Drilling and producing well

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introduction to oil and gas.

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Drilling and producing well

  1. 1. Drilling and Production Lecturer: Mohd Amin Shoushtari Office: 14-03-29 Contact: aminutp@yahoo.com
  2. 2. PCB 1052 INTRODUCTION TO THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY & SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT DRILLING AND PRODUCING WELL
  3. 3. 2 A production well is drilled with a drilling rig located on the production platform or with a rig close to platform and production equipment. DRILLING A WELL
  4. 4. 3  Well is drilled in several stages.  Normally starts with drilling a hole of 30 to 36 inches diameters (76 - 91 cm) down to a depth of 150 to 250 m.  A steel pipe called casing is lowered into the well and cemented to the wall.  After the cement has hardened, drilling is resumed with a smaller drill bit.  At a certain depth the drilling is stopped and another string of casing is set and cemented.  This procedure will be repeated for each string until the well has reached the depth of the reservoir.  Number of casing strings may vary from well to well depending on well depth and formations. DRILLING PROCEDURE
  5. 5. 4 Fig: Assembly of drillstring
  6. 6. 5 Drill bit: is a cutting tool used to create cylindrical holes. Rotary table from rotating system will rotate the Kelly pipe, drill pipe and bit. Rotating the bit provides an axial force to create the hole. Kelly: is a primary link between the drilling rig’s surface equipment and the bit. Kellys are manufactured with either square or hexagonal cross-sections. API kellys come in two standard lengths: 40 ft and 54 ft. Drill String Components
  7. 7. 6 Drill String Components Drill Pipe: is a steel pipe available in three length ranges: Range 1 (18 to 22 ft), Range 2 (27 to 30 ft) and Range 3 (38 to 45 ft). Range 2 is the most commonly used one. Outside diameter (inches) Nominal weights (lb/ft) 2 7/8 10.40 3 1/2 9.50 4 14.00 4 1/2 13.75 5 16.25 5 1/2 21.90 6 5/8 25.20
  8. 8. 7 Drill String Components Casing: is a steel pipe used during the drilling of a well. Conductor Casing ,Surface Casing, Intermediate Casing, Production Casing Drill Collar: is a steel pipe thicker than drill pipe. It is used to provide additional weight to the bit and optimize drilling rates. Length ranges Range 2 (30, 31 ft) and Range 3 (42, 431/2 ft).
  9. 9. 8 CASING SIZES  Available Casing Sizes : 36 in. OD 30 in. OD 24 in. OD, 20 in. OD 13 3/8 in. OD, 10 ¾ in. OD 9 5/8 in, OD, 7 ½ in. OD 5 ½ in. OD 4 ½ in. OD 4 in. OD Where OD is Outside Diameter.
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  17. 17. 16 TYPES OF DRILLING RIG For most offshore wells, the types of rig required will fall into one of three groups  Jack-ups – where the water depth is less than 100m  Semi-Submersibles – in hostile waters too rough for Drill Ship and depths over 100m  Drill Ships – in calm waters with depths over 100m
  18. 18. 17 TYPES OF DRILLING RIG Jack-up Rig
  19. 19. 18 TYPES OF DRILLING RIG Jack-up Rig  Jack-ups are used for most of the offshore exploration drilling world-wide.  Jack-up has a floating hull with retractable legs which can be jacked down to the sea bed. Hull can be lifted until it is clear off the sea surface. The legs support the hull.  In shallow and relatively calm waters the Jack up has the advantage of being able to leave a free standing well with a surface completion once it is finished.
  20. 20. 19 TYPES OF DRILLING RIG Semi-submersible Rig
  21. 21. 20 TYPES OF DRILLING RIG Semi-submersible Rig  Semi-Submersibles are used mostly in the range of water depths from 100-600 m.  This rig is not bottom-supported, but it is designed to float and it can operate in water depths of up to 3000 ft.  In areas where water depths exceed 100m and heavy weather can be expected, then semi-submersibles must be used.
  22. 22. 21 TYPES OF DRILLING RIG Drill Ship
  23. 23. 22 TYPES OF DRILLING RIG Drill Ship  Drill ships are used to drill the well in deep water ( up to 7000 ft ).  It is most suited in calmer waters and less harsh environment.  It can move between locations at high speed compared to semi-submersible rigs.
  24. 24. 23 TYPES OF LAND RIG Land Rig
  25. 25. 24 LAND RIGS Land rigs Conventional rigs Small land rigs Medium land rigs Large land rigs Mobile rigs Portable mast
  26. 26. 25 DRILLING RIG COMPONENTS Rotary Rig Component
  27. 27. 26 DRILLING RIG COMPONENTS Rotary Rig Component
  28. 28. 27 DRILLING RIG COMPONENTS Three systems (1) Hoisting system (2) Circulating system (3) Rotary system
  29. 29. 28 DRILLING RIG COMPONENTS (1) Hoisting system A large pulley system which is used to run and pull equipment into and out of the well. Main component is a draw-work which consists of a clutch, gear and brake.
  30. 30. 29 DRILLING RIG COMPONENTS (2) Circulating system It is a system used to circulate drilling fluid down and up the drilling string. Main functions of the system are  To remove drilled cuttings from the borehole  To exert a hydrostatic pressure to prevent formation fluid entering the borehole. Drilling fluid is used as a circulation fluid (water + bentonite + weighting material + chemicals).
  31. 31. 30 DRILLING RIG COMPONENTS (3) Rotary system The system is used to rotate the drilling string and to rotate the drill bit on the bottom of the hole. The system includes rotary table and kelly which is a rectangular-shaped pipe placed in the rotary table.
