39013829 final-stress-management-project-97


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39013829 final-stress-management-project-97

  1. 1. PROJECT ON STRESS MANAGEMENT IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY By Natasha Devika SriRam (09/MHRM/22) & Ishbeer Kaur Virdi (09/MHRM/13) Of Madras School of Social Work A project report submitted to Faculty Of Human Resource ManagementIn partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree ofMASTER OF ARTS IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS February 2010 1
  2. 2. CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the project report on the “STRESS MANAGEMNT” is a bonafideproject work done by Ms.Natasha Devika SriRam and Ms.Ishbeer Kaur Virdi , full timestudents of the Department of MA.HRM, Madras School of Social Work in partial fulfillmentof the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Arts in Human ResourceManagement of the University of Madras during the year 2010-2011 ………………. …………………….. ………………. Project Guide Head of the Department Principal Of MA.HRMInternal Examiner External Examiner 2
  3. 3. DECLARATIONWe, Ms.Natasha Devika SriRam and Ms.Ishbeer Kaur Virdi hereby declare that the reportfulfills all the requirements for the award of the degree in Masters in Human ResourceManagement and is a record of original work done by us during the period of February 2011,under the guidance and supervision of Professors Mr.John Paul & Mr.SivaPragasam…………………… ……………………..Signature of the Faculty Guide Signature of the Candidate 3
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe offer our special thanks and prayers to God Almighty for showering his blessings on usand bestowing us with the skills and abilities to carry out this study.We cordially thank Madras School of Social Work for giving us the opportunity to undergoour project work.We thank the principal Dr.Mrs.Fatima Vasanth for her support.We thank Mrs. Jeyanthi Peter, Head of the Department of MA.HRM for her inspiration andguidance throughout the course of our study in the institution.We also extend our heartfelt gratitude to our faculty guides Mr. John Paul & Mr.Sivapragasam who guided us throughout the project.We also acknowledge all the staff of MA.HRM department for their valuable guidance.Last but not the least we also extend our gratitude and thanks to our families and friends whohave been a constant source of encouragement and support. 4
  8. 8. it “The Age of Discontinuity”, John Galbraith has called it “The Age of Future Shock” andHari Albrecht called it “The Age of Anxiety”.Stress has become the 21 century buzz word, from the high pervading corporate echelons tothe bassinets of teaching infants’ nurseries we find this world liberally used. Stress is part ofmodern life. Various events in life cause stress, starting with the birth of a child and enduringwith the death of a dear one.Urbanization, industrialization and the increase scale of operations in society are some of thereasons for rising stress. It is an inevitable consequence of socio-economic complexity and tosome extent, its stimulant as well. People experience stress as they can no longer havecomplete control over what happen in their lives. The telephone goes out of order, power isshut down, water supply is disrupted, children perform poorly at school etc, we feel frustratedand then stressed.The word stress is derived from a Latin word “stringere”, meaning to draw tight. From theview point of physical sciences, the phenomena of stress are evident in all materials whenthey are subjected to “force, pressure, strain or strong-front”. Every material steel, rock orwood has its own limit up to which it can withstand stress without being damaged. Similarlyhuman beings can tolerate certain level of stress. Stress is highly individualistic in nature.Some people have high levels of stress tolerance for stress and thrive very well in the face ofseveral stressors in the environment. In fact, some individuals will not perform well unlessthey experience a level of stress which activates and energizes then to put forth their bestresults.For every individual there is an optimum level of stress under which he or she will perform tofull capacity. If the stress experience is below the optimum level, then the individual getsbored, the motivational level of work reaches a low point and it results to careless mistakes,forgetting to do things and thinking of things other than work during work hours and alsoleads to absenteeism which may ultimately lead to turnover. If on the other hand, stressexperience is above the optimum level, it leads to too many conflicts with the supervisor orleads to increase of errors, bad decisions and the individual may experience insomnia,stomach problems, and psychosomatic illness.The present world is fast changing and there are lots of pressures and demands at work.These pressures at work lead to physical disorders. Stress refers to individual’s reaction to adisturbing factor in the environment. It is an adaptive response to certain external factor or 8
  9. 9. situation or what can be called environmental stimuli as reflected in an opportunity,constraint, or demand the outcome of which is uncertain but important. In short stress is aresponse to an external factor that results in physical, emotional, behavioral deviations in aperson.Stress is an all pervading modern phenomenon that takes a heavy toll of human life. Differentsituations and circumstances in our personal life and in our job produce stress. Those can bedivided into factors related to the organization and factors related to the person which includehis experience and personality traits. Job related factors are work overload, time pressures,poor quality of supervision, insecure political climate, role conflict and ambiguity, differencebetween company values and employee values. Person related factors are death of spouse, orof a close friend, family problems, change to a different line of work, prolonged illness in thefamily, change in social activities, eating habits, etc.,Personality traits are ‘Type A’ personality. They are impatient, ambitious, competitive,aggressive, and hardworking. They set high goals and demands of themselves and others.And they are particularly prone to stress inducing anticipatory emotions such as anxiety.REMEDIES TO REDUCE STRESSThere are two major approaches to reduce stress. They are, • Individual approaches • Organizational approachesINDIVIDUAL APPROACHESAn employee can take individual responsibility to reduce his/her stress level. Individualstrategies that have proven effective include, implementing time management techniques,increasing physical exercise, relaxation training, and expanding the social support network.  Time managementMany people manage their time very poorly. Some of well known time managementprinciples include, o Making daily list of activities to be accomplished 9
  10. 10. o Scheduling activities according to the priorities set o Prioritizing activities by importance and urgency o Knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job.  Physical exercisePracticing physical exercises like aerobics, brisk walking, jogging, swimming, and riding abi-cycle.  Relaxation trainingRelaxation techniques such as meditation, hypnosis and bio-feedback. The objective is toreach in state of deep relaxation, where one feels physically relaxed, somewhat fromdetached from the immediate environment. Fifteen or twenty minutes a day of deeprelaxation releases tension and provides a person with a pronounced sense of peacefulness.  Social supportHaving families, friends or work colleagues to talk provides an outlet, when stress levelsbecome excessive. So expand your social support network that helps you with someone tohear your problems.ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACHESSeveral of the factors that cause stress particularly task and role demands and organizationsstructure are controlled by management. As such they can be modified or changed. Some ofthe strategies that management want to consider include improved personal self section andjob placement, use of realistic goal setting, redesigning of jobs, improved organizationalcommunication and establishment of corporate wellness programmes.Certain jobs are more stressful than others. Individual with little experience or an externallower of control tend to be more proven to stress. Selection and placement decisions shouldtake these facts into consideration. Goal setting helps to reduce stress. It also providesmotivation. Designing jobs to give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work,more autonomy, and increased feedback can reduce stress, because these factors give theemployee greater control over work activities and lessen dependence on others.Increasingly formal organizational communication with employees reduces uncertainty byreducing role ambiguity and role conflict. Wellness programs like employee counselling formon the employee’s total physical and mental condition. They typically proud work ships to 10
  11. 11. help people quit smoking, control alcohol usage, eat better and develop a regular exerciseprogram.Another remedy for reducing stress is cognitive restructuring. It involves two stepprocedures. First irrational or maladaptive thought processes that create stress are identified.For example Type A individuals may believe that they must be successful at everything theydo. The second step consists of replacing these irrational thoughts with more rational orreasonable ones.One important remedy to reduce stress is the maintenance of good sleep. Research conductedon laboratory specimen to have met with startling discoveries. Sleep starved rats havedeveloped stress syndrome. The amount of sleep one requires varies from person to personand is dependent on one’s lifestyle. The American National Sleep Foundation claims that aminimum of eight hours of sleep is essential for good health. Generally studies shows thatyoung adults can manage with about 7-8 hours. After the age of 35, six hours of sleep issufficient whereas people over 65 years may just need three or four hours.TYPES OF STRESSESThe different types of stress are as follows:Mechanical • Stress (physics), the average amount of force exerted per unit area. • Yield stress, the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. • Compressive stress, the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction.Biological • Stress (biological), physiological or psychological stress; some types include: • Chronic stress, persistent stress which can lead to illness and mental disorder • Eustress, positive stress that can lead to improved long-term functioning • Workplace stress, stress caused by employmentOther 11
