To Get an Idea of What the Endocrine System Does:
Lets take a look at all the vitalorgans of Endocrine System
Gland – A Gland is a group of cells that produce and secrete chemicals called hormones.Hormones are transported into the blood stream to act on various parts of the body....Hormones are responsible to help control normal body processes.
Pineal Gland• Located in the brain• Makes a hormone called Melatonin (controls sleeping schedule)
Hypothalamus• Located in the brain, above the pituitary gland• Sends out numerous hormones• Controls our nervous system (sleeping, eating, body temperature)
Pituitary Gland• Called “Master Gland”• Located in the bottom of the brain• Creates different hormones that control different glands• Two parts of the pituitary gland: anterior and posterior• Controls growth, and development
Thyroid Gland• Located in the neck• Makes thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolism, and organ function• Works with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
Pancreas• Located behind your stomach• Maintains blood sugar levels• Releases insulin, which help glucose move
Adrenal Gland• Located near the lower back, above the kidneys• Secretes numerous hormones that helps deal with stress, and physical development
Reproductive Glands (Gonads)• Female: Ovaries • Male: Testes• Creates estrogen and • Creates testosterone progesterone • Helps a boy develop• Helps with babies • Deepens the voice, and maintains muscle mass
I have focused my research on Pituitary Gland And Here it goes…..
Pituitary GlandThe pituitary glandcontrols thefunctions of manyof the otherendocrine glands.It is about thesize of a pea !.
Location of the Pituitary GlandThis is thepituitary gland!
Location of the pituitary andhypothalamus The hypothalamus is located at the base of the brain in the posterior part . Hypothalamus Pituitary stalk Anterior Posterior pituitary pituitary The pituitary is also located at the base of the brain
Location of the pituitary gland The pituitary gland itself Hypothalamus consists of two main parts: Pituitary stalk • the anterior Anterior Posterior pituitary pituitary lobe • the posterior lobe
Posterior pituitary glandHormones The posterior pituitary secretes Hypothalamus 2 important hormones : • Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), • Oxytocin Posterior pituitary ADH kidney Anterior Anterior pituitary pituitary pituitary vein Oxytocin breast and uterus
What are the actions of the posterior pituitaryhormones? Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) External stimulus e.g. low blood pressure • ADH secretion is stimulated by low blood pressure • ADH increases water reabsorption in the kidney and so Posterior modulates blood pressure pituitary ADH • A deficiency in ADH causes diabetes.
Oxytocin External stimulus e.g. stretching of• Oxytocin secretion is stimulated cervix orby stretching of the cervix during sucklingbirth and suckling of the baby atthe breast• Oxytocin stimulates uterinecontractions during labour and themilk ejection reflex after birth Posterior pituitary• A deficiency of oxytocin causes Oxytocina failure in normal delivery of thechild and difficulty with breastfeeding
Now let’s look at the anterior pituitary gland:
Anterior pituitary hormones - Growth Hormone1. Growth Hormone(GH) regulates growthin the muscles andbones. GHDeficiency results in growth failure andshort structure. Too much GH in thebody can result in tumor in pituitary,excessive sweating and thickness ofbones.
Anterior pituitary hormones - LH and FSH2. Luteinising Hormone(LH) and FollicleStimulating Hormone(FSH) control both theovaries and testesDiminished secretion of LH or FSH can LH FSHresult in failure of fertility functions.Typically in males as failure inproduction of normal numbers ofsperm. In females, cessation ofreproductive cycles is commonlyobserved. Elevated levels of thesehormones have normally no biologicaleffects in humans.
Anterior pituitary hormones - Prolactin3. Prolactin (PRL) initiateslactation and promotes thegrowth of the mammaryglands, ovaries and testes PRLDeficiency promotes inappropriatelactation, lack of menses, infertility infemales, and impotency in males.
4. Thyroid-stimulatinghormone (TSH) regulatesthe thyroid gland TSHThe thyroid hormonesplay an important role incontrolling control parathyroidscarbohydrate and fat thyroidmetabolism, deficiency Thyroidresults in increased body hormonesweight. Metabolism, heat production, growth.
5. Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) controls hormone secretionfrom the adrenal cortexCortisol controls the metabolism of ACTHcarbohydrates, fats and proteins,inflammatory and immune responses,and responses to stress adrenal cortex Adrenal cortex hormones Metabolism, immune system, stress responses, testosterone and oestrogen
6. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone(MSH) stimulates melanocytes in the skinCorticotrophs in the anteriorpituitary gland secrete MSH MSHMSH acts on melanocytes in theepidermis of the skin to stimulate the melanocytessecretion of melanin in the skin Melanin
6. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)stimulates melanocytes in the skinCorticotrophs in the anterior pituitarygland secrete MSH MSHMSH acts on melanocytes in the epidermisof the skin to stimulate the secretion of melanocytesmelanin in the skinMelanin controls pigmentation in the Melaninskin Skin pigmentation
Summary of hormones secreted by the anteriorpituitary glandSo the anterior pituitary secretes at least 7 importanthormones: Growth Hormone (GH) regulates growth in muscles and bones and opposes the action of insulin Prolactin initiates lactation and promotes the growth of the mammary glands, ovaries and testes Luteinising Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) control both the ovaries and the testes Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) regulates the thyroid gland Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) controls hormone secretion from the adrenal cortex Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH) stimulates melanocytes in the skin
Hope my presentation wasinformative and you enjoyed asmuch as I enjoyed compiling it. Aaman Basra Grade : 5 A