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My minor project

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programmable moving rover

programmable moving rover

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  • 1. Minor project OIST Electronics & Communication Group members: Aamir Hussain Abhikalp Gupta Alind Trivedi Anuj Koshti Bhrigu Raj Sharma
  • 2. Prime Focus-
    • Electronic components and circuitry involved
    • Mechanical aspect
    • Programming part
  • 3.  
  • 4. Electronic components Atmega32 microcontroller Crystal oscillator Resistors capacitors Diode Drum switches H-bridge
  • 5. Atmega32 Microcontroller
  • 6. Key features…
    •   8-bit Microcontroller
    • Up to 1 MIPS Throughput at 16MHz
    • On-chip Analog Comparator
    • Operating Voltages  - 4.5-5.5V for ATmega32
    • Speed Grades  - 0-16 MHz for ATmega32
  • 7. Utility
    • It is being used to operate the two motors
    • Led’s
    • The required programming is loaded in the flash memory, according to which the movement is controlled
  • 8. Crystal oscillator
  • 9. Utility
    • Operates from 0 to 16 mhz.
    • Provides the operating frequency for operation of microcontroller
  • 10. H-bridge
    • Enables a voltage to be applied across a load in either direction.
    • These circuits are often used in robotics and other applications to allow DC motors to run forwards and backwards.
  • 11. H-bridge utility
  • 12. Circuit of H-bridge
  • 13. The two basic states of an H bridge
  • 14. How H-Bridge works Off Forward Reverse
  • 15. The following table summarizes operation, with S1-S4 corresponding to the diagram above. ACTION OF MOTOR S1 S2 S3 S4 Result 1 0 0 1 Motor moves right 0 1 1 0 Motor moves left 0 1 0 1 Motor brakes 1 0 1 0 Motor brakes
  • 16. Others…
    • Resistors- for control of current flow
    • Capacitors- for uninterrupted voltage
    • FET- for voltage control
    • Switches
    • Diodes
  • 17.  
  • 18. Actuators
    • Actuators are mechanical devices which converts energy into motion
    • The energy can be hydraulic, pneumatic or electric.
    • In order to avoid the complexity we have chosen dc motor as actuator.
  • 19. Parameters for selecting a motor
    • Revolution per minute of shaft (rpm)
    • Velocity of wheel
    • Torque
    • Power
    • Voltage
    • Current
  • 20. RPM of Motor
    • rpm of motor is defined as speed of the shaft without any load
    • The rpm depends on the load
    • The rpm is inversely proportional to torque.
  • 21. Velocity
    • It is the rotating speed of the wheel
    • Depends on the rpm & radius of the wheel.
    • V =2*∏*r* ω
    • For a constant wheel radius, rpm can be used to control the velocity.
  • 22. Torque
    • Torque α (1 / rotational speed or rpm)
    • On increasing the torque rpm will decrease & vice versa
    • Having a small load on robot we choose a motor having less torque & more speed
  • 23. Power
    • Motor Power = Torque * rpm
    • Required power = Force * velocity
    • Required power will depends on
      • mass of robot
      • radius of wheel
    • To drive robot efficiently:-
    • Motor power > Required power
  • 24. Voltage
    • DC motors are non polarized i.e. on reversing the polarity the direction of rotation of wheel changes.
    • Torque is directly proportional to applied voltage.
  • 25. Current
    • The operating current is the average current drawn by the motor which is required to drive the robot.
    • To turn the wheel clockwise or anticlockwise, the direction of current is reversed which is done through H-bridge.
  • 26. Selection of motor
    • With all parameters including rpm, velocity, torque, power, current and voltage required to drive the motor efficiently a geared dc motor of following specifications is selected:
    • 100RPM 9V DC with Gearbox
    • 6mm shaft diameter with internal hole
    • 125gm weight
    • 1.2kgcm torque
    • No-load current = 60 mA(Max), Load current = 300 mA(Max)
  • 27.  
  • 28. What is Differential drive?
    • The differential drive is a two-wheeled drive system. 
  • 29.
    • The drive wheels are usually placed on each side of the robot and toward the front
  • 30. Non driven wheel (metal ball)
  • 31. Pros:
    • Simplicity
    • Effective for plane surfaces
    • Cost Effective
    • Power Efficient
  • 32.  
  • 33. Programming ……………..
    • For programming software used:
    • Win AVR
    • AVR studio 4
    • PL2303 USB driver
    • USB programmer
  • 34. Why AVR studio 4…………?
    • AVR Studio 4 includes a debugger that supports
    • run control
    • source and instruction-level stepping
    • Registers
    • I/O views
    • target configuration and management
  • 35. Standard program
    • This program is made on AVR STUDIO 4 in the high level language (user friendly language) which includes libraries for the compiling and designing of program.
    • #include  <avr/io.h>
    • int  main()
    • {
    • Step  1    Set  pin2  (PD0)  and  pin3  (PD1)  as  output  pin;
    • Step  2    Set  pin15  (PB1)  as  output  pin;
    • Step  3    Send  0  at  PD0  and  1  at  PD1;
    • Step  4    Send  1  at  PB1;
    • While(1)
    • {
    • //do  any  job  here
    • }
    • Return  0;
    • }
  • 36. Sample program
    • This program is for the forward movement of this programmable moving robot.
    • #include<avr/io.h>
    • #include<util/delay.h>
    • #include<compat/deprecated.h>
    • int main()
    • {
    •   DDRC=0b11111111;//data direction register c is initialised by binary value
    • while(1)
    • {
    • sbi(PORTC,1); //sets a bit of portc of ATMEGA32
    • sbi(PORTC,2); //sets a bit of portc of ATMEGA32
    • }
    • return(0);
    • }
  • 37. Thank you All the glory in the world can be achieved by only………………………. …………………………… beginning…..