  12. 12. • Stress (game), card game • Stress (linguistics), phonological use of prominence in languageSTRESS IN MECHANICAL TERMS :Stress (physics)Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. It is a measure ofthe intensity of the total internal forces acting within a body across imaginary internalsurfaces, as a reaction to external applied forces and body forces. It was introduced into thetheory of elasticity by Cauchy around 1822. Stress is a concept that is based on the concept ofcontinuum. In general, stress is expressed asWhere, is the average stress, also called engineering or nominal stress, and • is the force acting over the area .Chronic StressChronic stress is stress that lasts a long time or occurs frequently. Chronic stress ispotentially damaging. Symptoms of chronic stress can be: • upset stomach • headache • backache • insomnia • anxiety • depression • angerIn the most severe cases it can lead to panic attacks or a panic disorder. 12
  13. 13. There are a number of methods to control chronic stress, which include, exercise, healthydiet, stress management, relaxation techniques, adequate rest, and relaxing hobbies.Ensuring a healthy diet containing magnesium may help control or eliminate stress, in thoseindividuals with lower levels of magnesium or those who have a magnesium deficiency.Chronic stress can also lead to a magnesium deficiency, which can be a factor in continuedchronic stress, and a whole host of other negative medical conditions caused by a magnesiumdeficiency.It has been discovered that there is a huge upsurge in the number of people who suffer fromthis condition. A very large number of these new cases suffer from insomnia.In a review of the scientific literature on the relationship between stress and disease, theauthors found that stress plays a role in triggering or worsening depression andcardiovascular disease and in speeding the progression of HIV/AIDS.Compressive stress:Compressive stress is the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction (decreaseof volume). When a material is subjected to compressive stress, then this material is undercompression. Usually, compressive stress applied to bars, columns, etc. leads to shortening.Loading a structural element or a specimen will increase the compressive stress until thereach of compressive strength. According to the properties of the material, failure will occuras yield for materials with ductile behavior (most metals, some soils and plastics) or asrupture for brittle behavior (geometries, cast iron, glass, etc).In long, slender structural elements -- such as columns or truss bars -- an increase ofcompressive force F leads to structural failure due to buckling at lower stress than thecompressive strength.Compressive stress has stress units (force per unit area), usually with negative values toindicate the compaction. However in geotechnical engineering, compressive stress isrepresented with positive values. 13
  14. 14. STRESS IN BIOLOGICAL TERMS:Stress is a biological term which refers to the consequences of the failure of a human oranimal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism,whether actual or imagined. It includes a state of alarm and adrenaline production, short-termresistance as a coping mechanism, and exhaustion. It refers to the inability of a human oranimal body to respond. Common stress symptoms include irritability, muscular tension,inability to concentrate and a variety of physical reactions, such as headaches and acceleratedheart rate.The term "stress" was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s to identifyphysiological responses in laboratory animals. He later broadened and popularized theconcept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challengesof everyday life. In Selyes terminology, "stress" refers to the reaction of the organism, and"stressor" to the perceived threat. Stress in certain circumstances may be experiencedpositively. Eustress, for example, can be an adaptive response prompting the activation ofinternal resources to meet challenges and achieve goals.The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or biologicalsense, as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life. It also became a euphemism, a wayof referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without being explicitly confessional, just"stressed out". It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severeproblems that might result in a real breakdown of health. In popular usage almost any eventor situation between these extremes could be described as stressful.GOOD STRESS V/S BAD STRESS:Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative, with few people acknowledging theimportance and usefulness of positive stress. In our everyday lives, stress is everywhere anddefinitely unavoidable; hence our emphasis should be on differentiating between what isgood stress, and what is bad. This will help us to learn to cope with negative stress, andharness the power of positive stress to help us achieve more.There are 4 main categories of stress, namely eustress, distress, hyper stress and hypo stress.Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological problems, whilst positive stresscan be very helpful for us. Here’s how we differentiate between them. 14
  15. 15. EUSTRESSThis is a positive form of stress, which prepares your mind and body for the imminentchallenges that it has perceived. Eustress is a natural physical reaction by your body whichincreases blood flow to your muscles, resulting in a higher heart rate. Athletes before acompetition or perhaps a manager before a major presentation would do well with Eustress,allowing them to derive the inspiration and strength that is needed.DISTRESSWe are familiar with this word, and know that it is a negative form of stress. This occurswhen the mind and body is unable to cope with changes, and usually occurs when there aredeviations from the norm. They can be categorized into acute stress and chronic stress. Acutestress is intense, but does not last for long. On the other hand, chronic stress persists over along period of time. Trigger events for distress can be a change in job scope or routine thatthe person is unable to handle or cope with.HYPER STRESSThis is another form of negative stress that occurs when the individual is unable to cope withthe workload. Examples include highly stressful jobs, which require longer working hoursthan the individual can handle. If you suspect that you are suffering from hyper stress, youare likely to have sudden emotional breakdowns over insignificant issues, the proverbialstraws that broke the camel’s back. It is important for you to recognize that your body needs abreak, or you may end up with severe and chronic physical and psychological reactions.HYPO STRESSLastly, hypo stress occurs when a person has nothing to do with his time and feels constantlybored and unmotivated. This is due to an insufficient amount of stress; hence some stress isinevitable and helpful to us. Companies should avoid having workers who experience hypostress as this will cause productivity and mindfulness to fall. If the job scope is boring andrepetitive, it would be a good idea to implement some form of job rotation so that there isalways something new to learn. 15
  16. 16. INDUSTRY PROFILEHISTORY OF BANKINGModern Western economic and financial history is usually traced back to the coffee houses ofLondon. The London Royal Exchange was established in 1565. At that time moneychangerswere already called bankers, though the term "bank" usually referred to their offices, and didnot carry the meaning it does today. There was also a hierarchical order among professionals;at the top were the bankers who did business with heads of state, next were the cityexchanges, and at the bottom were the pawn shops or "Lombard"s. Some European citiestoday have a Lombard street where the pawn shop was located.After the siege of Antwerp trade moved to Amsterdam. In 1609 the AmsterdamscheWisselbank (Amsterdam Exchange Bank) was founded which made Amsterdam the financialcentre of the world until the Industrial Revolution.Banking offices were usually located near centers of trade, and in the late 17th century, thelargest centers for commerce were the ports of Amsterdam, London, and Hamburg.Individuals could participate in the lucrative East India trade by purchasing bills of creditfrom these banks, but the price they received for commodities was dependent on the shipsreturning (which often didnt happen on time) and on the cargo they carried (which oftenwasnt according to plan). The commodities market was very volatile for this reason, and alsobecause of the many wars that led to cargo seizures and loss of ships.MAJOR EVENTS IN BANKING HISTORY  1602 - First joint-stock company, the Dutch East India Company founded.  1720 - The South Sea Bubble and John Laws Mississippi Scheme, which caused a European financial crisis and forced many bankers out of business.  1781 - The Bank of North America was found by the Continental Congress.  1930-33 In the wake of the Wall Street Crash of 1929, 9,000 banks close, wiping out a third of the money supply in the United States.  1986 - The "Big Bang" (deregulation of London financial markets) served as a catalyst to reaffirm Londons position as a global centre of world banking.  2008 - Washington Mutual collapses. It was the largest bank failure in history. 16
