Wireless sensor networks: a survey Presented by  RAJAT MALHOTRA
Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of sensor networks </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing senso...
Introduction <ul><li>A  sensor network  is composed of a large number of sensor nodes, which are densely deployed either i...
Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>temperature </li></ul><ul><li>humidity </li></ul><ul><li>vehicular movement </li><...
Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>Military applications </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring friendly forces, equipment and ...
Military applications
Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>Environmental applications </li></ul><ul><li>Forest fire detection </li></ul><ul><...
Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>Health applications </li></ul><ul><li>Telemonitoring of human physiological data <...
Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>Home applications </li></ul><ul><li>Home automation </li></ul><ul><li>Smart enviro...
Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>Other commercial applications </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental control in office bu...
Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Fault tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Fault tolerance is the ability to sust...
Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Scalability </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability measures the density of the se...
Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Production costs </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of a single node is very imp...
Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Hardware constraints </li></ul>
Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Sensor network topology </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-deployment and deployment ...
Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Busy intersections </li></ul><ul><li>Inter...
Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Transmission media </li></ul><ul><li>In a sensor network, communicating ...
Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Power consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing </li></ul><ul><li>Communicat...
Communication architecture of sensor networks
Communication architecture of sensor networks
Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Application layer </li></ul><ul><li>The three possible application l...
Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Transport layer </li></ul><ul><li>This layer is especially needed wh...
Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Network layer </li></ul><ul><li>Power efficiency is always an import...
Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Data aggregation </li></ul>
Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Data link layer </li></ul><ul><li>The data link layer is responsible...
Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Medium access control </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of the network infr...
Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Power saving modes of operation </li></ul><ul><li>Operation in a pow...
Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Error control </li></ul><ul><li>Forward Error Correction (FEC)  </li...
Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Physical layer </li></ul><ul><li>The physical layer is responsible f...
Conclusion <ul><li>Flexibility and fault tolerance create exciting new applications for remote sensing </li></ul><ul><li>I...
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Wireless Sensor Networks

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Wireless Sensor Networks

  1. 1. Wireless sensor networks: a survey Presented by RAJAT MALHOTRA
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of sensor networks </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing sensor network design </li></ul><ul><li>Communication architecture of sensor networks </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>A sensor network is composed of a large number of sensor nodes, which are densely deployed either inside the phenomenon or very close to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Random deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative capabilities </li></ul>
  4. 4. Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>temperature </li></ul><ul><li>humidity </li></ul><ul><li>vehicular movement </li></ul><ul><li>lightning condition </li></ul><ul><li>pressure </li></ul><ul><li>soil makeup </li></ul><ul><li>noise levels </li></ul><ul><li>the presence or absence of certain kinds of objects </li></ul><ul><li>mechanical stress levels on attached objects </li></ul><ul><li>the current characteristics such as speed, direction, and size of an object </li></ul>
  5. 5. Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>Military applications </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring friendly forces, equipment and ammunition </li></ul><ul><li>Battlefield surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>Reconnaissance of opposing forces and terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Battle damage assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear, biological and chemical attack detection and reconnaissance </li></ul>
  6. 6. Military applications
  7. 7. Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>Environmental applications </li></ul><ul><li>Forest fire detection </li></ul><ul><li>Flood detection </li></ul><ul><li>Precision agriculture </li></ul>
  8. 8. Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>Health applications </li></ul><ul><li>Telemonitoring of human physiological data </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking and monitoring patients and doctors inside a hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Drug administration in hospitals </li></ul>
  9. 9. Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>Home applications </li></ul><ul><li>Home automation </li></ul><ul><li>Smart environment </li></ul>
  10. 10. Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>Other commercial applications </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental control in office buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive museums </li></ul><ul><li>Managing inventory control </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle tracking and detection </li></ul><ul><li>Detecting and monitoring car thefts </li></ul>
  11. 11. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Fault tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Fault tolerance is the ability to sustain sensor network functionalities without any interruption due to sensor node failures. </li></ul><ul><li>The fault tolerance level depends on the application of the sensor networks. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Scalability </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability measures the density of the sensor nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>Density = (R) =(N R 2 )/A </li></ul>
  13. 13. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Production costs </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of a single node is very important to justify the overall cost of the networks. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of a sensor node is a very challenging issue given the amount of functionalities with a price of much less than a dollar. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Hardware constraints </li></ul>
  15. 15. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Sensor network topology </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-deployment and deployment phase </li></ul><ul><li>Post-deployment phase </li></ul><ul><li>Re-deployment of additional nodes phase </li></ul>
  16. 16. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Busy intersections </li></ul><ul><li>Interior of a large machinery </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom of an ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Inside a twister </li></ul><ul><li>Surface of an ocean during a tornado </li></ul><ul><li>Biologically or chemically contaminated field </li></ul><ul><li>Battlefield beyond the enemy lines </li></ul><ul><li>Home or a large building </li></ul><ul><li>Large warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Fast moving vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Drain or river moving with current. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Transmission media </li></ul><ul><li>In a sensor network, communicating nodes are linked by a wireless medium. To enable global operation, the chosen transmission medium must be available worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>infrared </li></ul><ul><li>optical media </li></ul>
  18. 18. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Power consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Data processing </li></ul>
  19. 19. Communication architecture of sensor networks
  20. 20. Communication architecture of sensor networks
  21. 21. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Application layer </li></ul><ul><li>The three possible application layer protocols are - </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor management protocol (SMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Task assignment and data advertisement protocol (TADAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor query and data dissemination protocol (SQDDP) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Transport layer </li></ul><ul><li>This layer is especially needed when the system is planned to be accessed through Internet or other external networks. </li></ul><ul><li>No attempt thus far to propose a scheme or to discuss the issues related to the transport layer of a sensor network in literature. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Network layer </li></ul><ul><li>Power efficiency is always an important consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>Data aggregation is useful only when it does not hinder the collaborative effort of the sensor nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>An ideal sensor network has attribute-based addressing and location awareness. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Data aggregation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Data link layer </li></ul><ul><li>The data link layer is responsible for the medium access and error control. It ensures reliable point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections in a communication network. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Medium access control </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of the network infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly and efficiently share communication resources between sensor nodes </li></ul>
  27. 27. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Power saving modes of operation </li></ul><ul><li>Operation in a power saving mode is energy efficient only if the time spent in that mode is greater than a certain threshold. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Error control </li></ul><ul><li>Forward Error Correction (FEC) </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ). </li></ul><ul><li>Simple error control codes with low-complexity encoding and decoding might present the best solutions for sensor networks. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Physical layer </li></ul><ul><li>The physical layer is responsible for frequency selection, frequency generation, signal detection, modulation and data encryption. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Conclusion <ul><li>Flexibility and fault tolerance create exciting new applications for remote sensing </li></ul><ul><li>In future the wide range of applications will make sensor networks an integral part of our lives </li></ul>
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