  32. 32. 31 SYSTEMS HOISTING SYSTEM
  33. 33. 32 One major component system of rotary drilling rig To support the rotating system in „drilling the well‟ by providing the appropriate equipment and working areas needed for lifting, lowering and suspending the tremendous weights Hoisting equipment used to lift, lower and suspend the drilling stem
  34. 34. 33  Draw works Overhead tools ( crown block, travelling block, hook, elevator ) Drilling line
  35. 35. 34 Drawworks: Specialized heavy-duty hoisting winch Crown block: An assembly of pulleys called “sheaves” Travelling block: An arrangement of sheaves Hook: A large hook-shaped device Elevators: An extremely rugged, heavy duty clamps Drilling line: A heavy-duty wire rope
  36. 36. 35
  37. 37. 36 SYSTEMS CIRCULATING SYSTEM
  38. 38. 37 CIRCULATING SYSTEM
  39. 39. 38 Components in Circulating system 1. Mud Pumps: remove large volume of drilling fluid under high pressure 2. Shale shaker: removes drill cuttings from the drilling fluid 3. Desander: removes granular waste from drilling fluid 4. Desilter: removes fine particles from drilling fluid 5. Degasser: removes entrained gases from drilling fluid.
  40. 40. 39 DRILLING MUD CIRCULATING SYSTEM
  41. 41. 40 SYSTEMS ROTARY SYSTEM
  42. 42. 41 Rotary System Drive System Top Drive System Kelly and Rotary Drive System
  43. 43. 42 Rotary System Major components of rotary system – O Rotary table with Kelly O Top Drive System
  44. 44. 43 DRILL BITS Drill Bits
  45. 45. 44 DRILL BITS Types of Drill Bits
  46. 46. 45 DRILL BITS Types of Drill Bits
  47. 47. 46 DRILL BITS Two basic categories: 1. Roller cutter bit (also known as roller cone bit) - consists of cutting elements arranged on cones (usually 3 cones) that rotate on bearings about their own axis as the drill string turns the body of the bit.
  48. 48. 47 DRILL BITS 2. Fixed cutter bit (also known as drag bit) - consists of stationary cutting elements and is rotated directly by the turning of the drill string.
  49. 49. 48 DRILLING OPERATION DRILLING OPERATION
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  52. 52. 51
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  54. 54. 53
  55. 55. 54 CEMENTING CEMENTING
  56. 56. 55 CEMENTING
  57. 57. 56 DRILLING SEQUENCE DRILLING SEQUENCE
  58. 58. 57 DRILLING SEQUENCE  Typical sequence of operation  Rig up
  59. 59. 58 DRILLING SEQUENCE  Typical sequence of operation  Rig up  Drill surface hole
  60. 60. 59 DRILLING SEQUENCE  Typical sequence of operation  Rig up  Drill surface hole  Run & set surface casing
  61. 61. 60 DRILLING SEQUENCE  Typical sequence of operation  Rig up  Drill surface hole  Run & set surface casing  Cement surface casing
  62. 62. 61 DRILLING SEQUENCE  Typical sequence of operation  Rig up  Drill surface hole  Run & set surface casing  Cement surface casing  Drill intermediate hole
  63. 63. 62 DRILLING SEQUENCE  Typical sequence of operation  Rig up  Drill surface hole  Run & set surface casing  Cement surface casing  Drill intermediate hole  Run & set intermediate casing
  64. 64. 63 DRILLING SEQUENCE  Typical sequence of operation  Rig up  Drill surface hole  Run & set surface casing  Cement surface casing  Drill intermediate hole  Run & set intermediate casing  Cement intermediate casing
  65. 65. 64 DRILLING SEQUENCE  Typical sequence of operation  Rig up  Drill surface hole  Run & set surface casing  Cement surface casing  Drill intermediate hole  Run & set intermediate casing  Cement intermediate casing  Drill production hole
  66. 66. 65 DRILLING SEQUENCE  Typical sequence of operation  Rig up  Drill surface hole  Run & set surface casing  Cement surface casing  Drill intermediate hole  Run & set intermediate casing  Cement intermediate casing  Drill production hole  Cement production casing
  67. 67. 66 DRILLING SEQUENCE  Typical sequence of operation  Rig up  Drill surface hole  Run & set surface casing  Cement surface casing  Drill intermediate hole  Run & set intermediate casing  Cement intermediate casing  Drill production hole  Cement production casing  Drill production hole
  68. 68. 67 DRILLING SEQUENCE  Typical sequence of operation  Rig up  Drill surface hole  Run & set surface casing  Cement surface casing  Drill intermediate hole  Run & set intermediate casing  Cement intermediate casing  Drill production hole  Cement production casing  Drill production hole  Run & set liner
  69. 69. 68 DRILLING SEQUENCE  Typical sequence of operation  Rig up  Drill surface hole  Run & set surface casing  Cement surface casing  Drill intermediate hole  Run & set intermediate casing  Cement intermediate casing  Drill production hole  Cement production casing  Drill production hole  Run & set liner  Cement liner
  70. 70. 69  A string of tubing is set from the producing zones to the surface/ wellhead  Communicate reservoir to surface  Provide conduit for fluid to flow to the surface  Control the flow of fluid reservoir reservoir reservoir reservoir
  71. 71. 70 Requires special wellhead and x- mas tree arrangement Two wells in one Conductor
  72. 72. 71
  73. 73. 72
  74. 74. 73 TYPES OF SEPARATOR
  75. 75. 74 Christmas- tree and Wellhead
  76. 76. 75 UNITS of Oil and Gas Flow Rate Oil Flow Rate: bbl/day (barrels/day) Gas Flow Rate: MMSCFD (Million Standard Cubic Feet/day) 1M = 1000 standard cubic feet

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