  17. 17. HISTORY OF BANKING IN INDIAThe first bank in India, though conservative, was established in 1786. From 1786 till today, the journey of Indian Banking System can be segregated into three distinct phases. They are as mentioned below: • Early phase from 1786 to 1969 of Indian Banks • Nationalisation of Indian Banks and up to 1991 prior to Indian banking sector Reforms. • New phase of Indian Banking System with the advent of Indian Financial & Banking Sector Reforms after 1991.Phase IThe General Bank of India was set up in the year 1786. Next came Bank of Hindustan andBengal Bank. The East India Company established Bank of Bengal (1809), Bank of Bombay(1840) and Bank of Madras (1843) as independent units and called it Presidency Banks.These three banks were amalgamated in 1920 and Imperial Bank of India was establishedwhich started as private shareholders banks, mostly Europeans shareholders.In 1865 Allahabad Bank was established and first time exclusively by Indians, PunjabNational Bank Ltd. was set up in 1894 with headquarters at Lahore. Between 1906 and 1913,Bank of India, Central Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank, Indian Bank, and Bankof Mysore were set up. Reserve Bank of India came in 1935.During the first phase the growth was very slow and banks also experienced periodic failuresbetween 1913 and 1948. There were approximately 1100 banks, mostly small. To streamlinethe functioning and activities of commercial banks, the Government of India came up withThe Banking Companies Act, 1949 which was later changed to Banking Regulation Act 1949as per amending Act of 1965 (Act No. 23 of 1965). Reserve Bank of India was vested withextensive powers for the supervision of banking in india as the Central Banking Authority.During those days public has lesser confidence in the banks. As an aftermath depositmobilisation was slow. Abreast of it the savings bank facility provided by the Postal 17
  18. 18. department was comparatively safer. Moreover, funds were largely given to traders.Phase IIGovernment took major steps in this Indian Banking Sector Reform after independence. In1955, it nationalised Imperial Bank of India with extensive banking facilities on a large scalespecially in rural and semi-urban areas. It formed State Bank of india to act as the principalagent of RBI and to handle banking transactions of the Union and State Governments all overthe country.Seven banks forming subsidiary of State Bank of India was nationalised in 1960 on 19th July,1969, major process of nationalisation was carried out. It was the effort of the then PrimeMinister of India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi. 14 major commercial banks in the country wasnationalised. Second phase of nationalisation Indian Banking Sector Reform was carried outin 1980 with seven more banks. This step brought 80% of the banking segment in India underGovernment ownership.The following are the steps taken by the Government of India to Regulate BankingInstitutions in the Country: • 1949 : Enactment of Banking Regulation Act. • 1955 : Nationalisation of State Bank of India. • 1959 : Nationalisation of SBI subsidiaries. • 1961 : Insurance cover extended to deposits. • 1969 : Nationalisation of 14 major banks. • 1971 : Creation of credit guarantee corporation. • 1975 : Creation of regional rural banks. • 1980 : Nationalisation of seven banks with deposits over 200 crore.After the nationalisation of banks, the branches of the public sector bank India rose toapproximately 800% in deposits and advances took a huge jump by 11,000%.Banking in the sunshine of Government ownership gave the public implicit faith andimmense confidence about the sustainability of these institutions. 18
  19. 19. Phase IIIThis phase has introduced many more products and facilities in the banking sector in itsreforms measure. In 1991, under the chairmanship of M Narasimham, a committee was set upby his name which worked for the liberalisation of banking practices.The country is flooded with foreign banks and their ATM stations. Efforts are being put togive a satisfactory service to customers. Phone banking and net banking is introduced. Theentire system became more convenient and swift. Time is given more importance thanmoney.The financial system of India has shown a great deal of resilience. It is sheltered from anycrisis triggered by any external macroeconomics shock as other East Asian Countriessuffered. This is all due to a flexible exchange rate regime, the foreign reserves are high, thecapital account is not yet fully convertible, and banks and their customers havelimited foreign exchange exposure. 19
  20. 20. SCOPE & SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYThe world today is fast changing and every individual faces a lot of pressure and demand atwork. These pressures at work lead to mental and physical disorders. Stress refers to anindividual’s response to a disturbing factor in the environment and the consequences of sucha reaction. This study will help organizations know what causes stress and how to reduce thesame in employees since it is a well known fact that a healthy and sound employee is aproductive employee. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYPrimary objective: • To undergo an in-depth study about the existence of stress among the employees of the BANKING INDUSTRY Post - Recession.Secondary objective: • To identify the factors causing stress among the employees. • To find out the level of stress among the employees of different age groups. • To study about the effects of stress on employees in BANKING INDUSTRY. • To identify the coping strategies to manage stress. 20
  21. 21. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYIn spite of the precautions, vigilance and scrupulousness taken by the investigator to make thestudy objective, it cannot be denied that there are certain limitations. • The questionnaires were filled be 30 employees working in various bank. So the scope of sample findings was less. • The questionnaire was filled by 30 employees of different designations. So the point of view of employees differs as per their designations. • The employees from whom the questionnaires are filled are in a heavy workload so some of the questionnaires filled by the employees who are in stress cannot be called reasonable. • The responses of the employees cannot be accurate as the problem of language and understanding arises. (These problems are not in all cases.) • As the study was done within a limited time, investigator could not select a sufficiently large sample for the study. • The employees were reluctant to give correct information. 21
  22. 22. REVIEW OF LITERATURE A review on the previous studies on stress among the employees is necessary to knowthe areas already covered. This will help to find our new areas uncovered and to study themin depth. The earlier studies made on stress among the employees are briefly reviewed here. The research study of Jamal. M* finds that job stressors were significantly related toemployees’ psychosomatic problems, job satisfaction, unproductive time at the job, andabsenteeism. Type A behaviour was found to be an important moderator of the stressoutcome relationship. Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. His view in 1956 wasthat “stress is not necessarily something bad – it all depends on how you take it. The stress ofexhilarating, creative successful work is beneficial, while that of failure, humiliation orinfection is detrimental.” Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would beexperienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or negative. The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to Richard SLazarus) is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that“demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize.”In short, its what we feel when we think weve lost control of events. Brief. A. P. and J. M. Atieh*, argues that it is not safe to assume that job conditionsthat have an adverse impact on affective reactions to the job will also have a negative impacton overall subjective well-being. Fienmann views stress as a psychological response state of negative effectcharacterized by a persistent and a high level of experienced anxiety or tension.* Jamal M. “Job stress-prone Type A behaviour, personal and organizational consequences”,Canadian Journal Administration Sciences, 1985. pp 360-74. 22
  23. 23. * A. P and J. M. Atieh, “Studying job stress: Are we making mountains out of molehills?”Journal of occupational behavior, 1987 pp115-26. Hans Seyle, the endocrinologist, whose research on General Adaptation Syndrome(GAS), for the first time, revealed how human beings adapt themselves to emotional strivesand strains in their lives. According to him emotional stress occurs in three important stages.1. Alarm reaction stage 2. Resistance stage 3. Exhaustion stage. Alarm reaction is caused by physical or psychological stressors. Resistances arebrought about by ACTH hormone of the body. Exhaustion follows when ACTH dwindles asa result of continual stress. (ACTH-Aprinocorticotropic) According to Stephen .P. Robbins*, stress related headaches are the leading cause ofloss of work time in U. S. industry. Cooper and Marshall* visualize stress as characteristics of both the focal individualand his environment. They designate the internal and external consultive forces as ‘pressures’or ‘stressors’ and the resulting stalk of the organism on stress. Recent research into the interaction between the mind and body show that we mayplace our body on stress ‘alert’ quite unconsciously, because of our psychological andemotional attitudes to stress. Anticipatory emotions like impatience, anxiety, and anger canproduce the same nerve impulses and chemical reactions as being faced with a concretechallenge. So when faced with a stressful situation, we must either use up the energy createdby the body to challenge or learn how to “turn off”, the response using a conscious relaxationtechnique. 23
