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  1. 1. Motivation1
  2. 2. Defining Motivation Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: how long a person tries2
  3. 3. Some Definitions “Motivation is the result of processes, internal or external to the individual, that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action”. “….how behavior gets started, is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organization while all this is going on.3
  4. 4. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Motivation refers to a set of forces that energise people to behave in certain ways. 2. Motivation is necessary to accomplish tasks, to produce quality goods and for other related purposes. 3. Motivation is not an easy job. Change of workforce, change of job designs and delayering of organisations make motivation a difficult task. 4. Motivation theories are of two broad categories – early and contemporary theories. 5. Scientific management and human relations model fall under early theories category. 6. Contemporary theories cover content and process models.4
  5. 5. Framework of Motivation5
  6. 6. Importance of Motivation •Leads to Performance •Quality-oriented Employees •More productive workers •Stimulates Decision to participate and to produce at work •New complex technological advances •Future human resources – talent bank6
  7. 7. Motivational Model7
  8. 8. EARLY THEORIES Scientific Management – F.W. Taylor Scientific study and organization of work at the operations level for the purpose of increasing efficiency. Techniques: Scientific method of doing work Planning the task Scientific selection, training and remuneration of workers Standardization Specialization & division of labor Time & motion studies Mental revolution8
  9. 9. Human Relations Model – Elton Mayo Main points: Social contacts Social needs Informal work groups Freedom to make own decisions Interaction among employees and manager’s intentions and operations of organization.9
  10. 10. Hierarchy of Needs Theory10
  11. 11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs11
  12. 12. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs — Dominance of Physiological Needs12
  13. 13. Flow Diagram of Needs Satisfaction13
  14. 14. Ordering of Needs Across Countries Country Need Priority United States and Japan Self-actualisation, esteem, safety, physiological and social France Self-actualisation, esteem, physiological, safety and social Germany Self-actualisation, physiological, esteem, social and safety India Physiological, self-actualisation, esteem, social and safety Malawi Physiological, self-actualisation, esteem, safety and social China Self-actualisation, safety, physiological and social14
  15. 15. Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)15
  16. 16. Herzberg’s Hygienes and Motivators16
  17. 17. Essence of the two-factor Theory17
  18. 18. Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction Factors characterizing events Comparis on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction on of Satisfiers and Dissatisfie rs18
  19. 19. Contrasting Views of Satisfaction& Dissatisfaction Presence Absence19
  20. 20. ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower- Core Needs level need increases. Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development.20
  21. 21. Two Key Components of ERG Theory; Satisfaction— Progression and Frustration- Regression21
  22. 22. David McClelland’s Theory of Needs nPow nAch nAff22
  23. 23. Matching Achievers and Jobs23
  24. 24. Matching Content Theories24
  25. 25. Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)25
  26. 26. Equity Theory Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside26
  27. 27. Equity Theory (cont’d)27
  28. 28. Equity Theory (cont’d) Choices for dealing with inequity: 1. Change inputs (slack off) 2. Change outcomes (increase output) 3. Distort/change perceptions of self 4. Distort/change perceptions of others 5. Choose a different referent person 6. Leave the field (quit the job)28
  29. 29. Equity Theory (cont’d) Propositions relating to inequitable pay: 1. Overrewarded employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees. 2. Overrewarded employees produce less, but do higher quality piece work. 3. Underrewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work. 4. Underrewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees29
  30. 30. Equity Theory (cont’d)30
  31. 31. Expectancy Theory31
  32. 32. Performance Dimensions32
  33. 33. Expectancy Theory33
  34. 34. APPLICATION OF EXPECTANCY THEORY Variable Objective Applications E P Expectancies To increase the belief that • Select people with required skills and knowledge. employees are capable • Provide required training and clarify job requirements. of performing the job • Provide sufficient time and resources. successfully • Assign simpler or fewer tasks until employees can master them. • Provide examples of similar employees who have successfully performed the tasks. • Provide counseling and coaching to employees who lack self-confidence. P O instrumentalities To increase the belief that • Measure job performance accurately. good performance will • Clearly explain the outcomes that will result from result in valued outcomes successful performance. • Describe how the employee’s rewards were based on past performances. Valences of outcomes To increase the expected • Distribute rewards that employees value. value of outcomes resulting • Individualise rewards. from desired performance • Minimise the presence of counter-valent outcomes.34
  35. 35. EXAMPLES OF INPUTS AND OUTCOMES IN ORGANISATIONS Inputs Outcomes Age Challenging job assignment Attendance Fringe benefits Interpersonal skills Job perquisites (parking space or office location) Communication skills Job security Job effort (long hours) Monotony Level of education Promotion Past experience Recognition Performance Responsibility Personal appearance Salary Seniority Seniority benefits Social status Status symbols Technical skills Working conditions35
  36. 36. Motivational Theories36