  at  PD0  and  1  at  PD1; </li></ul><ul><li>Step  4    Send  1  at  PB1; </li></ul><ul><li>While(1) </li></ul><ul><li>{ </li></ul><ul><li>//do  any  job  here </li></ul><ul><li>} </li></ul><ul><li>Return  0; </li></ul><ul><li>} </li></ul>
  32. 36. Sample program <ul><li>This program is for the forward movement of this programmable moving robot. </li></ul><ul><li>#include<avr/io.h> </li></ul><ul><li>#include<util/delay.h> </li></ul><ul><li>#include<compat/deprecated.h> </li></ul><ul><li>int main() </li></ul><ul><li>{ </li></ul><ul><li>  DDRC=0b11111111;//data direction register c is initialised by binary value </li></ul><ul><li>while(1) </li></ul><ul><li>{ </li></ul><ul><li>sbi(PORTC,1); //sets a bit of portc of ATMEGA32 </li></ul><ul><li>sbi(PORTC,2); //sets a bit of portc of ATMEGA32 </li></ul><ul><li>} </li></ul><ul><li>return(0); </li></ul><ul><li>} </li></ul>
  33. 37. Thank you All the glory in the world can be achieved by only………………………. …………………………… beginning…..