CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME
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Cloud Controlled Intrusion Detection & Burglary Prevention Stratagems in Home Automation Systems

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Cloud Controlled Intrusion Detection & Burglary Prevention Stratagems in Home Automation Systems

  1. 1. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 1 CHAPTER 1 PREAMBLE 1.1 INTRODUCTION Home automation offers comfort and security. Home surveillance systems are being used for more than three decades. Many improvements have been made in the system and now it is yet to be commercialized due to the High cost of server usage .This study combines the use of Cloud computing and image processing. The standard cloud computing model is in which we make our services available to the general public over the Internet as long as they use our web interface . It emphasizes in enhancing home security using cloud computing technology. Cloud computing offers remote services with a user's data, software and computation. End users access cloud-based applications through a web browser or a light-weight desktop or mobile app while the business software and user's data are stored on servers at a remote location Its usage is very much needed for safety and security. This technology is used to detect an intruder at home when nobody is present. As soon as the intruder is in, the controller captures the video and sends it to the user and in turn he/she receives an SMS alert and is ready to watch the video of the intruded room through any remote device. 1.2 Objective To develop an intelligent security system where it helps the user to have a secured home. To prevent the burglary and intrusion To get the real time video of the home environment when burglary or instrusion is detected
  2. 2. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 2 1.3 Problem definition Home automation, as a model of pervasive computing, is progressively becoming substantial for people homed in developed societies. With the proliferation in the usage of household electronic and electrical appliances, numerous data and multifarious control cumbersome burden on residential home automation control units, making it expensive and difficult for the users to autonomously install, control and monitor the home automation system. Security surveillance part takes in significant number of home automation systems, deploying digital cameras and sensors to monitor and report intrusion events and thereby reducing damages caused by burglary 1.4 Methodology 1) Intrusion detected. 2) Report intrusion to cloud server. 3) Notify user with SMS. 4) User seeks surveillance views. 5) Output from surveillance cameras are streamed to cloud. 6) User views the status of all rooms. 7) User confirms real intrusion. 8) Action 1: inform neighbors. 9) Action 2: inform police. 10) Action 3: ringing alarm bell sound.
  3. 3. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 3 1.4 LITERATURE SURVEY In our earlier works, we designed and implemented our cloud based home power management system (a vital part of most home automation systems). The design of our home automation system makes it low cost, flexible and easy to install. We replaced the traditional electrical switch board of each room with our cloud connected board where each board is a node of the home automation system, as a result creating an ad-hoc wireless network among all the boards in a household, using 802.11n standard. The use of 802.11n empowers us to create an ad-hoc network with adequate signal range to operate across a house and concurrently connect each node of the distributed home automation system directly to the cloud over Internet Protocol, without the requirement of dedicated or specialized gateway as commonly required. In addition to an 802.11n radio, every node can be equipped with a low cost Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Release 5 modem. Using such a UMTS modem, we configured one board to act as the Internet gateway for an entire ad-hoc network, by connecting it to a public High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) network of a national Internet Service Provider (ISP) with down-link speed of 7.2 Megabit/s and uplink speed of 1.8 Megabit/s. Digital video recorder (DVR) captures videos continuously but it requires some human resource to monitor it which is applicable only in organizations and business areas whereas this will not be suitable for a home environment. If any motion is detected by the camera, it will be sent to the controller. Controller analyses the signal and processes it by using thresholding algorithm. By using LAN connection in the room, it can be transferred to the cloud server and stored in it. To inform the status of the room, the user will be receiving the SMS alert in his/her mobile. So, user can view the video of the intruder by entering the URL of the server using internet connection anywhere from the world. If an alert is to be given, the alert button on the page can be clicked so that the alarm rings. Alert is also sent to the nearby police station to protect the house. Cloud computing (or simply cloud) refers to the online services provided over the Internet together with the hardware and software resources of the server that offer those services.
  4. 4. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 4 CHAPTER 2 CLOUD COMPUTING 2.1 What is cloud computing? Cloud computing is a subscription-based service where you can obtain networked storage space and computer resources. One way to think of cloud computing is to consider your experience with email. Your email client, if it is Yahoo!, Gmail, Hotmail, and so on, takes care of housing all of the hardware and software necessary to support your personal email account. When you want to access your email you open your web browser, go to the email client, and log in. The most important part of the equation is having internet access. Your email is not housed on your physical computer; you access it through an internet connection, and you can access it anywhere. If you are on a trip, at work, or down the street getting coffee, you can check your email as long as you have access to the internet. Your email is different than software installed on your computer, such as a word processing program. When you create a document using word processing software, that document stays on the device you used to make it unless you physically move it. An email client is similar to how cloud computing works. Except instead of accessing just your email, you can choose what information you have access to within the cloud. Fig: 2.1 cloud computing
  5. 5. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 5 2.2 Use of cloud computing The cloud makes it possible for you to access your information from anywhere at any time. While a traditional computer setup requires you to be in the same location as your data storage device, the cloud takes away that step. The cloud removes the need for you to be in the same physical location as the hardware that stores your data. Your cloud provider can both own and house the hardware and software necessary to run your home or business applications. This is especially helpful for businesses that cannot afford the same amount of hardware and storage space as a bigger company. Small companies can store their information in the cloud, removing the cost of purchasing and storing memory devices. Additionally, because you only reduce their subscription as their business grows or as they find they need less storage space. One requirement is that you need to have an internet connection in order to access the cloud. This means that if you want to look at a specific document you have housed in the cloud, you must first establish an internet connection either through a wireless or wired internet or a mobile broadband connection. The benefit is that you can access that same document from wherever you are with any device that can access the internet. These devices could be a desktop, laptop, tablet, or phone. This can also help your business to function more smoothly because anyone who can connect to the internet and your cloud can work on documents, access software, and store data. Imagine picking up your smart phone and downloading a .pdf document to review instead of having to stop by the office to print it or upload it to your laptop. Fig: 2.2 use of cloud computation
  6. 6. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 6 CHAPTER 3 PROJECT OVERVIEW 3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM User BUZZER Fig: 3.1 block diagram of project P89v51RD2 Power supply PIR Sensor U A R T MAX232 PC Camera Cloud sever LCD Display
  7. 7. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 7 Fig: 3.2 working of project
  8. 8. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 8 Fig: 3.3 A photograph of the security surveillance page opened on a mobile
  9. 9. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 9 Fig: 3.4 A photograph of a mobile device displaying a SMS alert to the user in case of an intrusion event.
