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  1. 2. <ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>Seminar by </li></ul><ul><li>RAJAT MALHOTRA </li></ul>
  2. 3. Demerits of Cable <ul><li>A tangle of cables </li></ul><ul><li>Need to keep cables and connectors on store </li></ul><ul><li>Awkward to move computerized units to different locations, as cables might not be long enough </li></ul>                                                     
  3. 4. Bluetooth Technology <ul><li>Bluetooth is a method for data communication that uses short-range radio links to replace cables between computers and their connected units. It was started by a SIG comprising of IBM, Intel, Nokia, Toshiba and Ericsson. </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Aim of Bluetooth 1.Global usage 2.Voice and data handling 3.The ability to establish ad-hoc connections 4.The ability to withstand interference from other sources in open band 5.Very small size, in order to accommodate integration into variety of devices 6.Negligible power consumption in comparison to other devices for similar use
  5. 6. Brief Characteristics <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>   1 . Frequency: 2.4 GHz (ISM range) </li></ul><ul><li>    2. Distance: 10 m (32 feet) </li></ul><ul><li>    3. Data rate: </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetric mode: 721 Kbit/s </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetric mode: 432.6 Kbit/s </li></ul><ul><li>    4. Data protection: authentication, encryption </li></ul><ul><li>    5. Power consumption: about 30 mA (in the data transfer mode) </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Name ‘Bluetooth’ <ul><li>The etymology of the name Bluetooth comes from a tenth century Scandinavian king, Harald Blaatand, who managed to unite several unruly kingdoms. Thus, Bluetooth is a reference to the taming of a myriad of unruly competing standards by defining one worldwide specification </li></ul>
  7. 8. Features of Bluetooth <ul><li>1. It separates the frequency band into hops. This spread spectrum is used to hop from one channel to another, which adds a strong layer of security. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Up to eight devices can be networked in a piconet. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Signals can be transmitted through walls and briefcases, thus eliminating the need for line-of-sight. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Devices do not need to be pointed at each other, as signals are omni-directional. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Both synchronous and asynchronous applications are supported, making it easy to implement on a variety of devices. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Governments worldwide regulate it, so it is possible to utilize the same standard wherever one travels. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Bluetooth Chip <ul><li>T he technology of Bluetooth centers around a 9mm x 9mm microchip, which functions as a low cost and short range radio link. It consists of mainly three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>RF Transceiver </li></ul><ul><li>Baseband Processor </li></ul><ul><li>Link manager (CPU) </li></ul>
  9. 10. Bluetooth Definitions <ul><li>Piconet: Devices connected in an ad hoc fashion, that is, not requiring predefinition and planning, as with a standard network. Two to eight devices can be networked into a piconet. It is a peer network, that is, once connected; each device has equal access to the others. However, one device is defined as master, and the others as slaves. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Definitions Contd <ul><li>Scatternet: Several piconets may form a larger scatternet, with each piconet maintaining independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Master unit: The master in a piconet whose clock and hopping sequence synchronizes the other devices. </li></ul>
  11. 14. Definitions Contd <ul><li>Slave unit: Devices in a piconet that are not the master. </li></ul><ul><li>MAC address: Three-bit address that distinguishes each unit in a piconet. </li></ul><ul><li>Parked units : Piconet devices that are synchronized but don't have MAC addresses. Parked units respond only to activation. </li></ul><ul><li>Sniff and hold mode: Power-saving mode of a piconet device. </li></ul>
  12. 15. Frequency Hopping <ul><li>Bluetooth devices operate at 2.4 GHz in the license-free, globally available ISM radio band. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency hopping is literally jumping from frequency to frequency within the ISM band starting at 2.402 and ending at 2.480GHz. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency hops are done @ 1600hops/sec . </li></ul>
  13. 16. Frequency Hopping
  14. 17. Advantages of Frequency Hopping <ul><li>It allows Bluetooth devices to use the entirety of the available ISM band, while never transmitting from a fixed frequency for more than a very short time. </li></ul><ul><li>It ensures that any interference will be short-lived. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides a base level of security because it's very difficult for an eavesdropping device to predict which frequency the Bluetooth devices will use next. </li></ul>
  15. 18. Working <ul><li>One Bluetooth device is made the Master which has an address falling in a range of addresses. Master emits weak signals of 1mw </li></ul><ul><li>A “parked” slave having address in that range detects the signal and communicates with the Master. </li></ul><ul><li>A small network is formed. </li></ul><ul><li>The two devices hop frequencies in unison and keep communicating. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Interaction between Master and Slave Units <ul><li>All communication done by Master </li></ul><ul><li>No direct interaction between the slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>If it is required that need to communicate, they form a new piconet, one of the slaves now acts as the master unit. </li></ul>
  17. 20. Connection protocol <ul><li>Bluetooth connections are established via the following techniques </li></ul><ul><li>1. Standby : Devices not connected in a piconet </li></ul><ul><li>2. Page/Inquiry : Make a connection with another device </li></ul><ul><li>3. Active : Data transmission occurs . </li></ul><ul><li>4 . Hold : No data is transmitted. Purpose is to conserve power. </li></ul><ul><li>5 . Sniff : Applicable only to slave units,for power conservation </li></ul><ul><li>6. Park : A more reduced level of activity than the hold mode. </li></ul><ul><li>In this state, they do not have MAC addresses </li></ul>