  24. 24. *Stephen Robbins, “Organizational Behavior”, Prentice Hall, U.K, 1989 pp 499-501.*Cooper. C. L. and Marshall. J, “Understanding Executive Stress”, The McMillan Press Ltd,1978 p 4.WHAT IS STRESS?Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity,demand or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome isperceived to be both uncertain and important. This is a complicated definition.Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. Although stress is typically discussed in anegative context, it also has a positive value. It’s an opportunity when it offers potential gain.Consider for example, the superior performance that an athlete or stage performer gives in“clutch” situations. Such individuals often use stress positively to rise to the occasion andperform at or near their maximum. Similarly, many professionals see the pressures of heavyworkloads and deadlines as positive challenges that enhance the quality of their work and thesatisfaction the get from their job.But it is different in the case of bank employees. The bank employees are the people who alsohave to achieve the certain target and so for the non achievement of target the employeesremain stressed and tensed. The employees who have the simple table work also have to facethe problem of stress. Due to recession the banking sector is also facing the problem ofemployee cut-offs and so the work load of the existing employees increases and the feelstressed.Stress refers to the strain from the conflict between our external environment and us, leadingto emotional and physical pressure. In our fast paced world, it is impossible to live withoutstress, whether you are a student or a working adult. There is both positive and negativestress, depending on each individual’s unique perception of the tension between the twoforces. Not all stress is bad. For example, positive stress, also known as eustress, can help anindividual to function at optimal effectiveness and efficiency.Hence, it is evident that some form of positive stress can add more color and vibrancy to ourlives. The presence of a deadline, for example, can push us to make the most of our time andproduce greater efficiency. It is important to keep this in mind, as stress management refers tousing stress to our advantage, and not on eradicating the presence of stress in our lives. 24
  25. 25. On the other hand, negative stress can result in mental and physical strain. The individual willexperience symptoms such as tensions, headaches, irritability and in extreme cases, heartpalpitations. Hence, whilst some stress may be seen as a motivating force, it is important tomanage stress levels so that it does not have an adverse impact on your health andrelationships.Part of managing your stress levels include learning about how stress can affect youemotionally and physically, as well as how to identify if you are performing at your optimalstress level (OSL) or if you are experiencing negative stress. This knowledge will help you toidentify when you need to take a break, or perhaps seek professional help. It is also your firststep towards developing techniques to managing your stress levels. Modern day stresses cantake the form of monetary needs, or emotional frictions. Competition at work and anincreased workload can also cause greater levels of stress. How do you identify if you aresuffering from excessive stress? Psychological symptoms commonly experienced includeinsomnia, headaches and an inability to focus. Physical symptoms take the form of heartpalpitations, breathlessness, excessive sweating and stomachaches.What causes stress? There are many different causes of stress, and that which causes stress isalso known as a stressor. Common lifestyle stressors include performance, threat, andbereavement stressors, to name a few. Performance stressors are triggered when an individualis placed in a situation where he feels a need to excel. This could be during performanceappraisals, lunch with the boss, or giving a speech. Threat stressors are usually when thecurrent situation poses a dangerous threat, such as an economic downturn, or from anaccident. Lastly, bereavement stressors occur when there is a sense of loss such as the deathof a loved one, or a prized possession.Thus, there are various stressors, and even more varied methods and techniques of dealingwith stress and turning it to our advantages. In order to do so, we must learn to tell when wehave crossed the line from positive to negative stress.STRESS AND DECISIONMAKING, PERCEPTION, AND COGNITIONStress can affect an individual’s decision making process and ability to make effectivejudgments. For example, Easterbrook proposes a “cue utilization model” and argues thatwhen exposed to stressors, individuals experience “perceptual narrowing” — meaning thatthey pay attention to fewer perceptual cues or stimuli that could contribute to their behaviour 25
  26. 26. or decision. Peripheral stimuli are likely to be the first to be screened out or ignored. Decisionmaking models proposed by Janis and Mann support this hypothesis and suggest that understress, individuals may make decisions based on incomplete information. Friedman and Mannsuggest that when under conditions of stress, individuals may fail to consider the full range ofalternatives available, ignore long-term consequences, and make decisions based onoversimplifying assumptions. Furthermore, the individuals may suffer from performancerigidity as a result of their reduced search behaviour and reliance on fewer perceptual cues tomake decisions. Research on decision making under stress supports these theoretical models.Observe the decision making processes of individuals under time pressure. We find thatindividuals under time pressure tend to focus their attention only on a few salient cues.Larsen finds that, like other types of stressors, sleep deprivation can reduce an individual’sability to reason, to analyze complex situations, and to make effective decisions.Sleep-deprived (stressed) individuals in his study were more likely to obey orders withoutthinking and to ignore cues that implied the presence of something unusual. Stress can alsocontribute to performance decrements by slowing cognition and individual informationprocessing. Stress can be looked at as a form of “task overload” (e.g., asking an individual toperform more than one task under a time constraint) and it is seen that the addition ofmultiple required tasks reduces the quality of individual performance and increases themagnitude of the performance decrement as compared with the case in which the individualhas only one task to perform.STRESS MANAGEMENTStress management is the need of the hour. However hard we try to go beyond a stresssituation, life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxietyattacks. Moreover, be it our anxiety, mind-body exhaustion or our erring attitudes, we tend tooverlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those. In such unsettling momentswe often forget that stressors, if not escapable, are fairly manageable and treatable.Stress, either quick or constant, can induce risky body-mind disorders. Immediate disorderssuch as dizzy spells, anxiety attacks, tension, sleeplessness, nervousness and muscle crampscan all result in chronic health problems. They may also affect our immune, cardiovascularand nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions, which are inter-linked withstress. 26
  27. 27. Like "stress reactions", "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some ofthe bodys important built-in response systems. As a relaxation response the body tries to getback balance in its homeostasis. Some hormones released during the fight or flight situationprompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats, and restore the energy level. Theknotted nerves, tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness. Unfortunately,today, we dont get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. To be relaxed we have tostrive to create such situations.DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRESSORSAs mentioned previously, stressors can come in a variety of forms, including extreme heat orlighting, lack of sleep, risk of injury or death, or time pressure. The description of stressorsand their impact on behaviour is an open-ended task, and current research considers anincreasing number of events and conditions to be stressors. Although stressors can be • physical (biological or chemical demands on the body) or • cognitive (threat of death, personal assault)in form, they are always external and produce similar physiological responses within thebody. These physiological effects, defined as a stress response, can include increased bloodpressure, dilated pupils and increased heart rate.RECOGNIZING A STRESSORIt is important to recognize whether you are under stress or out of it. Many times, even if weare under the influence of a stressful condition and our body reacts to it internally as well asexternally, we fail to realize that we are reacting under stress. This also happens when thecauses of stress are there long enough for us to get habituated to them. The body constantlytries to tell us through symptoms such as rapid palpitation, dizzy spells, tight muscles orvarious body aches that something is wrong. It is important to remain attentive to suchsymptoms and to learn to cope with the situations.We cope better with stressful situation, when we encounter them voluntarily. In cases ofrelocation, promotion or layoff, adventurous sports or having a baby, we tend to respondpositively under stress. But, when we are compelled into such situations against our will orknowledge, more often than not, we wilt at the face of unknown and imagined threats. For 27