  10. 10. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 10 CHAPTER 4 HARDWARE COMPONENTS 4.1 Microcontroller 4.1.1 P89V51RD2 The P89V51RD2 is an 80C51 microcontroller with 64 kB Flash and 1024 bytes of data RAM.A key feature of the P89V51RD2 is its X2 mode option. The design engineer can choose to run the application with the conventional 80C51 clock rate (12 clocks per machine cycle) or select the X2 mode (6 clocks per machine cycle) to achieve twice the throughput at the same clock frequency. Another way to benefit from this feature is to keep the same performance by reducing the clock frequency by half, thus dramatically reducing the EMI. The Flash program memory supports both parallel programming and in serial In-System Programming (ISP). Parallel programming mode offers gang-programming at high speed, reducing programming costs and time to market. ISP allows a device to be reprogrammed in the end product under software control. The capability to field/update the application firmware makes a wide range of applications possible. The P89V51RD2 is also In- Application Programmable (IAP), allowing the Flash program memory to be reconfigured even while the application is running. 4.1.2. FEATURES  80C51 Central Processing Unit  5 V Operating voltage from 0 to 40 MHz  64 kB of on-chip Flash program memory with ISP (In-System Programming) and  IAP (In-Application Programming)  Supports 12-clock (default) or 6-clock mode selection via software or ISP
  11. 11. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 11  SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) and enhanced UART  PCA (Programmable Counter Array) with PWM and Capture/Compare functions  Four 8-bit I/O ports with three high-current Port 1 pins (16 mA each)  Three 16-bit timers/counters  Programmable Watchdog timer (WDT)  Eight interrupt sources with four priority levels  Second DPTR register  Low EMI mode (ALE inhibit)  TTL- and CMOS-compatible logic level.  Brown-out detection  Low power modes  Power-down mode with external interrupt wake-up  Idle mode  PDIP40, PLCC44 and TQFP44 packages  Brown-out detection  Low power modes  Power-down mode with external interrupt wake-up  Idle mode
  12. 12. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 12 4.1.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF P89V51RD2 Fig: 4.1 block dig of microcontroller P89V51RD2
  13. 13. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 13 Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional I/O port. Port 0 pins that have ‗1‘s written to them float, and in this state can be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 is also the multiplexed low-order address and data bus during accesses to external code and data memory. In this application, it uses strong internal pull-ups when transitioning to ‗1‘s.Port 0 also receives the code bytes during the external host mode programming, and outputs the code bytes during the external host mode verification. External pull-ups are required during program verifications a general purpose I/O port. Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 pins are pulled high by the internal pull-ups when ‗1 ‘s are written to them and can be used as inputs in this state. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally pulled LOW will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. P1.5, P1.6, P1.7 have high current drive of 16 mA. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during the external host mode programming and verification. Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 2 pins are pulled HIGH by the internal pull-ups when ‗1‘s are written to them and can be used as inputs in this state. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally pulled LOW will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 sends the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external Data Memory that use 16-bit address (MOVX@DPTR). In this application, it uses strong internal pull-ups when transitioning to ‗1‘s. Port 2 also receives some control signals and a partial of high-order address bits during the external host mode programming and verification. Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 3 pins are pulled HIGH by the internal pull-ups when ‗1 ‘s are written to them and can be used as inputs in this state. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally pulled LOW will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 3 also receives some control signals and a partial of high-order address bits during the external host mode programming and verification.
  14. 14. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 14 RXD: serial input port TXD: serial output port INT0: external interrupt 0 input INT1: external interrupt 1 input T0: external count input to Timer/Counter 0 T1: external count input to Timer/Counter 1 WR: external data memory write strobe RD: external data memory read strobe Program Store Enable: PSEN is the read strobe for external program memory. When the device is executing from internal program memory, PSEN is inactive (HIGH). When the device is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. A forced HIGH-to-LOW input transition on the PSEN pin while the RST input is continually held HIGH for more than 10 machine cycles will cause the device to enter external host mode programming. Reset: While the oscillator is running, a HIGH logic state on this pin for two machine cycles will reset the device. If the PSEN pin is driven by a HIGH-to-LOW input transition while the RST input pin is held HIGH, the device will enter the external host mode, otherwise the device will enter the normal operation mode. External Access Enable: EA must be connected to VSS in order to enable the device to fetch code from the external program memory. EA must be strapped to VDD for internal program execution. However, Security lock level 4 will disable EA, and program execution is only possible from internal program memory. The EA pin can tolerate a high voltage of 12 Address Latch Enable: ALE is the output signal for latching the low byte of the address during an access to external memory. This pin is also the programming pulse input (PROG) for flash programming. Normally the ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1¤6 the crystal
  15. 15. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 15 frequency and an be used for external timing and clocking. One ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. However, if AO is set to ‗1‘,ALE is disabled. Crystal 1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock generator circuits. Crystal 2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. 4.1.4 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION Memory organization The device has separate address spaces for program and data memory. Flash program memory There are two internal flash memory blocks in the device. Block 0 has 64 Kbytes and contains the user ‘s code. Block 1 contains the Philips -provided ISP/IAP routines and may be enabled such that it overlays the first 8 Kbytes of the user code memory. The 64 kB Block 0 is organized as 512 sectors, each sector consists of 128 bytes. Access to the IAP routines may be enabled by clearing the BSEL bit in the FCF register. However, caution must be taken when dynamically changing the BSEL bit. Since this will cause different physical memory to be mapped to the logical program address space, the user must avoid clearing the BSEL bit when executing user code within the address range 0000H to 1FFFH. Data RAM memory The data RAM has 1024 bytes of internal memory. The device can also address up to 64 kB for external data memory. Expanded data RAM addressing The P89V51RD2 has 1 kB of RAM. The device has four sections of internal data memory: 1. The lower 128 bytes of RAM (00H to 7FH) are directly and indirectly addressable. 2. The higher 128 bytes of RAM (80H to FFH) are indirectly addressable. 3. The special function registers (80H to FFH) are directly addressable only.
