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Chapter 1. BasicStructure of Computers           Computer Organization                       Lecture 5
Overview The basic structure of a computer Machine instructions and their execution System software that enables the pr...
Computer Types   What is a digital computer, or computer?   A contemporary computer is a fast electronic calculating mac...
Functional Units
Functional Units                                                 Arithmetic    Input                                      ...
Information Handled by aComputer   Instructions/machine instructions   Govern the transfer of information within a compu...
Memory Unit Storeprograms and data Two classes of storage   Primary storage   Fast   Programs must be stored in memor...
Arithmetic and Logic Unit(ALU) Most  computer operations are executed in  ALU of the processor. Load the operands into m...
Control Unit   All computer operations are controlled by the control    unit.   The timing signals that govern the I/O t...
Basic Operational       Concepts
Review   Activity in a computer is governed by instructions.   To perform a task, an appropriate program    consisting o...
A Typical Instruction   Add LOCA, R0   Add the operand at memory location LOCA to the    operand in a register R0 in the...
Separate Memory Access andALU Operation Load LOCA, R1 Add R1, R0 Whose contents will be overwritten?
Connection Between theProcessor and the Memory                                 Memory           MAR                    MDR...
Registers Instruction            register (IR) Program counter (PC) General-purpose register (R – R )                  ...
Typical Operating Steps Programs   reside in the memory through input  devices PC is set to point to the first instructi...
Typical Operating Steps(Cont’) Get   operands for ALU   General-purpose register   Memory (address to MAR – Read – MDR ...
Interrupt   Normal execution of programs may be preempted if    some device requires urgent servicing.   The normal exec...
Bus Structures There  are many ways to connect different  parts inside a computer together. A group of lines that serves...
Bus Structure Single-bus      Input         Output              Memory        Processor               Figure 1.3.    Sing...
Speed Issue Different devices have different  transfer/operate speed. If the speed of bus is bounded by the slowest  dev...
Software   System software must be in the memory in order for    a user to enter and run an application program on a    c...
Software Application programs are usually written in a  high-level programming language. Compiler translates the high-le...
Operating System (OS)A  large program used to control the sharing  of and interaction among various computer  units as th...
OS Routine Example Example:   one processor, one disk, and one  printer. Program is stored on disk Transfer program int...
OS Routine Example        Printer       Disk       OS        routines        Program                   t0           t1    ...
Performance
Performance The most important measure of a computer is  how quickly it can execute programs. Three factors affect perfo...
Performance   Processor time to execute a program depends on the hardware    involved in the execution of individual mach...
Performance The  processor and a relatively small cache  memory can be fabricated on a single  integrated circuit chip. ...
Processor Clock Clock, clock cycle, and clock rate The execution of each instruction is divided  into several steps, eac...
Basic Performance Equation   T – processor time required to execute a program than has been    prepared in high-level lan...
Pipeline and SuperscalarOperation   Instructions are not necessarily executed one after    another.   The value of S doe...
Clock Rate Increase    clock rate   Improve the integrated-circuit (IC) technology to make    the circuits faster   Red...
CISC and RISC Tradeoffbetween N and S A key consideration is the use of pipelining   S is close to 1 even though the nu...
Compiler   A compiler translates a high-level language program    into a sequence of machine instructions.   To reduce N...
Performance Measurement   T is difficult to compute.   Measure computer performance using benchmark programs.   System ...
Multiprocessors andMulticomputers   Multiprocessor computer   Execute a number of different application tasks in paralle...
Historical Perspective After-class   reading…
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Transcript of "comp. org Chapter 1"

  1. 1. Chapter 1. BasicStructure of Computers Computer Organization Lecture 5
  2. 2. Overview The basic structure of a computer Machine instructions and their execution System software that enables the preparation and execution of programs Performance issues in computer systems The history of computer development
  3. 3. Computer Types What is a digital computer, or computer? A contemporary computer is a fast electronic calculating machine that accepts digitized input information, process it according to a list of internally stored instructions, and produces the resulting output information. Many types of computers exist that differ widely in size, cost, computational power, and intended use: Personal computers – desktop, notebook Workstations – high-resolution graphics input/output capability, more computational power, reliability… Enterprise systems (mainframes) and servers – much more computing power and storage capacity, accessible via internet Supercomputers – large-scale numerical calculations
  4. 4. Functional Units
  5. 5. Functional Units Arithmetic Input and logic Memory Output Control I/O Processor Figure 1.1.  Basic functional units of a computer.