  28. 28. instance, stress may mount when one is coerced into undertaking some work against oneswill.WORKPLACE STRESSWorkplace stress is the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is apoor match between job demands and the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker.Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions, including psychologicaldisorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types ofemotional strain (e.g., dissatisfaction, fatigue, tension, etc.), maladaptive behaviors (e.g.,aggression, substance abuse), and cognitive impairment (e.g., concentration and memoryproblems). In turn, these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury. Jobstress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately tocompromised health, such as cardiovascular disease.Stress is a prevalent and costly problem in todays workplace. About one-third of workersreport high levels of stress. One-quarter of employees view their jobs as the number onestressor in their lives. Three-quarters of employees believe the worker has more on-the-jobstress than a generation ago. Evidence also suggests that stress is the major cause of turnoverin organizations.Health and Healthcare UtilizationProblems at work are more strongly associated with health complaints than are any other lifestressor-more so than even financial problems or family problems. Many studies suggest thatpsychologically demanding jobs that allow employees little control over the work processincrease the risk of cardiovascular disease. On the basis of research by the National Institutefor Occupational Safety and Health and many other organizations, it is widely believed thatjob stress increases the risk for development of back and upper-extremity musculoskeletaldisorders. High levels of stress are associated with substantial increases in health serviceutilization. Workers who report experiencing stress at work also show excessive health careutilization. In a 1998 study of 46,000 workers, health care costs were nearly 50% greater forworkers reporting high levels of stress in comparison to “low risk” workers. The incrementrose to nearly 150%, an increase of more than $1,700 per person annually, for workersreporting high levels of both stress and depression. Additionally, periods of disability due to 28
  29. 29. job stress tend to be much longer than disability periods for other occupational injuries andillnesses.CAUSES OF WORKPLACE STRESSJob stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. Views differon the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary causeof job stress. The differing viewpoints suggest different ways to prevent stress at work.According to one school of thought, differences in individual characteristics such aspersonality and coping skills are most important in predicting whether certain job conditionswill result in stress-in other words, what is stressful for one person may not be a problem forsomeone else. This viewpoint leads to prevention strategies that focus on workers and waysto help them cope with demanding job conditions. Although the importance of individualdifferences cannot be ignored, scientific evidence suggests that certain working conditionsare stressful to most people. Such evidence argues for a greater emphasis on workingconditions as the key source of job stress, and for job redesign as a primary preventionstrategy. Personal interview surveys of working conditions, including conditions recognizedas risk factors for job stress, were conducted in Member States of the European Union in1990, 1995, and 2000. Results showed a trend across these periods suggestive of increasingwork intensity. In 1990, the percentage of workers reporting that they worked at high speedsat least one-fourth of their working time was 48%, increasing to 54% in 1995 and to 56% in2000. Similarly, 50% of workers reported they work against tight deadlines at least one-fourth of their working time in 1990, increasing to 56% in 1995 and 60 % in 2000. However,no change was noted in the period 1995–2000 (data not collected in 1990) in the percentageof workers reporting sufficient time to complete tasks. A substantial percentage of Americanswork very long hours. By one estimate, more than 26% of men and more than 11% of womenworked 50 hours per week or more in 2000. These figures represent a considerable increaseover the previous three decades, especially for women. According to the Department ofLabor, there has been an upward trend in hours worked among employed women, an increasein extended work weeks (>40 hours) by men, and a considerable increase in combinedworking hours among working couples, particularly couples with young children.SIGNS OF WORKPLACE STRESS 29
  30. 30. Mood and sleep disturbances, upset stomach and headache, and disturbed relationships withfamily; friends and girlfriends or boyfriends are examples of stress-related problems. Theeffects of job stress on chronic diseases are more difficult to see because chronic diseasestake a long time to develop and can be influenced by many factors other than stress.Nonetheless, evidence is rapidly accumulating to suggest that stress plays an important role inseveral types of chronic health problems-especially cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletaldisorders, and psychological disorders.PREVENTIONA combination of organizational change and stress management is often the most usefulapproach for preventing stress at work.How to Change the Organization to Prevent Job Stress • Ensure that the workload is in line with workers capabilities and resources. • Design jobs to provide meaning, stimulation, and opportunities for workers to use their skills. • Clearly define workers roles and responsibilities. • Give workers opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting their jobs. • Improve communications-reduce uncertainty about career development and future employment prospects. • Provide opportunities for social interaction among workers. • Establish work schedules that are compatible with demands and responsibilities outside the job. • Discrimination inside the workplace. (e.g. nationality and language )St. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company conducted several studies on the effects ofstress prevention programs in hospital settings. Program activities included (1) employee andmanagement education on job stress, (2) changes in hospital policies and procedures toreduce organizational sources of stress, and (3) establishment of employee assistanceprograms. In one study, the frequency of medication errors declined by 50% after preventionactivities was implemented in a 700-bed hospital. In a second study, there was a 70%reduction in malpractice claims in 22 hospitals that implemented stress prevention activities.In contrast, there was no reduction in claims in a matched group of 22 hospitals that did notimplement stress prevention activities. 30
  31. 31. COPING WITH STRESS AT WORK PLACEWith the rapid advancement of technology, the stresses faced at work have also increased.Many people dread going to work, hence the term “Monday Blues”. What is the reason forthis? There is partly the fear from being retrenched in bad times, leading to greater jobinsecurity on the part of those who remain. Undoubtedly, occupational stress is one of themost commonly cited stressors faced by people all over the world.Stress refers to the pressure and reactions to our environment which results in psychologicaland physical reactions. Whilst some stress is good for motivation and increasing efficiency,too much stress can result in negative impacts such as reduced effectiveness and efficiency.More and more people are feeling isolated and disrespected at work, and this has led togreater occupational stress. Many companies have taken to consulting experts andprofessionals on ways to increase connectedness and motivation of their employees.Some companies organize parties and make their employees feel valued at work. These aremeasures to motivate employees and help them to feel secure at their jobs, translating intogreater productivity. However, not all companies have such measures in place, and somehave not gotten it quite right. Hence, it is up to you to make sure that you can cope with stressat your workplace, and use it to help you work better. Here are 3 simple steps to help youwith coping with stress in the workplace.Step 1: Raising AwarenessHelp yourself to identify when you are facing rising levels of stress, tipping the scales frompositive to negative. This is important, as being able to identify signs of being stressed canhelp you to take steps to ensure that your overall quality of life does not drop. If leftunacknowledged, the problem will only snowball, leading to disastrous consequences to yourhealth and overall wellbeing.You can identify if you are feeling stressed by checking if you have any physical orpsychological reactions, such as excessive sweating or heart palpitations, or the onset ofheadaches, irritability or the need to escape. If you experience any of these reactions, identifyif you are feeling any overwhelming negative emotions, and if you are constantly worried.Step 2: Identify the Cause 31
  32. 32. You need to be able to analyze the situation and identify what is causing the rise in stress.These stressors can be external and internal. External stressors refer to things beyond yourcontrol, such as the environment or your colleagues at work. Internal stressors refer to yourown thinking and attitude. Often, we only start reacting to stress when a combination ofstressors working together exceeds our ability to cope.Keep a diary or a list of events that have caused you to feel strong negative emotions, or thatare likely stressors. This will help you to identify the causes of your stress. Whilst it is notalways possible to eradicate them, we can change the way that we cope with it.Step 3: Coping with StressIn order to deal with the situation that is causing you stress, you need to calm your mind andbody so as to stave off the reactions and cope with it in a positive way. This can be throughdifferent methods, such as taking time off. If a situation is triggering your stress and you areunable to calm down, remove yourself from it. Go outside and take a walk to calm down.Alternatively, you can try implementing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing. If it isan internal stressor, stop your thought process until you are able to deal with it logically.The key to making these 3 steps work for you is to practice them. These are not instantaneoussolutions, and you need to condition your mind and practice them so that you can implementit when you are feeling stressed.REDUCING STRESS1. Job analysis:We have all experienced that appalling sense of having far too much work to do and too littletime to do it in. We can choose to ignore this, and work unreasonably long hours to stay ontop of our workload. The risks here are that we become exhausted, that we have so much todo that we do a poor quality job and that we neglect other areas of our life. Each of these canlead to intense stress.The alternative is to work more intelligently, by focusing on the things that are important forjob success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks. Job Analysis is the firststep in doing this. 32