  16. 16. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 16 4. The expanded RAM of 768 bytes (00H to 2FFH) is indirectly addressable by the move external instruction (MOVX) and clearing the EXTRAM bit Since the upper 128 bytes occupy the same addresses as the SFRs, the RAM must be accessed indirectly. The RAM and SFRs space are physically separate even though they have the same addresses. Flash organization The P89V51RD2 program memory consists of a 64 kB block. An In-System Programming (ISP) capability, in a second 8 kB block, is provided to allow the user code to be programmed in-circuit through the serial port. There are three methods of erasing or programming of the Flash memory that may be used. First, the Flash may be programmed or erased in the end-user application by calling low-level routines through a common entry point (IAP). Second, the on-chip ISP boot loader may be invoked. This ISP boot loader will, in turn, call low-level routines through the same common entry point that can be used by the end-user application. Third, the Flash may be programmed or erased using the parallel method by using a commercially available EPROM programmer which supports this device. Boot block When the microcontroller programs its own Flash memory, all of the low level details are handled by code that is contained in a Boot block that is separate from the user Flash memory. A user program calls the common entry point in the Boot block with appropriate parameters to accomplish the desired operation. Boot block operations include erase user code, program user code, program security bits, etc. A Chip-Erase operation can be performed using a commercially available parallel programer. This operation will erase the contents of this Boot Block and it will be necessary for the user to reprogram this Boot Block (Block 1) with the Philips-provided ISP/IAP code in order to use the ISP or IAP capabilities of this device.
  17. 17. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 17 Power-On reset code execution Following reset, the P89V51RD2 will either enter the Soft ICE mode (if previously enabled via ISP command) or attempt to auto baud to the ISP boot loader. If this auto baud is not successful within about 400 ms, the device will begin execution of the user code. In-System Programming (ISP) In-System Programming is performed without removing the microcontroller from the system. The In-System Programming facility consists of a series of internal hardware resources coupled with internal firmware to facilitate remote programming of the P89V51RD2 through the serial port. This firmware is provided by Philips and embedded within each P89V51RD2 device. The Philips In-System Programming facility has made in-circuit programming in an embedded application possible with a minimum of additional expense in components and circuit board area. The ISP function uses five pins (VDD, VSS, TxD, RxD, and RST). Only a small connector needs to be available to interface your application to an external circuit in order to use this feature. Using the In-System Programming The ISP feature allows for a wide range of baud rates to be used in your application, independent of the oscillator frequency. It is also adaptable to a wide range of oscillator frequencies. This is accomplished by measuring the bit-time of a single bit in a received character. This information is then used to program the baud rate in terms of timer counts based on the oscillator frequency. The ISP feature requires that an initial character (an uppercase U) be sent to the P89V51RD2 to establish the baud rate. The ISP firmware provides auto-echo of received characters. Once baud rate initialization has been performed, the ISP firmware will only accept Intel Hex-type records. In the Intel Hex record, the ‗NN‘ represents the number of data bytes in the record. The P89V51RD2 will accept up to 32 data bytes. The ‗AAAA ‘string represents the address of the first byte in the record. If there are zero bytes in the record, this field is often set to 0000. The ‗RR ‘string indicates the record type. A record type of ‗00 ‘ is a data record. A record type of ‗01‘ indicates the end-of-file
  18. 18. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 18 mark. In this application, additional record types will be added to indicate either commands or data for the ISP facility. The maximum number of data bytes in a record is limited to 32 (decimal). As a record is received by the P89V51RD2, the information in the record is stored internally and a checksum calculation is performed. The operation indicated by the record type is not performed until the entire record has been received. Should an error occur in the checksum, the P89V51RD2 will send an ‗X ‘ out the serial port indicating a checksum error. If the checksum calculation is found to match the checksum in the record, then the command will be executed. In most cases, successful reception of the record will be indicated by transmitting a ‗.‘ character out the serial port.
  19. 19. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 19 4.2 RS232 RS-232 is a telecommunications standard for connecting certain types of electronic equipment. In computer networking, RS-232 cables were commonly used to connect modems to the compatible serial ports of personal computers. So-called null modem cables could also be connected directly between the RS-232 ports of two computers to create a simple network interface suitable for transferring files. Today, most uses of RS-232 in computer networking have been replaced by USB technology. Some computers and network routers possess RS-232 ports to support modem connections. RS-232 also continues to be used in some industrial devices, including newer fiber optic cable and wireless implementations. Fig: 4.2 pin dig of RS232 RS232 works at the physical level so you will know what signals you can expect to see at the microcontroller pins. It is a method (or protocol - an agreed standard) that defines how to transfer data between two devices using a few wires. It uses a serial transmission method where bytes of data are output one bit at a time onto a single wire. Data is only transmitted
  20. 20. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 20 in one direction for each wire so for bi-directional communication (two directions) you need two wires These two along with a ground reference (total: three wires) make up the minimum configuration that you can get away with. More formally RS232 is an asynchronous communication protocol that lets you transfer data between electronic devices. Basically it can transfer a single byte of data over a serial cable having between 3 to 22 signals and running at speeds from 100 to 20k baud. Common baud rates used are 2.4k, 9.6k, 19.2k, The cable length can be up to 50ft. Higher baud rates are used but not covered by the standard they still work though e.g. 38400,57600 Baud (bits/s). To transfer a block of data individual bytes are transmitted one after another. This section describes how RS232 works in general without describing complex handshake methods - only the simplest system is described this it the most useful and the most likely to work!. Data is transmitted serially in one direction over a pair of wires. Data going out is labeled Tx (indicating transmission) while data coming in is labeled Rx (indicating reception). To create a two way communication system a minimum of three wires are needed Tx, Rx and GND (ground). Crossing over Tx & Rx between the two systems lets each unit talk to the opposite one. Each byte can be transmitted at any time (as long as the previous byte has been transmitted). The transmitted byte is not synchronized to the receiver - it is an asynchronous protocol i.e. there is no clock signal. For this reason software at each end of the communication link must be set up exactly the same so that each serial decoder chip can decode the serial data stream. Fig: 4.3 RS232