  6. 6. Information Handled by aComputer Instructions/machine instructions Govern the transfer of information within a computer as well as between the computer and its I/O devices Specify the arithmetic and logic operations to be performed Program Data Used as operands by the instructions Source program Encoded in binary code – 0 and 1 ASCII and EBCDIC
  7. 7. Memory Unit Storeprograms and data Two classes of storage Primary storage Fast Programs must be stored in memory while they are being executed Large number of semiconductor storage cells Processed in words Address RAM and memory access time Memory hierarchy – cache, main memory Secondary storage – larger and cheaper
  8. 8. Arithmetic and Logic Unit(ALU) Most computer operations are executed in ALU of the processor. Load the operands into memory – bring them to the processor – perform operation in ALU – store the result back to memory or retain in the processor. Registers Fast control of ALU
  9. 9. Control Unit All computer operations are controlled by the control unit. The timing signals that govern the I/O transfers are also generated by the control unit. Control unit is usually distributed throughout the machine instead of standing alone. Operations of a computer: Accept information in the form of programs and data through an input unit and store it in the memory Fetch the information stored in the memory, under program control, into an ALU, where the information is processed Output the processed information through an output unit Control all activities inside the machine through a control unit
  10. 10. Basic Operational Concepts
  11. 11. Review Activity in a computer is governed by instructions. To perform a task, an appropriate program consisting of a list of instructions is stored in the memory. Individual instructions are brought from the memory into the processor, which executes the specified operations. Data to be used as operands are also stored in the memory.
  12. 12. A Typical Instruction Add LOCA, R0 Add the operand at memory location LOCA to the operand in a register R0 in the processor. Place the sum into register R0. The original contents of LOCA are preserved. The original contents of R0 is overwritten. Instruction is fetched from the memory into the processor – the operand at LOCA is fetched and added to the contents of R0 – the resulting sum is stored in register R0.
  13. 13. Separate Memory Access andALU Operation Load LOCA, R1 Add R1, R0 Whose contents will be overwritten?
  14. 14. Connection Between theProcessor and the Memory Memory MAR MDR Control PC R0 R1 Processor IR ALU Rn ­ 1 n general purpose registers Figure 1.2.   Connections between the processor and the  memory.
  15. 15. Registers Instruction register (IR) Program counter (PC) General-purpose register (R – R ) 0 n-1 Memory address register (MAR) Memory data register (MDR)
  16. 16. Typical Operating Steps Programs reside in the memory through input devices PC is set to point to the first instruction The contents of PC are transferred to MAR A Read signal is sent to the memory The first instruction is read out and loaded into MDR The contents of MDR are transferred to IR Decode and execute the instruction
  17. 17. Typical Operating Steps(Cont’) Get operands for ALU General-purpose register Memory (address to MAR – Read – MDR to ALU) Perform operation in ALU Store the result back To general-purpose register To memory (address to MAR, result to MDR – Write) During the execution, PC is incremented to the next instruction
  18. 18. Interrupt Normal execution of programs may be preempted if some device requires urgent servicing. The normal execution of the current program must be interrupted – the device raises an interrupt signal. Interrupt-service routine Current system information backup and restore (PC, general-purpose registers, control information, specific information)
  19. 19. Bus Structures There are many ways to connect different parts inside a computer together. A group of lines that serves as a connecting path for several devices is called a bus. Address/data/control
  20. 20. Bus Structure Single-bus Input Output Memory Processor Figure 1.3.    Single­bus structure.
  21. 21. Speed Issue Different devices have different transfer/operate speed. If the speed of bus is bounded by the slowest device connected to it, the efficiency will be very low. How to solve this? A common approach – use buffers.