  33. 33. The first of the action-oriented skills that we look at is Job Analysis. Job Analysis is a keytechnique for managing job overload – an important source of stress.To do an excellent job, you need to fully understand what is expected of you. While this mayseem obvious, in the hurly-burly of a new, fast-moving, high-pressure role, it is oftentimessomething that is easy to overlook.By understanding the priorities in your job, and what constitutes success within it, you canfocus on these activities and minimize work on other tasks as much as possible. This helpsyou get the greatest return from the work you do, and keep your workload under control.Job Analysis is a useful technique for getting a firm grip on what really is important in yourjob so that you are able to perform excellently. It helps you to cut through clutter anddistraction to get to the heart of what you need to do.2. Rational & positive thinking:You are thinking negatively when you fear the future, put yourself down, criticize yourselffor errors, doubt your abilities, or expect failure. Negative thinking damages confidence,harms performance and paralyzes mental skills.Unfortunately, negative thoughts tend to flit into our consciousness, do their damage and flitback out again, with their significance having barely been noticed. Since we barely realizethat they were there, we do not challenge them properly, which means that they can becompletely incorrect and wrong.Thought Awareness is the process by which you observe your thoughts and become aware ofwhat is going through your head.One approach to it is to observe your "stream of consciousness" as you think about the thingyoure trying to achieve which is stressful. Do not suppress any thoughts. Instead, just letthem run their course while you watch them, and write them down on our free worksheet asthey occur. Then let them go.Another more general approach to Thought Awareness comes with logging stress in yourStress Diary. When you analyze your diary at the end of the period, you should be able to seethe most common and the most damaging thoughts. Tackle these as a priority using thetechniques below. 33
  34. 34. Here are some typical negative thoughts you might experience when preparing to give amajor presentation: • Fear about the quality of your performance or of problems that may interfere with it; • Worry about how the audience (especially important people in it like your boss) or the press may react to you; • Dwelling on the negative consequences of a poor performance; or • Self-criticism over a less-than-perfect rehearsal.Thought awareness is the first step in the process of managing negative thoughts, as youcannot manage thoughts that you are unaware of.Rational ThinkingThe next step in dealing with negative thinking is to challenge the negative thoughts that youidentified using the Thought Awareness technique. Look at every thought you wrote downand challenge it rationally. Ask yourself whether the thought is reasonable. What evidence isthere for and against the thought? Would your colleagues and mentors agree or disagree withit?Looking at the examples, the following challenges could be made to the negative thoughts weidentified earlier: • Feelings of inadequacy: Have you trained yourself as well as you reasonably should have? Do you have the experience and resources you need to make the presentation? Have you planned, prepared and rehearsed enough? If you have done all of these, youve done as much as you can to give a good performance. • Worries about performance during rehearsal: If some of your practice was less than perfect, then remind yourself that the purpose of the practice is to identify areas for improvement, so that these can be sorted out before the performance. • Problems with issues outside your control: Have you identified the risks of these things happening, and have you taken steps to reduce the likelihood of them happening or their impact if they do? What will you do if they occur? And what do you need others to do for you? 34
  35. 35. • Worry about other peoples reactions: If you have prepared well, and you do the best you can, then you should be satisfied. If you perform as well as you reasonably can, then fair people are likely to respond well. If people are not fair, the best thing to do is ignore their comments and rise above them. • When you challenge negative thoughts rationally, you should be able to see quickly whether the thoughts are wrong or whether they have some substance to them. Where there is some substance, take appropriate action. However, make sure that your negative thoughts are genuinely important to achieving your goals, and dont just reflect a lack of experience, which everyone has to go through at some stage.Positive Thinking & Opportunity SeekingBy now, you should already be feeling more positive. The final step is to prepare rational,positive thoughts and affirmations to counter any remaining negativity. It can also be usefulto look at the situation and see if there are any useful opportunities that are offered by it.By basing your affirmations on the clear, rational assessments of facts that you made usingRational Thinking, you can use them to undo the damage that negative thinking may havedone to your self-confidence.Continuing the examples above, positive affirmations might be: • Problems during practice: "I have learned from my rehearsals. This has put me in a position where I can deliver a great performance. I am going to perform well and enjoy the event." • Worries about performance: "I have prepared well and rehearsed thoroughly. I am well positioned to give an excellent performance." • Problems issues outside your control: "I have thought through everything that might reasonably happen and have planned how I can handle all likely contingencies. I am very well placed to react flexibly to events." • Worry about other peoples reaction: "Fair people will react well to a good performance. I will rise above any unfair criticism in a mature and professional way."Make sure that identifying these opportunities and focusing on them is part of your positivethinking. 35
  36. 36. 3. LAUGHTERDuring stress, the adrenal gland releases corticosteroids, which are converted to cortical inthe blood stream. These have an immunosuppressive effect. Dr. Lee Berk and fellowresearcher Dr. Stanley Tan at Loma Linda University School of Medicine have producedcarefully controlled studies showing that the experience of laughter lowers serum corticallevels, increases the amount and activity of T lymphocytes—the natural killer cells. Laughteralso increases the number of T cells that have suppresser receptors.What Laughter Can Do Against Stress And Its Effects?•Laughter lowers blood pressure and reduces hypertension.•It provides good cardiac conditioning especially for those who are unable to performphysical exercise.•Reduces stress hormones (studies shows, laughter induces reduction of at least four ofneuroendocrine hormones—epinephrine, cortical, dopac, and growth hormone, associatedwith stress response).• Laughter cleanses the lungs and body tissues of accumulated stale air as it empties more airthan it takes in. It is beneficial for patients suffering from emphysema and other respiratoryailments.• It increases muscle flexion, relaxation and fluent blood circulation in body.• Boosts immune function by raising levels of infection-fighting T-cells, disease-fightingproteins called Gamma-interferon and disease-destroying antibodies called B-cells.• Laughter triggers the release of endorphins—bodys natural painkillers.• Produces a general sense of well-being. 36
  37. 37. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYResearch is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation ofmatter. The primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and thedevelopment of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a widevariety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientificmethod, but need not do so.Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. The researchmethodology in the present study deals with research design, data collection methods,sampling methods, survey, analysis and interpretations.APPROACHES TO RESEARCHDescriptive approach is one of the most popular approaches these days. In this approach, aproblem is described by the researcher by using questionnaire or schedule. This approachenables a researcher to explore new areas of investigation.RESEARCH DESIGNA research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in amanner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. • A well structured questionnaire is framed. • Data is collected from the employees in the BANKING INDUSTRY. • Findings are made and necessary suggestions and recommendations are given.DATA SOURCESThere are two types of data collection namely primary data collection and secondary datacollection.PRIMARY DATAThe primary data is defined as the data, which is collected for the first time and fresh innature, and happen to be original in character through field survey. 37