  21. 21. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 21 4.3 MAX 232 The MAX232 IC is used to convert the TTL/CMOS logic levels to RS232 logic levels during serial communication of microcontrollers with PC. The controller operates at TTL logic level (0-5V) whereas the serial communication in PC works on RS232 standards (-25 V to + 25V). This makes it difficult to establish a direct link between them to communicate with each other. The intermediate link is provided through MAX232. It is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply RS232 voltage levels from a single 5V supply. Each receiver converts RS232 inputs to 5V TTL/CMOS levels. These receivers (R1 & R2) can accept ±30V inputs. The drivers (T1 & T2), also called transmitters, convert the TTL/CMOS input level into RS232 level. Fig: 4.4 pin dig of max232 The MAX232 is an IC, first created in 1987 by Maxim Integrated Products, that converts signals from an RS-232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits. The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver and typically converts the RX, TX, CTS and RTS signals. The drivers provide RS-232 voltage level outputs (approx. ± 7.5 V) from a single + 5 V supply via on-chip charge pumps and external capacitors. This makes it useful for implementing RS-232 in devices that otherwise do not need any voltages outside the 0 V
  22. 22. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 22 to + 5 V range, as power supply design does not need to be made more complicated just for driving the RS-232 in this case. The receivers reduce RS-232 inputs (which may be as high as ± 25 V), to standard 5 V TTL levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.3 V, and a typical hysteresis of 0.5 V. The later MAX232A is backwards compatible with the original MAX232 but may operate at higher baud rates and can use smaller external capacitors – 0.1 μF in place of the 1.0 μF capacitors used with the original device. The newer MAX3232 is also backwards compatible, but operates at a broader voltage range, from 3 to 5.5 V.Pin-to-pin compatible versions from other manufacturers are ICL232, ST232, ADM232 and HIN232.It is helpful to understand what occurs to the voltage levels. When a MAX232 IC receives a TTL level to convert, it changes a TTL logic 0 to between +3 and +15 V, and changes TTL logic 1 to between -3 to -15 V, and vice versa for converting from RS232 to TTL. This can be confusing when you realize that the RS232 data transmission voltages at a certain logic state are opposite from the RS232 control line voltages at the same logic state. To clarify the matter, see the table below. For more information,. The MAX232(A) has two receivers (converts from RS-232 to TTL voltage levels), and two drivers (converts from TTL logic to RS-232 voltage levels). This means only two of the RS- 232 signals can be converted in each direction. Typically, a pair of a driver/receiver of the MAX232 is used for TX and RX signals, and the second one for CTS and RTS signals, There are not enough drivers/receivers in the MAX232 to also connect the DTR, DSR, and DCD signals. Usually these signals can be omitted when e.g. communicating with a PC's serial interface. If the DTE really requires these signals, either a second MAX232 is needed, or some other IC from the MAX232 family can be used. Also, it is possible to directly wire DTR (DB9 pin #4) to DSR (DB9 pin #6) without going through any circuitry. This gives automatic (brain dead) DSR acknowledgment of an incoming DTR signal.
  23. 23. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 23 Fig: 4.5 image of max232 Fig:4.6 Interface between rs232 and max232 Several devices collect data from sensors and need to send it to another unit, like a computer, for further processing. Data transfer/communication is generally done in two ways: parallel and serial. In the parallel mode, data transfer is fast and uses more number of lines. This mode is good for short range data transfer. Serial communication on the other hand, uses
  24. 24. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 24 only one or two data lines to transfer data and is generally used for long distance communication. In serial communication the data is sent as one bit at a time. This article describes the interfacing of 8051 microcontroller with a computer via serial port, RS232. Serial communication is commonly used in applications such as industrial automation systems, scientific analysis and certain consumer products. Works with 5V and 3.3V Power This converter provides two way RS232 serial communications signal conversion between the TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic) output to and from a personal computer RS232 serial COM port. This converter can be used on any Micro controller - PIC, Atmel or other which has TTL serial communications that needs to be converted to RS232. The 3 pin jumper selects power from the PC or an external power source. If you use External Power on Vcc this must NOT exceed +5 VOLTS and the JUMPER must be removed. (c) Sigma-Shop.com All rights reserved. When you want to use the MAX232 you have to connect the RX to the TX of the device, and the TX of the MAX232 to the RX of the device. The only way to make the MAX works, the lines between the device and the MAX must be crossed. Fig: 4.7 Interface between rs232 and max232 and microcontroller
  25. 25. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 25 4.4 PIR (Pyro electric Infrared Radial) sensor Compact and complete, easy to use Piezoelectric Infrared (PIR) Sensor Module for human body detection. Incorporating a Fresnel lens and motion detection circuit, suitable for a wide range of supply voltages and with low current drain. High sensitivity and low noise. Output is a standard TTL active low output signal indicated by on board LED. The PIR (Passive Infra-Red) Sensor is a piezoelectric device that detects motion by measuring changes in the infrared levels emitted by surrounding objects. This motion can be detected by checking for a high signal on a single I/O pin. Module provides an optimized circuit that will detect motion up to 6 meters away and can be used in burglar alarms and access control systems. The PIR sensor and Fresnel lens are fitted onto the PCB. This enables the board to be mounted inside a case with the detecting lens protruding outwards, whilst still allowing easy access to the controls inside the case. Fig 4.8 PIR sensor
  26. 26. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 26 PIR sensors allow you to sense motion, almost always used to detect whether a human has moved in or out of the sensors range. They are small, inexpensive, low-power, easy to use and don't wear out. For that reason they are commonly found in appliances and gadgets used in homes or businesses. They are often referred to as PIR, "Passive Infrared", "Piezoelectric", or "IR motion" sensors Fig: 4.9 image of PIR sensors PIR sensors allow you to sense motion, almost always used to detect whether a human has moved in or out of the sensors range. They are small, inexpensive, low-power, easy to use and don't wear out. For that reason they are commonly found in appliances and gadgets used in homes or businesses. They are often referred to as PIR, "Passive Infrared", "Piezoelectric", or "IR motion" sensors. PIRs are basically made of a piezoelectric sensor (which you can see above as the round metal can with a rectangular crystal in the center), which can detect levels of infrared radiation. Everything emits some low level radiation, and the hotter something is, the more radiation is emitted. The sensor in a motion detector is actually split in two halves. The reason for that is that we are looking to detect motion (change) not average IR levels. The two halves are wired up so that they cancel each other out. If one half sees more or less IR radiation than the other, the output will swing high or low. Along with the pyroelectic sensor is a bunch of supporting circuitry, resistors and capacitors. It seems that most small hobbyist sensors use the BISS0001 ("Micro Power PIR Motion Detector IC"), undoubtedly a very inexpensive chip. This chip takes the output of the sensor and does some minor processing on it to emit a digital output pulse from the analog sensor. For many basic