  22. 22. Software System software must be in the memory in order for a user to enter and run an application program on a computer Receiving and interpreting user commands Entering and editing application programs and storing them as files in secondary storage devices Managing the storage and retrieval of files in secondary storage devices Running standard application programs Controlling I/O units to receive input information and produce output results Translating programs form source form prepared by the user into object form consisting of machine instructions Linking and running user-written application programs with existing standard library routines
  23. 23. Software Application programs are usually written in a high-level programming language. Compiler translates the high-level language program into a suitable machine language program. Text editor
  24. 24. Operating System (OS)A large program used to control the sharing of and interaction among various computer units as they execute application programs. Assign computer resources to individual application programs Memory Disk space Move data Handle I/O
  25. 25. OS Routine Example Example: one processor, one disk, and one printer. Program is stored on disk Transfer program into memory Execute program Need to read a data file on disk into memory Calculation Print results
  26. 26. OS Routine Example Printer Disk OS routines Program t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 Time Figure 1.4. Figure 1.4.    User program and OS routine sharing of the processor. processor. User program and OS routine sharing of the
  27. 27. Performance
  28. 28. Performance The most important measure of a computer is how quickly it can execute programs. Three factors affect performance: Hardware design Instruction set Compiler
  29. 29. Performance Processor time to execute a program depends on the hardware involved in the execution of individual machine instructions. Main Cache memory memory Processor Bus Figure 1.5. The processor cache.
  30. 30. Performance The processor and a relatively small cache memory can be fabricated on a single integrated circuit chip. Speed Cost Memory management
  31. 31. Processor Clock Clock, clock cycle, and clock rate The execution of each instruction is divided into several steps, each of which completes in one clock cycle. Hertz – cycles per second
  32. 32. Basic Performance Equation T – processor time required to execute a program than has been prepared in high-level language N – number of actual machine language instructions needed to complete the execution (note: loop) S – average number of basic steps needed to execute one machine instruction. Each step completes in one clock cycle R – clock rate Note: these are not independent to each other N×S T= R How to improve T?
  33. 33. Pipeline and SuperscalarOperation Instructions are not necessarily executed one after another. The value of S doesn’t have to be the number of clock cycles to execute one instruction. Pipelining – overlapping the execution of successive instructions. Add R1, R2, R3 Superscalar operation – multiple instruction pipelines are implemented in the processor. Goal – reduce S (could become <1!)
  34. 34. Clock Rate Increase clock rate Improve the integrated-circuit (IC) technology to make the circuits faster Reduce the amount of processing done in one basic step (however, this may increase the number of basic steps needed) Increases in R that are entirely caused by improvements in IC technology affect all aspects of the processor’s operation equally except the time to access the main memory.
  35. 35. CISC and RISC Tradeoffbetween N and S A key consideration is the use of pipelining S is close to 1 even though the number of basic steps per instruction may be considerably larger It is much easier to implement efficient pipelining in processor with simple instruction sets Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC) Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISC)
  36. 36. Compiler A compiler translates a high-level language program into a sequence of machine instructions. To reduce N, we need a suitable machine instruction set and a compiler that makes good use of it. Goal – reduce N×S A compiler may not be designed for a specific processor; however, a high-quality compiler is usually designed for, and with, a specific processor.
  37. 37. Performance Measurement T is difficult to compute. Measure computer performance using benchmark programs. System Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC) selects and publishes representative application programs for different application domains, together with test results for many commercially available computers. Compile and run (no simulation) Reference computer Running time on the reference computerSPEC rating = Running time on the computer under test n 1SPEC rating = (∏SPECi ) n i =1
  38. 38. Multiprocessors andMulticomputers Multiprocessor computer Execute a number of different application tasks in parallel Execute subtasks of a single large task in parallel All processors have access to all of the memory – shared-memory multiprocessor Cost – processors, memory units, complex interconnection networks Multicomputers Each computer only have access to its own memory Exchange message via a communication network – message- passing multicomputers
  39. 39. Historical Perspective After-class reading…
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