INTRODUCTION Fingerprinting was first created by Dr.Henry Fault, a British surgeon in 1882. It based on “KEY”.
Fingerprint Patterns Arch- The ridges enter from one side of the finger, rise inthe centre forming an arc, and then exit the other side of thefinger. Loop-The ridges enter from one side of a finger, form acurve, and then exit on that same side. Whorl-Ridges form circularly around a central point onthe finger.Arch Loop Whorl
SalesLoopwhorlArchThe human population has fingerprints in the followingpercentages:Loop – 65%Whorl -- 30%Arch -- 5%populationLoopWhorlArch
Different Identification on FingerprintCrossover: two ridges crosseach otherCore: centreBifurcation: ridge separatesRidge ending: end pointIsland: small ridge b/w twospacesDelta: space between ridgesPore: human pore
Fingerprint matching techniquesThere are two categories of fingerprint matching techniques:1. minutiae-based .2. correlation based. Minutiae-based techniques first find minutiae points and thenmap their relative placement on the finger. The correlation-based method is able to overcome some of thedifficulties of the minutiae-based approach.
Two main technologies used to capture image of the fingerprintOptical sensor – use light refracted through a prism. An optical sensorbased reader uses light to read and acquire fingerprint images. Opticalsensors can be affected by a number of real life factors such as straylight, surface contamination or even prior fingerprint impressionspresent on the sensor surface. Hence it is essential to clean thefingerprint reader glass on a regular basis for optimal performance.Capacitive sensor – detect voltage changes in skin between ridges andvalleys. Capacitive sensors use electric current to sense a fingerprintand capture the image. As sensors apply a small voltage to the finger, areal fingerprint is required rather than a visual impression of it. Thistechnique makes the fingerprint reader more reliable as it becomesharder to fake enrolment.
Image ProcessingCapture the fingerprint images and process them through a series ofimage processing algorithms to obtain a clear unambiguous skeletalimage of the original gray tone impression, clarifying smudgedareas, removing extraneous artifacts and healing most scars, cuts andbreaks.
Advantage of Fingerprint:a. Very high accuracy.b. Is the most economical biometric PC user authentication technique.c. Easy to use.d. Small storage space required for the biometric template, reducing thesize of the database memory requirede. It is standardized.Disadvantage of Fingerprint:a. For some people it is very intrusive, because is still related to criminalidentification.b. It can make mistakes with the dryness or dirty of the finger’s skin, as wellas with the age (is not appropriate with children, because the size of theirfingerprint changes quickly).