  27. 27. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 27 projects or products that need to detect when a person has left or entered the area, or has approached, PIR sensors are great. They are low power and low cost, pretty rugged, have a wide lens range, and are easy to interface with. Note that PIRs won't tell you how many people are around or how close they are to the sensor, the lens is often fixed to a certain sweep and distance (although it can be hacked somewhere) and they are also sometimes set off by house pets. Experimentation is key! 4.5 GSM GSM is widely used mobile communication architecture used in most of the countries. This project demonstrates the interfacing of microcontroller with HyperTerminal and GSM module. It aims to familiarize with the syntax of AT Commands and their Information Response and Result Codes. The ASCII values of characters in the Information Response, Result Codes and their syntax can be monitored by an LED array. For the basic concepts, working and operation of AT commands and GSM module refer GSM/GPRS Module. A GSM modem works by using a SIM card or SIM card operated device, such as a cellular phone that provides Internet access through the mobile phone carrier. The GSM modem, or cell phone is connected to a computer or laptop, and provides connectivity just as any other modem would. It has a specific interface that is used to send and receive signals and messages, and is typically used for mobile web connection. Many people who work on the road use a GSM modem to connect to the Internet from various locations. This keeps them from having to look for Wi-Fi hot spots, or other forms of connectivity. GSM was designed with a moderate level of service security. The system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and challenge-response. Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted. The development of UMTS introduces an optional Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM), that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security, as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user, whereas GSM only authenticates the user to the network (and not vice versa). The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication, but limited authorization capabilities, and no non-repudiation. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe Spécial Mobile), is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute(ETSI) to describe protocols for second generation (2G) digital cellular
  28. 28. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 28 networks used by mobile phones. It is the de facto global standard for mobile communications with over 90% market share, and is available in over 219 countries and territories. The GSM standard was developed as a replacement for first generation (1G) analog cellular networks, and originally described a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full voice telephony. This was expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit-switched transport, then packet data transport via GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) and EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution or EGPRS). Subsequently, the 3GPP developed third generation (3G) UMTS standards followed by fourth generation (4G) LTE Advanced standards, which are not part of the ETSI GSM standard. "GSM" is a trademark owned by the GSM Association. It may also refer to the initially most common voice codec used, Full Rate. AT- Attention, used to start a command line. Fig: 4.10 GSM
  29. 29. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 29 Fig: 4.11 Layout of GSM 4.6 WIRELESS CAMERA Wireless security cameras are closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras that transmit a video and audio signal to a wireless receiver through a radio band. Many wireless security cameras require at least one cable or wire for power; "wireless" refers to the transmission of video/audio. However, some wireless security cameras are battery-powered, making the cameras truly wireless from top to bottom. Wireless cameras are proving very popular among modern security consumers due to their low installation costs (there is no need to run expensive video extension cables) and flexible mounting options; wireless cameras can be mounted/installed in locations previously unavailable to standard wired cameras. In addition to the ease of use and convenience of access, wireless security camera allows users to leverage broadband wireless internet to provide seamless internet. Analog wireless is the transmission of audio and video signals using radio frequencies. Typically, analog wireless has a transmission range of around 300 feet (91 meters) in open space; walls, doors, and furniture will reduce this range. Analog wireless is found in three frequencies: 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz. Currently, the majority of wireless security cameras operates on the
  30. 30. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 30 2.4 GHz frequency. Most household routers, cordless phones, video game controllers, and microwaves operate on the 2.4 GHz frequency and may cause interference with your wireless security camera. 900 MHz is known as Wi-Fi Friendly because it will not interfere with the Internet signal of your wireless network 4.6.1 Advantages:  Cost effective: the cost of individual cameras is low.  Multiple receivers per camera: the signal from one camera can be picked up by any receiver; you can have multiple receivers in various locations to create your wireless surveillance network 4.6.2 Disadvantages:  Susceptible to interference from other household devices, such as microwaves, cordless phones, video game controllers, and routers.  No signal strength indicator: there is no visual alert (like the bars on a cellular phone) indicating the strength of your signal.  Susceptible to interception: because analog wireless uses a consistent frequency, it is possible for the signals to be picked up by other receivers.  One-way communication only: it is not possible for the receiver to send signals back to the camera. Digital wireless is the transmission of audio and video analog signals encoded as digital packets over high-bandwidth radio frequencies. Wireless security cameras are becoming more and more popular in the consumer market, being a cost-effective way to have a comprehensive surveillance system installed in a home or business for an often less expensive price. Wireless cameras are also ideal for people renting homes or apartments. Since there is no need to run video extension cables through walls or ceilings (from the camera to the receiver or recording device) one does not need approval of a landlord to install a wireless security camera system. Additionally, the lack of wiring allows for less "clutter," avoiding damage to the look of a building. A wireless security camera is also a great option for seasonal monitoring and surveillance. For example, one can observe a pool or patio in
  31. 31. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 31 summer months and take down the camera in the winter. Wireless security cameras function best when there is a clear line of sight between the camera(s) and the receiver. Outdoors, and with clear line of sight, digital wireless cameras typically have a range between 250 to 450 feet. Indoors, the range can be limited to 100 to 150 feet. Cubical walls, drywall, glass, and windows generally do not degrade wireless signal strength. Brick, concrete floors, and walls degrade signal strength. Trees that are in the line of sight of the wireless camera and receiver may impact signal strength. the signal range also depends on whether there are competing signals using the same frequency as the camera. For example, signals from cordless phones or routers may affect signal strength. When this happens, the camera image may freeze, or appear "choppy". Typical solution involves locking the channel that wireless router operates on. Wireless cameras are basically described as a wireless transmitter carrying a camera signal. The Camera is wired to a wireless transmitter and the signal travels between the camera and the receiver. This works much like radio. The sound you hear on a radio is transmitted wirelessly and you tune to a certain frequency and hear the sound. Wireless cameras have a channel also. The receiver has channels to tune in and then you get the picture. The wireless camera picture is sent by the transmitter the receiver collects this signal and outputs it to your Computer OR TV Monitor depending on the receiver type.
