ROBOT MOTORSELECTRIC MOTOR: An electric motor is an electro chemical device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.• Electric motors are driven by DC current.• They are most commonly used in hobbyist robot applications.TYPES OF MOTORS:1. Brushed DC motors:• Motor controller is used to rotate the motor in two directions.• It is quite expensive.• Pulse-width modulation.• Gear reducer is used to reduce speed and increase torque
2. Brushless DC motors:•Electronic speed control unit is used.•Still, these are widely used in RC community because theyoffer greater reliability, torque and have other goodcharacteristics.3. Stepper motors:•Magnetic poles on stator.•Provide current to the coils at a predefined sequence.•Special stepper motor controller.
4. Servo motors:•Servo motors are integrated with control system.•They include other types of motors such as pneumatic orhydraulic as long as the feedback system is present inprovide positioning.•Pulse width modulation.•Used to construct robot arms.
ROBOTIC ARM:•Robotic arm is a robotic manipulator, usuallyprogrammable with similar functions to a humanarm.•Servo motor is used for joint rotation.•We can control arm through computer interface.
SALIENT FEATURES OF A ROBOTIC ARM.•Five servos which are controlled through only onemicrocontroller ATMEGA16.•Used to grab things in the hemisphere of 50cm.•It is user friendly.•It can lift objects weighing 200gms and above.•To keep the design of robotic arm gripper simple, andimplementing the gripping mechanism without gears withone servo motor.
DESIRABLE FEATURES OF SENSORS Accuracy Precision Operating range Speed of response Calibration Reliability Ease of operation Cost
What is the role played by sensors inrobotics?•To maintain its stability and orientation.•Report position and speed.•Interaction with surroundings.•Distinction of objects.•To mimic sensory abilities of humans.
VOLTAGE REGULATION What is a voltage regulator?A device designed to automatically maintain constant voltage level.TYPES OF VOLTAGE REGULATORS1) Electronic voltage regulators.2) Electrochemical regulators.3) Coil-rotation AC voltage regulator.4) Active regulators- linear, switching and SCR.
1. Electronic- A simple voltage can be made from a resistor in series with diodes.2. Coil-rotation AC- Basic design principle
1. Linear regulators- These regulators comprise ofdevices that operate in theirlinear region.2. Switching regulators- They rapidly switch a seriesdevice on and off.
FUNCTIONS OF VOLTAGE REGULATORSPassive voltage regulators.Active voltage regulators.AC voltage stabilization.DC voltage stabilization.Coil rotation AC voltage regulators.
H-BRIDGES:•A circuit for driving DC motorsis called H-bridge.•The great ability of a H-bridge circuit is thatthe motor can be driven forward or backward atany speed. `
POWER REGULATION• Supply a minimum required amount of power POWER=VOLTAGE*CURRENT• Capacitor is used to store large quantities of energy.
FUTURE OF ROBOTICS•Industrial robots.•Military and police organizations.•Surgical robots.•100% automated factories.•Robot astronauts.