  38. 38. SECONDARY DATAThe secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and havebeen passed through statistical process.DATA COLLECTION METHODThe data collection method used in this research is questionnaire method. Here the data aresystematically recorded from the respondents.RESEARCH TOOLA structured questionnaire has been prepared to get the relevant information from therespondents. The questionnaire consists of a variety of questions presented to the respondentsfor their despondence.SAMPLINGSampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individualobservations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially forthe purposes of statistical inference. Each observation measures one or more properties(weight, location, etc.) of an observable entity enumerated to distinguish objects orindividuals. Survey weights often need to be applied to the data to adjust for the sampledesign. Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide practice.SAMPLE UNITThe employees of the BANKING INDUSTRY are the sample unit in the survey.SAMPLE SIZEThe sample size chosen for this study is 30 as instructed by the department since it is a MINIRESEARCH PROJECT.SAMPLING METHODSampling methods are classified as either probability or non probability. In probabilitysamples, each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being selected.Probability methods include random sampling, systematic sampling, and stratified sampling.In non probability sampling, members are selected from the population in some nonrandom 38
  39. 39. manner. These include convenience sampling, judgment sampling, quota sampling, andsnowball sampling. The advantage of probability sampling is that sampling error can becalculated. Sampling error is the degree to which a sample might differ from the population.When inferring to the population, results are reported plus or minus the sampling error. Innon probability sampling, the degree to which the sample differs from the population remainsunknown.In this research, the sampling methods used are Random sampling, Convenience sampling andSnowball sampling  Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected. When there are very large populations, it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population, so the pool of available subjects becomes biased.  Judgment sampling is a common non-probability method. The researcher selects the sample based on judgment. This is usually an extension of convenience sampling. For example, a researcher may decide to draw the entire sample from one "representative" city, even though the population includes all cities. When using this method, the researcher must be confident that the chosen sample is truly representative of the entire population.  Snowball sampling is a special non-probability method used when the desired sample characteristic is rare. It may be extremely difficult or cost prohibitive to locate respondents in these situations. Snowball sampling relies on referrals from initial subjects to generate additional subjects. While this technique can dramatically lower search costs, it comes at the expense of introducing bias because the technique itself reduces the likelihood that the sample will represent a good cross section from the population.STATISTICAL METHODS USED  Percentage analysis  Pie diagrams 39
  40. 40. PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS:Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio. Percentages are used in making comparisonbetween two or more series of data. Percentage is used to describe relative terms thedistribution of two or more series of data. No. of Respondents Percentage of Respondents = ------------------------ X 100 Total Respondents 40
  41. 41. 41
  42. 42. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE1.AGE PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS TABLE 1 AGE Frequency PercentValid 25 – 30 6 20.0 30 – 35 14 46.7 35 – 40 10 33.3 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE: 42
  43. 43. Maximum respondents were in the age group of 30 – 35.2.GENDER PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS TABLE 2 GENDER Frequency PercentValid MALE 15 50.0 FEMALE 15 50.0 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:There are equal number of male & female respondents. 43
  44. 44. 3.WORK EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDENTS TABLE 3 EXPERIENCE Frequency PercentValid < 5 YEARS 9 30.0 5 - 10 YEARS 17 56.7 > 10 YEARS 4 13.3 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:More than 50% of the respondents had a work experience of about 5 – 10 years.4.EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS 44
  45. 45. TABLE 4 QUALIFICATION Frequency PercentValid UG 21 70.0 PG 9 30.0 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:70% of the respondents are PG qualified with an MBA or equivalent degree.Q1. Do you suffer with difficulty in sleeping? 45
  46. 46. TABLE 1.1 RESPONDENTS WITH DIFFICULTY IN SLEEPING Frequency PercentValid NOT AT AL 8 26.7 RARELY 8 26.7 SOMETIMES 7 23.3 OFTEN 5 16.7 VERY OFTEN 2 6.7 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:From the above table, it is understood that 26.7% of the employees rarely have any trouble insleeping ,23.3% find it difficult sometimes ,16.7% face the problem very often and 6.7% ofthe employees find extreme difficulty in sleeping.Therefore, it is observed that for most parts,the employees do not have any problems withsleeping.Q2. Do you find it difficult to concentrate? 46
  47. 47. TABLE1.2 RESPONDENTS WITH DIFFICULTY IN CONCENTRATING Frequency PercentValid NOT AT ALL 5 16.7 RARELY 11 36.7 SOMETIMES 10 33.3 OFTEN 4 13.3 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:It is clear that 16.7% of the employees have absolutely no difficulty in concentrating,36.7%of them rarely have a problem ,33.3% sometimes and only a small group of 13.3% find itdifficult to concentrate at work.Therefore, it can be said that mostly the employees have no trouble in concentrating at work.Q3. Do financial problems get you down? 47
  48. 48. TABLE 1.3 RESPONDANTS WITH FINANCIAL PROBLEMS Frequency PercentValid NOT AT ALL 10 33.3 SOMETIMES 12 40.0 OFTEN 8 26.7 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:The table shows that, 40% of the employees feel that financial problems put them downsometimes, 30% felt that it did not affect them at all and 26.7% of them felt that very often itcaused them problems. Therefore, it is identified that financial trouble does put down peoplesometimes.Q4. Do you find yourself self-medicating with additional alcohol, nicotineor other substances? 48
  49. 49. Table 1.4RESPONDENTS AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE Frequency PercentValid NOT AT ALL 7 23.3 RARELY 3 10.0 SOMETIMES 5 16.7 OFTEN 8 26.7 VERY OFTEN 7 23.3 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:This table indicates that 26.7% of the employees ‘‘self medicate’’ quite often, 23.3% resort toalcoholism etc very frequently to relieve stress while 23.3% of them do not resort tosubstance abuse at all . It shows that most employees give into excessive alcoholism or someother forms of self medication most times to reduce stressQ5. Do you get angry quickly?TABLE 1.5 49
  50. 50. RESPONDENTS AND FREQUENCY OF ANGER Frequency PercentValid NOT AT ALL 10 33.3 SOMETIMES 12 40.0 VERY OFTEN 8 26.7 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:40% of the employees claim that they sometimes get angry often while 33.3% feel that theydo not get angry very often. Also 26.7% of them say that they get very angry most of thetime.Therefore, it is inferred that most of the employees are relatively calm and get angry onlysometimes.Q6. Do you find you are prone to negative thinking about your job? 50
  51. 51. TABLE 1.6 RESPONDENTS WITH JOB PESSIMISM Frequency PercentValid NOT AT AL 10 33.3 RARELY 13 43.3 SOMETIMES 7 23.3 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:The table clearly shows that the employees have no negative thoughts about their job since40% of them feel that it happens only rarely and 33.3.% say that it never happens.Therefore, the rate of job pessimism or negative thinking about one’s job is very low.Q7. When you have been ill with relatively minor illnesses, does it take youa long time to recover? 51
  52. 52. Table 1.7RESPONDENTS WITH SLOW RECOVERY DURING ILLNESS Frequency PercentValid NOT AT ALL 11 36.7 RARELY 11 36.7 SOMETIMES 8 26.7 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:From the table, it is seen that most of the employees (36.7%) recuperate pretty quickly froman illness while only 26.7% of them say that sometimes a long slow recovery period is taken.It is inferred that most of the employees get back to their feet pretty soon after an illness anddo not stay in bed for excessive periods of time.Q8. Do you feel you are isolated, with no-one to talk to? 52
  53. 53. TABLE 1.8 RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL ISOLATED Frequency PercentValid NOT AT ALL 14 46.7 RARELY 10 33.3 SOMETIMES 6 20.0 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:This table shows that majority of the people do not feel isolated or lonely. 46.7% of them donot feel any isolation while 33.3% say it happens rarely.Therfore,it is seen that most of the employees have someone to talk to and relate with and arenot isolated or alone.Q9. Do you feel out of control and as if youre not in the driving seat of your life and health? 53
  54. 54. TABLE1.9 RESPONDENTS WITH NO CONTROL OF LIFE Frequency PercentValid RARELY 12 40.0 SOMETIMES 12 40.0 OFTEN 6 20.0 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:This table shows that most of the employees have control of their lives and are in the drivingseat of their own lives while only 20% felt that they are being controlled by others and notthemselves.Q10. Do you snack instead of eating wholesome meals? 54
  55. 55. TABLE 1.10 RESPONDENTS WITH BAD EATING HABITS Frequency PercentValid SOMETIMES 9 30.0 OFTEN 12 40.0 VERY OFTEN 9 30.0 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:The values in the table clearly indicate that all the employees indulge in snacking rather thanin consumption of wholesome nutritious meals due heavy work pressure ,time constraintsand job demands.Q11. When conflict arises at work or at home, do you tend to over- react?TABLE 1.11 55
  56. 56. RESPONDENTS WHO OVER REACT TO CONFLICTS Frequency PercentValid NOT AT ALL 9 30.0 RARELY 13 43.3 SOMETIMES 8 26.7 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:It is seen that most people do not over react to conflicts either at home or at work. Only26.7% of them tend to over react in some situations.Q12. Do you feel that there is more work to do than you realistically have the capacity to do? 56