  32. 32. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 32 Fig:4.12 wireless camera
  33. 33. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 33 Fig:4.13 working of wireless camera Fig:4.14 signals transfer in wireless camera
  34. 34. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 34 4.7 LCD DISPLAY We always use devices made up of Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) like computers, digital watches and also DVD and CD players. They have become very common and have taken a giant leap in the screen industry by clearly replacing the use of Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT). CRT draws more power than LCD and are also bigger and heavier. All of us have seen an LCD, but no one knows the exact working of it. Let us take a look at the working of an LCD. We get the definition of LCD from the name ―Liquid Crystal‖ itself. It is actually a combination of two states of matter – the solid and the liquid. They have both the properties of solids and liquids and maintain their respective states with respect to another. Solids usually maintain their state unlike liquids who change their orientation and move everywhere in the particular liquid. Further studies have showed that liquid crystal materials show more of a liquid state than that of a solid. It must also be noted that liquid crystals are more heat sensitive than usual liquids. A little amount of heat can easily turn the liquid crystal into a liquid. This is the reason why they are also used to make thermometers. 4.7.1 Basics of LCD Displays The liquid-crystal display has the distinct advantage of having a low power consumption than the LED. It is typically of the order of microwatts for the display in comparison to the some order of mill watts for LEDs. Low power consumption requirement has made it compatible with MOS integrated logic circuit. Its other advantages are its low cost, and good contrast. The main drawbacks of LCDs are additional requirement of light source, a limited temperature range of operation (between 0 and 60° C), low reliability, short operating life, poor visibility in low ambient lighting, slow speed and the need for an ac drive. 4.7.2 Basic structure of an LCD A liquid crystal cell consists of a thin layer (about 10 u m) of a liquid crystal sandwiched between two glass sheets with transparent electrodes deposited on their inside faces. With both glass sheets transparent, the cell is known as transitive type cell. When one glass is transparent and the other has a reflective coating, the cell is called reflective type. The LCD does not produce any illumination of its own. It, in fact, depends entirely on illumination falling on it from an external source for its visual effect
  35. 35. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 35 4.7.3 Making of LCD  Though the making of LCD is rather simple there are certain facts that should be noted while making it.  The basic structure of an LCD should be controllably changed with respect to the applied electric current.  The light that is used on the LCD can be polarized.  Liquid crystals should be able to both transmit and change polarized light.  There are transparent substances that can conduct electricity. To make an LCD, you need to take two polarized glass pieces. The glass which does not have a polarized film on it must be rubbed with a special polymer which creates microscopic grooves in the surface. It must also be noted that the grooves are on the same direction as the polarizing film. Then, all you need to do is to add a coating of pneumatic liquid crystals to one of the filters. The grooves will cause the first layer of molecules to align with the filter‘s orientation. At right angle to the first piece, you must then add a second piece of glass along with the polarizing film. Till the uppermost layer is at a 90-degree angle to the bottom, each successive layer of TN molecules will keep on twisting. The first filter will naturally be polarized as the light strikes it at the beginning. Thus the light passes through each layer and is guided on to the next with the help of molecules. When this happens, the molecules tend to change the plane of vibration of the light to match their own angle. When the light reaches the far side of the liquid crystal substance, it vibrates at the same angle as the final layer of molecules. The light is only allowed an entrance if the second polarized glass filter is same as the final layer. Take a look at the figure below.
  36. 36. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 36 Fig: 4.15 working of LCD The main principle behind liquid crystal molecules is that when an electric current is applied to them, they tend to untwist. This causes a change in the light angle passing through them. This causes a change in the angle of the top polarizing filter with respect to it. So little light is allowed to pass through that particular area of LCD. Thus that area becomes darker comparing to others. For making an LCD screen, a reflective mirror has to be setup in the back. An electrode plane made of indium-tin oxide is kept on top and a glass with a polarizing film is also added on the bottom side. The entire area of the LCD has to be covered by a common electrode and above it should be the liquid crystal substance. Next comes another piece of glass with an electrode in the shape of the rectangle on the bottom and, on top, another polarizing film. It must be noted that both of them are kept at right angles. When there is no current, the light passes through the front of the LCD it will be reflected by the mirror and bounced back. As the electrode is connected to a temporary battery the current from it will cause the liquid crystals between the common-plane electrode and the electrode shaped like a rectangle to untwist. Thus the light is blocked from passing through. Thus that particular rectangular area appears blank.
  37. 37. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 37 4.7.4 Color Liquid Crystal Display Color LCDs are those that can display pictures in colors. For this to be possible there must be three sub-pixels with red, green and blue color filters to create each color pixel. For combining these sub-pixels these LCDs should be connected to a large number of transistors. If any problem occurs to these transistors, it will cause a bad pixel. One of the main disadvantages of these types of LCDs is the size. Most manufacturers try to reduce the height than gain it. This is because more transistors and greater pixels will be needed to increase the length. This will increase the probability of bad pixels. It is very difficult or also impossible to repair a LCD with bad pixels. This will highly affect the sale of LCDs. Fig 4.16 Image of LCD display