  18. 21. Control of link connections <ul><li>The basic part of the Bluetooth system consists of the radio chip and controller. The Link Manager (LM) is software . The hardware underlying the LM is the link controller (LC). These two perform the following tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sending and receiving data. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Paging and inquiries. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Setting up connections. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Authentication. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Negotiating and setting up link types, i.e., SCO or ACL. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Determining the frame type of each packet. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Placing a device in sniff or hold mode. </li></ul>
  19. 22. The Bluetooth Protocol Stack <ul><li>1. Radio Layer : The radio module in a Bluetooth device is responsible for the modulation and demodulation of data into RF signals for transmission in the air. The radio layer describes the physical characteristics a Bluetooth device’s receiver-transmitter component must have. </li></ul>
  20. 23. The Bluetooth Protocol Stack <ul><li>2 . Baseband and LC layer : The baseband portion of the layer is responsible for properly formatting data for transmission to and from the radio layer. In addition, it handles the synchronization of links. The link controller portion of this layer is responsible for carrying out the link manager’s commands and establishing and maintaining the link stipulated by the link manager . </li></ul>
  21. 24. The Bluetooth Protocol Stack <ul><li>3. Link manager: It translates the host controller interface (HCI) commands it receives into baseband-level operations. It is responsible for establishing and configuring links and managing power-change requests, among other tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The HCI (host controller interface) layer: This acts as a boundary between the lower layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack and the upper layers. </li></ul>
  22. 25. The Bluetooth Protocol Stack <ul><li>5. L2CAP (logical link control and adaptation protocol) layer : Its functions include: </li></ul><ul><li>   a. Establishing connections across existing ACL links or requesting an ACL link if one does not already exist </li></ul><ul><li>  b. Multiplexing between different higher layer protocols, such as RFCOMM and SDP, to allow many different applications to use a single ACL link </li></ul><ul><li>c. Repackaging the data packets it receives from the higher layers into the form expected by the lower layers </li></ul>
  23. 26. The Bluetooth Protocol Stack <ul><li>6 . Service Discovery Protocol(SDP): It defines actions for both servers and clients of Bluetooth services. The specification defines a service as any feature that is usable by another (remote) Bluetooth device. A single Bluetooth device can be both a server and a client of services. </li></ul><ul><li>7. RFCOMM : It connects to the lower layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack through the L2CAP layer. </li></ul>
  24. 27. The Bluetooth Protocol Stack <ul><li>8. OBEX (object exchange): It is a transfer protocol that defines data objects and a communication protocol two devices can use to easily exchange those objects. A Bluetooth device wanting to set up an OBEX communication session with another device is considered to be the client device. </li></ul>
  25. 28. Applications <ul><li>Generic access – Procedures for link management </li></ul><ul><li>Service Directory – Protocol for discovering offered services </li></ul><ul><li>Serial port – Replacement for serial port cables </li></ul><ul><li>Generic offset exchange – Client-server relationship </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>LAN access – Protocol between mobile computer and LAN </li></ul><ul><li>Dial-up networking – Allows a notebook to call via mobile phone </li></ul><ul><li>FAX – Allows a mobile FAX machine to talk to a mobile phone </li></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>Cordless telephony – Connects a handset to its local base station </li></ul><ul><li>Intercom – Digital walkie-talkie </li></ul><ul><li>Headset – Allows hands free voice communication </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Object push – Provides a way to exchange simple objects </li></ul><ul><li>File transfer – Provides a general file transfer facility </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization – Permits a PDA to synchronize with another computer </li></ul>
  29. 32. Devices Adopting Bluetooth <ul><li>Phones and pagers </li></ul><ul><li>Modems </li></ul><ul><li>LAN access devices </li></ul><ul><li>Headsets </li></ul><ul><li>Notebook computers </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop and handheld computers </li></ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul><ul><li>Fax machines </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboards </li></ul><ul><li>Joysticks </li></ul>
  30. 34. Devices adopting Bluetooth Nokia Handsfree Ericsson Cordless Ericsson T39m                
  31. 35. Devices adopting Bluetooth Samsung Wireless Keyboard HP DeskJet 995C                                
  32. 36. Devices Adopting Bluetooth <ul><li>Iphono </li></ul>
  33. 37. Applications of Bluetooth <ul><li>1. Bluetooth-mouse and keyboard could be used at a further distance from a monitor.. This would reduce eye-strain and exposure to electromagnetic radiation from the monitor. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A traveling businessman could ask his laptop computer to locate a suitable printer as soon as he enters a hotel lobby, and send a printout to that printer when it has been found, and replied in a positive manner. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cable-less connection to printers and faxes . </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cable-less connection to digital cameras and video projectors. </li></ul>
  34. 38. Applications of Bluetooth <ul><li>5. Automatic exchange of files, electronic business cards, calendars etc. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Bluetooth is also making applications in the field of </li></ul><ul><li>Medical. </li></ul><ul><li>Sports. </li></ul><ul><li>Retail and e-Commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Entertainment . </li></ul>
  35. 39. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>