Introduction• Nanotechnology is the study and use of structure between 1 nanometer (nm) to 100 nanometer (nm) 1 nanometer
Introduction• In recent years nanotechnology has become one of the most important and exiting forefront fields in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering and technology.• Because nanotechnology is still evolving, there doesn’t seem to be any one definition that everybody agrees on.• The ability to see nano sized particle is opened up a world of possibilites in a variety of industries and scientific endeavors
Understanding SizeHow big (small) are we talking about?
Origins of Nanotechnology• 300 A.D. – Roman glassmakers werefabricating glasses containing nanosizedmetals•Lycurgus cup- British Museum in London
• Colourful windows of medieval cathedrals.• Photographic recording films is an emulsion consisting of silver nanoparticles.
Dr Richard feynmanRichard feynman 1960 :“there is a plenty of room at the bottom”
K. Eric Drexler - 1981Development of the ability to design protein molecules will open a path to the fabrication of devices to complex atomic specifications
what are nano materials? structured components--size less than100nm at least in one dimension•one dimensional: thin films , surfacecoatings•two dimensional :nanowires , nanotubes•three dimensional: colloids ,quantumdots , precipitates
Nano materials• NANO POWDER: Building blocks (less than 100 nm in diameter) for more complex nanostructures• FULLERENCE: molecule composed of carbon- hallow sphere,ellipsoid or tube tubespherical-bucky bal
Fullerenes – 1985 (1996)Robert F. Curl Jr. Richard E. SmalleySir Harold W. Kroto
Nanotube• Carbon Nanotube(CNT) - Originally, discovered as by products of fullerenes and now are considered to be the building blocks of future nanoscale electronic and mechanical devices.
Structure of Nanotube• SWNT atom structures - Basically,sheets of graphite rolled up into a tube as shown figure. - The hexagonal two dimensional lattice of graphite is mapped on a cylinder of radius R with various helicities characterized by the rolling vectors (n,m).
Bucky paper?• Buckypaper -strong and lightweight- manufactured - compressed carbon nanotubes.• When stacked and compressed -500 times stronger than steel, at one-tenth of the weight. In this arrangement, the current-carrying capacity is remarkably high.• Bucky paper -excellent thermal conductivity and low optical reflectivity.
Applications for Buckypaper• Computer and television displays•Materials for building cars, airplanes andmachinery•Protection against lightning•Protection against electromagneticpulses (EMP)•Electrodes for batteries, fuel cells andcapacitors•Thermal heat sinks for electronic andcomputer equipment
ManufacturingPhyiscal Vapour DepositionThis describes a variety of methods of deposition thin filmsby condensation of a vapourised form of a material ontovarious surfaces under high vaccum conditioner. Thecoating method involves purely physical process ratherthan any chemical reaction.Types of PVD: Evaporative deposition Sputter deposition
APPLICATIONS• It produces a nano-size robotic armcapable of manipulating atoms andmolecules into useful products.•Nanotechnology promises to make liveshealthy and wealthy without consumingnatural resources or spewing pollution into theenvironment.• Nano technology will create filtration systems that willscrub the toxins from the air and water.
• The medical application of nanotechnology might even allowus to adapt our body for survival in space.• Nano-machines like nano-robots and nano-tubes find immense utility in various fields ofmedical and technological research.• Using nanotechnology we can design an intelligentpolymorphic material like human body, consists oftrillion of microscopic but act in accordance withinformation processing in utility fog.
• Carbon nanotubes are the basic material for constructingthe electronic devices of nano-size. Nano tube field-effectTransistors are the basic building blocks of integratedcircuits • Nano technology supports multi disciplinary insights of chemistry, physics, biology and computers. Nano tube FET•Artificial inorganic and organic nanoscalematerials can be introduced into cells to playroles in diagnostics.
• Nano technology supports Retinal implants are in developmentto restore vision by electrically stimulating functional neurons in theretina• The nanotechnology promises many applications in the field ofMaterials and Manufacturing, Nano-electronics and ComputerTechnology, Health and Medicine, Aeronautics and SpaceExploration, Environment and Energy, National Security.•Drug delivery systems are being designed using nano-particlesto deliver medicine to specific parts of the body.
advantages• Nanotechnology can actually revolutionize a lot of electronic products• Nanotechnology can also benefit the energy sector. The development of more effective• Another industry that can benefit from nanotechnology is the manufacturing sector that will need materials like nanotubes• Some of the nanoparticles such zinc oxide and titanium dioxide have been included in sunscreen.
Future developmentsInformation and communication technology: Nanotechnology will be critical to solving challenges facedby the ICT industryenergy It is expected that major forthcoming benefits ofnanotechnology will be reaped from its gaint potentialHealthcare Nanotechnology holds enormous potential to revolutionise healthcare
ConclusionThough nanomaterials were existing ,only now wehave realized that they are very different andhence important .In 20 years or so all devices andcomputers chips will be nanodevices. Severaluniversities have started cources onnanotechnology.