  38. 38. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 38 4.8 BUZZER A buzzer is an audio device that may be electromechanical, mechanical or piezoelectric. Buzzers are used in timers, alarms and confirmation of user inputs such as a keystroke. It is also known as a beeper. Piezo buzzer is an electronic device commonly used to produce sound. Light weight, simple construction and low price make it usable in various applications like car/truck reversing indicator, computers, call bells etc. It is the phenomena of generating electricity when mechanical pressure is applied to certain materials and the vice versa is also true. Such materials are called Piezo electric materials. Buzzers work in much the same way that a switch works. When the electrical circuit is completed the buzzer will sound. When the circuit is broken the buzzer stops. A buzzer works by using a magnetic coil which is attached to the electrical circuit, and an metal contact. There is a mechanical arm which moves when a button is pressed completing the circuit and causing a buzzing sound. A joy buzzer is an example of a purely mechanical buzzer Early devices were based on an electromechanical system identical to an electric bell without the metal gong. Similarly, a relay may be connected to interrupt its own actuating current, causing the contacts to buzz. Often these units were anchored to a wall or ceiling to use it as a sounding board. The word "buzzer" comes from the rasping noise that electromechanical buzzers made. A piezoelectric element may be driven by an oscillating electronic circuit or other audio signal source, driven with a piezoelectric audio amplifier. Sounds commonly used to indicate that a button has been pressed are a click, a ring or a beep. 4.8.1 Applications  Annunciate panels  Electronic metronomes  Game shows  Microwave ovens and other household appliances  Sporting events such as basketball games  Electrical alarms
  39. 39. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 39 Fig: 4.17 Electronic symbol for a buzzer Fig: 4.18 buzzer 4.9 POWER SUPPLY Here in this system simple 9-12V battery is connected with the transmitting end as well as receiving end. Since microcontroller which is the CPU works on regulated +5V power supply so this can be achieved by connecting a +5V volt regulator at the output of battery. An AC powered unregulated power supply usually uses a transformer to convert the voltage from the wall outlet (mains) to a different, nowadays usually lower, voltage. If it is used to produce DC, a rectifier is used to convert alternating voltage to a pulsating direct voltage, followed by a filter, comprising one or more capacitors, resistors, and sometimes inductors, to filter out (smooth) most of the pulsation. A small remaining unwanted alternating voltage
  40. 40. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 40 component at mains or twice mains power frequency(depending upon whether half- or full- wave rectification is used)—ripple—is unavoidably superimposed on the direct output voltage. A power supply that is built into an AC mains power plug is known as a "plug pack" or "plug-in adapter", or by slang terms such as "wall wart". They are even more diverse than their names; often with either the same kind of DC plug offering different voltage or polarity, or a different plug offering the same voltage. "Universal" adapters attempt to replace missing or damaged ones, using multiple plugs and selectors for different voltages and polarities. Replacement power supplies must match the voltage of, and supply at least as much current as, the original power supply. Fig: 4.19 Adopter
  41. 41. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 41 CHAPTER 5 SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION 5.1 KEIL development tool Keil complier is the software used where the machine language code is written and complied. After compilation, the machine source code is converted into hex code which is to be dumped into the microcontroller for the further processing. KEIL software provides the ease of writing the code in either c or assembly. Keil u vision 3 IDE (integrated development environment) is a windows based front end for the project management, source code editing and program debugging. Standard libraries are altered or enhanced to address the peculiarities of an embedded target processor. It acts as a CROSS-COMPLIER 5.2 EMBEDDED C The C programming language is a general-purpose programming language that provides code efficiency, elements of structured programming and rich set of operators. Its generality combined with its absence of restrictions, makes C a convenient and effective programming solutions for a wide variety of software tasks. Many applications can be solved more easily and efficiently with C than with other more specialized languages. Embedded C is a set of language extensions for the c programming language by the c standards committee to address commonality issues that exit between C extension=s for different embedded systems. Historically, embedded C programming requires non standard extensions to the C language in order to support exotic features such as fixed-point arithmetic, multiple distinct memory banks. And basic I/O operations
  42. 42. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 42 5.3 Flash magic This is a tool from Philips for programming the controllers that are flash programmable and that supports serial programming of devices. Flash microcontrollers can be erased and re- written as many times as possible. The boot loader inside the chip understands the protocol received from computer through serial port. Flash magic identities the hardware when the controller can be now either read back or sent as INTEL format HEX file. Support locking of devices can be done to prevent reading back of programmed chip. After looking the chip can still be erased and used again for loading new programs. 5.3.1 Features Support major Philips devices Lock of programs in chip supported to prevent program copying Auto erase before writing and auto verify after writing Informative status bar and access to latest programmed file Simple and easy to use
  43. 43. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 43 CHAPTER 6 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES 6.1ADVANTAGES No dedicated web server required Our cloud connected home automation network doesn‘t require a dedicated web server, to be remotely controlled and monitored over the Internet, whereas ordinary Internet enabled home automation network require a 24/7 running web server. Furthermore, every mere Internet enabled home automation system would require a static public IP address for the web server. No dedicated or specialized gateway required Our home automation network doesn‘t require a dedicated or specialized gateway to connect to an external network because the communication base of the network is Internet Protocol, which can be directly connected to the Internet. Our choice of using 802.11n standard enables us to form this IP network. Resource Sharing Resources in the cloud are being shared among all users. For example, a single SMS modem is serving to notify all users in case of intrusion event. This type of resource sharing reduces cost and saves energy. Location Awareness The location of each node helps the cloud services to stealthily alert the accurate neighbors (who are using our home automation system) or local police, in an event of genuine intrusion.
  44. 44. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 44 Remote Control & Monitoring The security surveillance system can be controlled and monitored in real-time, from anywhere, via the Internet. Social Interaction Since all users are using a central cloud service, we easily locate and contact the neighbors who are also using our cloud based home automation system. 6.2 DISADVANTAGES Technical issue Security in cloud Prone to attack
  45. 45. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 45 CHAPTER 7 DESIGN OF PROJECT
  46. 46. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 46 Fig: 7.1 Design of project circuit
  47. 47. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 47 PROGRAM CODE #include<reg51.h> #include"prototypes.h" sbit CAMERA=P2^4; // leds and port pins connection sbit BUZZER=P2^6; sbit PIR=P2^1; void GPRS_INIT(); unsigned char res; void uart_init() { TMOD=0x20; TH1=0xFD; SCON=0x50; TR1=1; } void uart_tx(unsigned char text) { SBUF = text; while(TI==0); TI=0; } unsigned char RX_DATA() { unsigned char a; while(RI==0); a = SBUF; RI=0; return(a); } void TX_STRING(unsigned char *text) { while(*text!='0') { uart_tx(*text++); } } void Gsm_Del_Msg() { TX_STRING("AT+CMGD=1,4"); uart_tx(0X0A);