  57. 57. TABLE 1.12RESPONDENTS WHOSE WORK EXCEEDS ONES CAPACITY Frequency PercentValid RARELY 2 6.7 SOMETIMES 11 36.7 OFTEN 12 40.0 VERY OFTEN 5 16.7 Total 30 100.0 :INFERENCE:The table shows that most of the employees feel that their job demands and requires morethan what they are actually capable of doing. In most cases, their workload exceeds theircapacity. Only a small group (6.7%) felt that it was not so.Q13. Do you feel caught between the pressures of responsibility for family and work life? 57
  58. 58. TABLE 1.13 RESPONDENTS CAUGHT BETWEEN FAMILY AND WORK PRESSURE Frequency PercentValid NOT AT ALL 3 10.0 RARELY 5 16.7 SOMETIMES 14 46.7 OFTEN 6 20.0 VERY OFTEN 2 6.7 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:From the table it is seen that 46.7% of the employees feel that sometimes they are trappedbetween the pressures of home and work ,20% feel caught often and 16.7% felt that ithappened very rarely.Q14. Do you feel under – par at the beginning of the day? 58
  59. 59. TABLE 1.14 RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL UNDER - PAR AT THE BEGINNING OF A WORK DAY Frequency PercentValid NOT AT ALL 4 13.3 RARELY 16 53.3 SOMETIMES 8 26.7 OFTEN 1 3.3 VERY OFTEN 1 3.3 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:The table clearly shows that 53.3% of the employees rarely feel under-par even at thebeginning of a working day and only a handful of employees (3.3%) actually feel under-paron working days. 59
  60. 60. Q15. Do you shy away from social contact with colleagues and friends?TABLE 1.15 RESPONDENTS WHO SHY AWAY FROM SOCIAL CONTACT WITH COLLEAGUES Frequency PercentValid NOT AT ALL 18 60.0 RARELY 9 30.0 SOMETIMES 3 10.0 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE :It clearly shows that majority of the employees are actively sociable and do not shy awayfrom social contact especially with colleagues. 60
  61. 61. Q16. Do other people comment on your not taking care of your appearance?TABLE 1.16 RESPONDENTS WHOSE APPEARANCES ARE COMMENTED UPON Frequency PercentValid NOT AT ALL 16 53.3 RARELY 12 40.0 SOMETIMES 1 3.3 OFTEN 1 3.3 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:From the table and the pie chart, it is clearly understood that most of the employees are welldressed and maintain a certain level of grooming and therefore are not commented upon forshabby appearances by their colleagues. 61
  62. 62. Q17. Do you claim you have no time for hobbies and interests?TABLE 1.17 RESPONDENTS WITH NO TIME FOR THEMSELVES Frequency PercentValid NOT AT ALL 1 3.3 RARELY 1 3.3 SOMETIMES 11 36.7 OFTEN 10 33.3 VERY OFTEN 7 23.3 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:The pie chart and table values clearly indicate that most of the employees are so busy andcaught up with work pressure that they barely have any time for themselves. They havealmost no time for their hobbies and self interests. 62
  63. 63. Q18. Do you feel misunderstood or unappreciated by your colleagues, friends or family members?TABLE 1.18RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL MISUNDERSTOOD/ UNAPPRECIATED BY OTHERS Frequency PercentValid NOT AT AL 17 56.7 RARELY 7 23.3 SOMETIMES 6 20.0 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:Here again, most of the employees are satisfied and not misunderstood or unappreciated bytheir colleagues or family members. Only 20% feel that at certain times they aremisunderstood. 63
  64. 64. Q19. Do you feel you have to be the coper for the family or for colleagues,with no option for seeking support for yourself?TABLE 1.19 RESPONDENTS WHO ARE COPERS FOR FAMILY/ COLLEAGUES WITH NO SUPPORT FOR THEMSELVES Frequency PercentValid NOT AT ALL 1 3.3 RARELY 12 40.0 SOMETIMES 12 40.0 OFTEN 5 16.7 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:Here there are 2 strong groups- one group(40%) feel that very rarely do they have to becopers for everyone else with no support for themselves while the other group also of 40%feel that sometimes they have no one to seek support from. 64
  65. 65. Q20. Would you take a sick day, not because you feel ill but overwhelmed, just to keep your head above water emotionally, mentally and physically?TABLE 1.20RESPONDENTS WHO TAKE A DAY OFF JUST TO RECUPERATE EMOTIONALLY, MENTYALLY & PHYSICALLY Frequency PercentValid NOT AT ALL 6 20.0 RARELY 1 3.3 SOMETIMES 12 40.0 OFTEN 10 33.3 VERY OFTEN 1 3.3 Total 30 100.0INFERENCE:The chart and table indicate that many employees call in a sick day at work not because theyare really sick but because they are too overwhelmed and need time to recuperatephysically,mentally and emotionally. 65
  66. 66. FINDINGS1. Most of the respondents have many years of long association with the organisation2. Most of the employees feel that they have no time for themselves and their personal lives because of work overload.3. The respondents are sociable and have no problems interacting with their colleagues.4. Employees’ are satisfied with the working conditions.5. Role overload is the major cause of stress.6. The respondents face a moderate level of stress 66
  67. 67. SUGGESTIONS  The employees must give importance to time management techniques there by they can complete their work within the specified time.  Many tasks can be delegated to subordinates without losing effectiveness so that we can reduce the overload of work.  Introduce Flexi time  Organisations must introduce recreational zones within the premises for the employees to unwind.  Adopt the work to home transition strategy. It means instead of carrying the pressures of the work to home, the suggestion is to start the unwinding process during the work day and enter the home in a relaxed and peaceful mind.  Counseling the employees when they face problems, because counseling is the discussion of a problem that usually has emotional content with an employee in order to help the employee cope better.  The organization must introduce Employee Assistance Programmes (EAPs) and stress control workshops accordingly to the level of employees, because there is a strong relation between the level of stress and level of employees. EAP includes counseling employees who seek assistance on how to deal with alcohol and drug abuse, managing personal finances, handling conflicts at the work place, dealing with marital and other family problems, and coping with health problems.  Engaging the bored employee in aerobic exercise, because it stimulates the brain and the body. Also the employee must practice meditation and yoga regularly.EMPLOYEES’ SUGGESTION TO REDUCE STRESSThis project consists of the information about the employees, working in the bankingindustry, who are undergoing stress. So considering this factor, the topic becomes one of themost important part of the project as it consists of the opinion of the employees who work in 67
  68. 68. the banks. The response of employees from major banks in the city was marvellous as theygave their valuable opinion about reducing stress as a result of the last question included inthe questionnaire. The opinion of the employees were as follows: • “Just smile away” An employee- HDFC Bank • “Just believe in yourself and just do what your heart wants” An employee- HDFC Bank • -“Talking to family member “- Watching TV or listening good music, - Going for a walk or long drive” An employee- HDFC Bank • “Believe in God” An employee- Bank of Baroda • “Respect yourself and give time to yourself” An employee- CitiBank • “Working in environment welfares, lot of positive attitude. Positive attitude is only that reduces stress and achieves success. Most of the people frustrate due to lack of positivity and stress level climbs up due to that. So get positive attitude about work, about life, and forget the stress” An employee- CitiBank • “We should do such activities from which we get happiness and also make others happy. Pass your time with your close friends and relatives.” An employee- ICICI Bank • “Play and watch cricket” An employee- ICICI Bank • “Listen music and spend time with family” An employee- Deutsche Bank • “Get adjusted with others, Find and spend time for prayer, Study the scriptures, See oneness in all, All are manifested of the supreme GOD” An employee- Deutsche Bank 68
  69. 69. CONCLUSIONStress in the work place has become the black plague of the present century. Much of thestress at work is caused not only by work overload and time pressure but also by lack ofrewards and praise, and more importantly, by not providing individuals with the autonomy todo their work as they would like.Organization must begin to manage people at work differently,improve physical workenvironment, treat them with respect and value their contribution. If we enhance thepsychological well being and health of the employees,the organizational revenue increasesand there is employee retention as well.. Because it is said that, “A Healthy Employee is a Productive Employee” 69
  70. 70. BIBLIOGRAPHYBOOKS 1. Jamal M. “Job stress-prone Type A behaviour, personal and organizational consequences”, Canadian Journal Administration Sciences, 1985. pp 360-74. 2. A. P and J. M. Atieh, “Studying job stress: Are we making mountains out of molehills?” Journal of occupational behavior, 1987 pp115-26. 3. PaulHersey, Kenneth H. Blanchard, Dewey E. Johnson –“Organizational Behavior”, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, 1998. 4. Stephen P. Robbins, “Organizational Behavior”, Prentice Hall, U .K. 1999. 5. Cooper. C. L. and Marshall. J, “Understanding Executive Stress”, The McMillan Press Ltd, 1978 p 4. 6. K. Aswathappa, “Organizational Behavior”,Himalaya Publishing House WEBSITES 1. http://www.lifepositive.com/Mind/psychology/stress/stress.asp 2. http://www.medicinenet.com/stress/article.htm 3. http://helpguide.org/mental/stress_signs.htm 4. http://www.helpguide.org/mental/stress_management_relief_coping.htm 5. http://stress.about.com/ 6. http://www.studygs.net/stress.htm 7. www.wikipedia.com 8. www.finance.indiamart.com 70
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