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Shp components

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SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANTS

SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANTS

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  • 1. BY: RAJ KUMAR BAIRWA 13512026 M.TECH (AHES) IIT ROORKEE
  • 2. TRASH RACK  DIVERSION WEIR INTAKE CHANNEL DESILTING HEADER BOX/TANK POWER CHANNEL FOREBAY TANK BYPASS CONDUIT/SPILLWAYS PENSTOCK INLET REGULATION VALVE HYDRO-TURBINES TAIL RACE GEAR BOX GENERATOR SWITCHGEAR AND PROTECTION DEVICES TRANSFORMERS CONTROL AND MONITOR CPU/CONTROL PANELS
  • 3. Fig.1 Schematic diagram showing SHP components
  • 4. A trash rack is a wooden or metal structure, that prevents waterborne debris (such as logs, boats, animals, masses of cut waterweed, etc.) from entering the intake of channel. This protects water penstock, and sluice gates from destruction. Trash racks composed of vertical wooden strakes separated by narrow gaps are very common and perform extremely poorly. Metal gratings are sturdier and can have narrower strakes, and angling the trash rack properly can allow some self-cleaning from the action of the water. Modern trash racks as used by hydroelectric plants can incorporate advanced feature as cleaning robots for their cleaning purposes. Trash racks are designed for water velocity of around 2 feet/second (0.6 metres/second) to prevent excessive energy loss due to the head loss across the trash rack. Close spacing keeps out more small floating debris or fish
  • 5. It is an structure constructed in such a manner so as to direct water to the intake channel. The advantages of diversion structures include the following: • Reduces the volume of flow across disturbed areas, thereby reducing the potential for erosion. • Breaks up the concentration of water on long slopes • Allows sediment basins and traps to function efficiently by maintaining a separation between clean water and sediment-laden water • Easily constructed with equipment found on most construction sites The limitations of diversion structures include the following: • High flow velocities can cause erosion in the diversion structure • Diversion structures must be stabilized immediately after installation
  • 6. It is the channel to which water is diverted by the diversion weir and fed into the desilting tank.The purpose of creating intake channel is:  Assured water supply  Suitable quality of water  Control over supply of water  Safety against flood
  • 7. It is the tank from which silt is excluded from the water which has entered into the intake channel. There are two types of de-silting arrangements: Preventive : The entry of sediment checked before its entry into the head regulation. These are constructed in the streams. Curative : The sediment is excluded from the channel after its entry with the channel. These are constructed in the channel.
  • 8. It is the channel through which water is being carried to the forebay tank for feeding to penstock. The various types of power channels are listed below:Open Channel • Rectangular • Trapezoidal • Triangular Closed Conduit • Reinforced concrete pipe • PVC pipes • Steel pipes
  • 9. It is a reservoir, basin or tank located just before the entrance to the penstock. The purpose of the forebay is: To provide immediate water demand on starting the generating unit  It can serve as a final settling basin  The forebay provides some storage in case of sudden failure of the system  To spill the extra water Forebay components include:Basin, Spillway,Gate or Valve,Outlet,Trashrack, Air Vent,1 to 2% of penstock area.
  • 10. A penstock is an enclosed pipe that delivers water to hydraulic turbines for the power generation purpose. Hydraulic Turbines act as a prime mover for the generator shaft due to which we get electrical power. Penstocks for hydroelectric installations are normally equipped with a gate system and a surge tank. Flow is regulated by turbine operation and is nil when turbines are not in service. The materials used for penstock construction are: Steel Pipe  P.V.C  Reinforced Concrete Pipe  Glass fibre reinforced plastic pipe  Wood stave  Glass fibre reinforced concrete
  • 11. The inlet valve in a Hydro Power station is used as a safety device. The inlet valve is used for regulating flow of water into the turbine.  It is also used for isolating the Hydro-turbine for maintenance purposes.
  • 12. Hydro turbines are needed for the conversion of hydro energy to mechanical energy.The various types of turbines are shown below:
  • 13. IMPULSE TURBINE REACTION TURBINE CONSTANT PRESSURE VARIABLE PRESSURE CONSTANT CROSS-SECTION VARIABLE CROSS-SECTION ONLY K.E IS UTILISED K.E AND PRESSURE ENERGY ARE UTILISED NOZZLE FOR DISCHARGE CONTROL GUIDE VANES FOR DISCHARGE CONTROL HIGH HEAD,LOW DISCHARGE LOW HEAD,HIGH DISCHARGE
  • 14. INDUCTION GENERATOR: An induction generator or asynchronous generator is a type of AC electrical generator that uses the principles of induction motors to produce power. Induction generators operate by mechanically turning their rotor faster than the synchronous speed, giving negative slip. A regular AC asynchronous motor usually can be used as a generator, without any internal modifications. Induction generators are useful in applications such as hydro- power plants, wind turbines etc. It has following featuresLOW COST SIMPLER CONTROLS SINGLY EXCITED MACHINE LOWER EFFICIENCY GRID DEPENDENT ABSORBER OF REACTIVE POWER FROM THE SYSTEM
  • 15. SPEED Vs TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDUCTION MACHINE
  • 16. INDUCTION GENERATOR
  • 17. SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS: A synchronous generator is an electrical machine producing alternating emf (Electtromotive force or voltage) of constant frequency. In our country the standard commercial frequency of AC supply is 50 Hz. In U.S.A. and a few other countries the frequency is 60 Hz. These are of two types-Cylindrical or Round rotor type and Salient Pole type but in Hydropower applications Salient Pole synchronous alternators are used.They have the following features: HIGHER EFFICIENCY HIGHER COST DOUBLY EXCITED STAND ALONE REACTIVE POWER CAN BE SUPPLIED OR ABSORBED
  • 18. SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR
  • 19. In an electric power system, switchgear is the combination of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate electrical equipment. Switchgear is used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream. This type of equipment is important because it is directly linked to the reliability of the electricity supply. RELAY AND CB OPERATION
  • 20. TRANSFORMERS
  • 21. CONTROL PANELS
  • 22. nptel.iitm.ac.in Karassik, Igor J. et al, eds.; Pump Handbook (3rd Edition), McGraw-Hill 2001 ISBN 978-0-07-034032-9 page 10-5 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Ice Engineering - Engineering and Design (EM 1110-2-1612) ISBN 978-1-61583-638-3 page 20-11 www.wisegeek.com www.greenworks.tv www.canyonhydro.com www.powermin.nic.in www.hydropower.org www.msbte.com www.ahec.org.in Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, 2/e Yunus A Çengel, University of Nevada, Reno John M Cimbala, Pennsylvania State University

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