  48. 48. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 48 uart_tx(0X0D); lcdcmd(0x01); lcdcmd(0xc0); lcddata('*'); //shows message deleted } void Gsm_Init() { TX_STRING("AT"); //attention command uart_tx(0X0A); uart_tx(0X0D); //charecters not echoed TX_STRING("ATE0"); uart_tx(0X0A); uart_tx(0X0D); TX_STRING("AT+CNMI=2,1,0,0,0"); uart_tx(0X0A); uart_tx(0X0D); TX_STRING("AT+CMGF=1"); //set text mode uart_tx(0X0A); uart_tx(0X0D); TX_STRING("AT&W"); //modification saving in eeprom uart_tx(0X0A); uart_tx(0X0D); } void main() { // unsigned char count,i,a[3]; lcdinit(); uart_init(); CAMERA=0;BUZZER=0; lcdcmd(0xc0); lcddata('*'); //shows message deleted Gsm_Del_Msg(); Gsm_Init(); lcdcmd(0x01); lcd_string(" HOME SECURITY"); //display on lcd delay(50); lcdcmd(0xC5); lcd_string("SYSTEM"); delay(50);
  49. 49. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 49 while(1) { if(PIR==1) { CAMERA=1;BUZZER=1; lcdcmd(0x01); lcd_string(" SMS"); TX_STRING("AT+CMGS="9886380306""); // change 9886380306 uart_tx(0X0A); uart_tx(0X0D); while(RX_DATA() != '>'); TX_STRING("SOMEONE HAS ENTERED YOUR HOME"); uart_tx(0X1A); lcdcmd(0x01); lcd_string(" SMS sent.."); delay(500); BUZZER=0; GPRS_INIT(); TX_STRING("AT+TCPSEND=0,8"); uart_tx(0X0A); uart_tx(0X0D); while(RX_DATA() != '>'); lcdcmd(0x01); lcd_string("AT+TCPSEND"); TX_STRING("1$2$3$4$"); while(RX_DATA() != 'K'); lcdcmd(0x01); lcd_string("MESSAGE SENT.."); while(1); } } } void GPRS_INIT() { TX_STRING("AT"); uart_tx(0X0A); uart_tx(0X0D); while(RX_DATA() != 'K'); lcdcmd(0x01); lcd_string("AT"); TX_STRING("AT+NETAPN="airtelgprs.com","","""); // airtelgprs.com uart_tx(0X0A); uart_tx(0X0D); while(RX_DATA() != 'K'); lcdcmd(0x01);
  50. 50. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 50 lcd_string("AT+NETAPN"); TX_STRING("AT+DATAFORMAT=1,0"); uart_tx(0X0A); uart_tx(0X0D); while(RX_DATA() != 'K'); lcdcmd(0x01); lcd_string("AT+DATAFARMAT"); TX_STRING("AT+ASCII=1"); uart_tx(0X0A); uart_tx(0X0D); while(RX_DATA() != 'K'); lcdcmd(0x01); lcd_string("AT+ASCII"); TX_STRING("AT+TRANMODE=0"); uart_tx(0X0A); uart_tx(0X0D); while(RX_DATA() != 'K'); lcdcmd(0x01); lcd_string("AT+TRANMODE"); connect: TX_STRING("AT+TCPSETUP=0,106.197.19.161,20000"); // 171.78.146.137 uart_tx(0X0A); uart_tx(0X0D); while(RX_DATA() != ','); res= RX_DATA(); lcdcmd(0x01); lcd_string("AT+TCPSETUP"); if(res == 'O') { lcdcmd(0x01); lcd_string(" CONNECTED...."); } else { lcdcmd(0x01); lcd_string(" NOT CONNECTED...."); goto connect; } }
  51. 51. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 51 CONCLUSION Security surveillance partakes in significant number of home automation systems, deploying digital cameras and sensors to monitor and report intrusion events and thereby reducing damages caused by burglary. In this paper, we present the design, implementation and operation of a cloud connected adhoc wireless home automation system with en suite intrusion detection and burglary prevention stratagems. Along with an improved infrared camera, each node of our home automation system has devised intelligent algorithms for intrusion detection and subsequently reports any event to a location-aware cloud service in real-time. In case of an intrusion event, another cloud service alerts the user with a SMS conversation. The user can then monitor the intrusion from anywhere, on any Internet enable device by accessing the cloud's web interface. If the intrusion is genuine, the user is provided with options to stealthily alert neighbors (who are using our home automation system), play alarm sounds or even report to the police. Using these techniques, burglary can be evaded effectively The use of cloud services in home automation derives many benefits extending from cost reduction to value added services. For further work on the cloud based home automation network, we plan to add a multi-level cloud audio player and many more. On improving the security surveillance system, we plan to add more social integration through social networking sites like face book and Google+. With the help of these online social networks, we can easily contact and notify a user‘s friends in case of an intrusion event and thus make burglary prevention more effective. We are also developing a socially interactive cloud audio player for home automation systems where in users can share music on friend‘s home automation network. Apart from services, we plan to device a mechanism to improve the effectiveness of Smart Grids.
  52. 52. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 52 FUTURE WORKS Cloud computing continues to transform the way organization are doing business, proving to be a transformative innovation for many enterprises. Considering how far the cloud has come in recent years spurs questions of what the future will look like and what types of changes we can expect. Many are speculating about the pace of cloud adoption and what services and capabilities will become available in the future. Some believe recent reports of online surveillance and data breaches at popular cloud applications resulting from hacking could impede the growth rate of cloud adoption. But we believe recent events will lead to further innovations that will bolster security and corporate control and this will allow more companies to confidently move important processes online, ensuring the cloud continues its path of fundamentally transforming corporate IT. Broadly, the future for cloud computing will include clearly defined and standards-based security solutions and technology that will enable enterprises to retain full control of their sensitive information assets while continuing to move more business functions online (thereby reducing IT and other costs). This year‘s The Future of Cloud Computing survey by North Bridge, gave some great insights into what might be coming for the cloud and I‘ve added a couple of additional ideas below.
  53. 53. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 53 REFERENCES [1] J. L. Ryan, ―Home automation‖, Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal, Volume: 1, Issue: 4, August 1989 pp. 185 – 192. [2] Anindya Maiti and S. Sivanesan, ―Controlling and Monitoring of Wireless Home Power Management Systems through Public Cloud Services‖, in press. Websites: www.wikipedia.com www.slideshare.com www.howstuffworks.com www.yahooanswers.com www.whatis.com www.youtube.com www.perspecsys.com
  54. 54. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 54 APPENDIX A PIN DIAGRAM OF P89V51RD2
  55. 55. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 55 Pin description of P89V51RD2
  56. 56. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 56
  57. 57. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 57
  58. 58. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 58 GSM modem
  59. 59. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 59 LCD display Pin No Function Name 1 Ground (0V) Ground 2 Supply voltage; 5V (4.7V – 5.3V) Vcc 3 Contrast adjustment; through a variable resistor VEE 4 Selects command register when low; and data register when high Register Select 5 Low to write to the register; High to read from the register Read/write 6 Sends data to data pins when a high to low pulse is given Enable 7 8-bit data pins DB0 8 DB1 9 DB2 10 DB3 11 DB4 12 DB5 13 DB6 14 DB7 15 Backlight VCC (5V) Led+ 16 Backlight Ground (0V) Led-
  60. 60. CLOUD CONTROLLED INSTRUSION DETECTION AND BURGLARY PREVENTION STRATAGEMS IN HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEPT. OF E&CE, GECH 2014 Page 60 OUTLOOK OF THE PROJECT

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