The IP address is an identifier that is applied to each device connected to an IP network.
It operates on a best effort delivery model, in that it does not guarantee delivery, nor does it assure proper sequencing or avoidance of duplicate delivery.
It can therefore both send and receive datagram's belonging to both protocols and thus communicate with every node in the IPv4 and IPv6 network
ipv4 to 6
SEMINAR ON 1
• Introduction of IP Addressing• What is IPv4 ?• Why we need transition ?• What is IPv6 ?• Transition technologies for backward compatibility• Comparison between IPv4 and IPv6• Advantages of IPv6• Conclusion 2
• The Internet Protocol was designed in the 1970s to connect computers that were in separate geographic locations.• An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. 3
• The current version of the Internet Protocol is IPv4.It is a connectionless protocol.• IPv4 uses 32-bit (four-byte) addresses, which limits the address space to 4,294,967,296 (232) possible unique addresses. 4
(cont…..) Representation of IPv4 addresses Binary notation Dotted Decimal Notation e.g. 18.104.22.168/24e.g.11000000.00001010.00000010.00000000 5
• The most visible and urgent problem with using IPv4 on the modern Internet is the rapid depletion of public addresses.• IPv4 has difficulties with the explosive increase in the number of Internet users.• IPv4 must be configured, either manually or through the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. 6
• IPv6 is considered to be the next-generation Internet Protocol.• IPv6 is an improved version of the Internet Protocol that is designed to coexist with IPv4 and eventually provide better internetworking capabilities than IPv4.• IPv6 can make IP devices less expensive, more powerful, and even consume less power. 8
(cont……)• Address Allocation is classless.• Standard representation is set of eight 16-bit values separated by colons which is in HEXADECIMAL number system. Eg.47CD:1234:3200:0000:0000:4325:B792:0428 If there are large number of zeros, they can be omitted with series of colons E.g. 47CD:1234:3200::4325:B792:0428 9
• Dual stack – support of both IPv4 and IPv6 on network devices.• Tunneling – encapsulation of an IPv6 packet within an IPv4 packet for transmission over an IPv4 network.• Translation – address or port translation of addresses such as via a gateway device or translation code in the TCP/IP code of the host or router. 11
• This is the simplest and most desirable way for IPv4 and IPv6 to coexist in the network.• Dual stack is an integration method where a node has connectivity to both an IPv4 and IPv6 network• Using this method a host or a router is equipped with both IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks in the operating system. 12
• It is a strategy used when two computers using IPv6 wants to communicate with each other and the packet must pass through a region that uses IPv4.• In this method,IPv6 packet is encapsulated with IPv4 packet when it enters the region and leaves its capsule when it exits the region of IPv4. 14
• Transition mechanisms are vital, because the change from IPv4 to IPv6 is not going to happen overnight.• The final target architecture is to make all services function on the IPv6 platform.• This enables the simplification of the network architecture also from the maintenance point of view.• When the transition to IPv6 has been successfully finalized , there are enough IP addresses for every piece of equipment. 20