Species Interactions

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Species Interactions

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Species Interactions

  1. 1. Species InteractionsSpecies Interactions
  2. 2. BellringerBellringer
  3. 3. ObjectivesObjectives  DescribeDescribe the five major types of interactions betweenthe five major types of interactions between species.species.  ExplainExplain the difference between parasitism andthe difference between parasitism and predation.predation.  ExplainExplain how symbiotic relationships may evolve.how symbiotic relationships may evolve.
  4. 4. Graphic OrganizerGraphic Organizer
  5. 5. Ways in Which SpeciesWays in Which Species InteractInteract  Interactions between species are categorized at theInteractions between species are categorized at the level where one population interacts with another.level where one population interacts with another.  The five major types of species interactions are:The five major types of species interactions are: • CompetitionCompetition • PredationPredation • ParasitismParasitism • MutualismMutualism • CommensalismCommensalism
  6. 6. Species InteractionsSpecies Interactions
  7. 7. Ways in Which SpeciesWays in Which Species InteractInteract  These categories are based on whether each speciesThese categories are based on whether each species causes benefit or harm to the other species in a givencauses benefit or harm to the other species in a given relationships in terms of total effects over time.relationships in terms of total effects over time.
  8. 8. CompetitionCompetition  CompetitionCompetition is the relationship between two speciesis the relationship between two species (or individuals) in which both species (or individuals)(or individuals) in which both species (or individuals) attempt to use the same limited resource such thatattempt to use the same limited resource such that both are negatively affected by the relationship.both are negatively affected by the relationship.  Members of the same species must compete with eachMembers of the same species must compete with each other because they require the same resources.other because they require the same resources.  When members of different species compete eachWhen members of different species compete each species uses some of the same resources in a habitat.species uses some of the same resources in a habitat.
  9. 9. Adaptations to CompetitionAdaptations to Competition  Niche restriction is whenNiche restriction is when each species uses lesseach species uses less of the niche than theyof the niche than they are capable of using. It isare capable of using. It is observed in closelyobserved in closely related species that userelated species that use the same resourcesthe same resources within a habitat.within a habitat.
  10. 10. PredationPredation  PredationPredation is anis an interaction between twointeraction between two species in which onespecies in which one species, the predator,species, the predator, feeds on the otherfeeds on the other species, the prey.species, the prey.  In complex food webs, aIn complex food webs, a predator may also be thepredator may also be the prey of another species.prey of another species.
  11. 11. PredatorsPredators  Some predators eat only specific types of prey. In thisSome predators eat only specific types of prey. In this kind of close relationship, the sizes of each populationkind of close relationship, the sizes of each population tend to increase and decrease in linked patterns, astend to increase and decrease in linked patterns, as shown below.shown below.
  12. 12. ParasitismParasitism  ParasitismParasitism is a relationship between two species, theis a relationship between two species, the parasite, benefits from the other species, the host, andparasite, benefits from the other species, the host, and usually harms the host.usually harms the host.  Examples:Examples: ticksticks fleasfleas tapewormstapeworms bloodsucking leechesbloodsucking leeches
  13. 13. ParasitismParasitism  The differences between a parasite and a predator areThe differences between a parasite and a predator are that a parasite spends some of its life in or on the host,that a parasite spends some of its life in or on the host, and that the parasites do not usually kill their hosts.and that the parasites do not usually kill their hosts.  However, the host is often weakened or exposed toHowever, the host is often weakened or exposed to disease by the parasite.disease by the parasite.
  14. 14. MutualismMutualism  Many species depend onMany species depend on another species foranother species for survival. In some cases,survival. In some cases, neither organism canneither organism can survive alone.survive alone.  MutualismMutualism is ais a relationship between tworelationship between two species in which bothspecies in which both species benefit.species benefit.
  15. 15. CommensalismCommensalism  CommensalismCommensalism is ais a relationship between tworelationship between two organisms in which oneorganisms in which one organism benefits andorganism benefits and the other in unaffected.the other in unaffected.
  16. 16. SymbiosisSymbiosis  SymbiosisSymbiosis is a relationship in which two differentis a relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other.organisms live in close association with each other.  Symbiosis is most often used to describe a relationshipSymbiosis is most often used to describe a relationship in which at least one species benefits.in which at least one species benefits.
  17. 17. CoevolutionCoevolution  Overtime, species in close relationships mayOvertime, species in close relationships may coevolvecoevolve.. These species may evolve adaptations that reduce theThese species may evolve adaptations that reduce the harm or improve the benefit of the relationship.harm or improve the benefit of the relationship.
  18. 18. ReferencesReferences  www.unitedstreaming.comwww.unitedstreaming.com  Holt Environmental ScienceHolt Environmental Science  http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/bee_flower.jpghttp://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/bee_flower.jpg  http://www.cs.umbc.edu/201/fall06/projects/p1/fox-http://www.cs.umbc.edu/201/fall06/projects/p1/fox- rabbit.jpg&imgrefurlrabbit.jpg&imgrefurl  http://64.143.176.9/library/healthguide/en-http://64.143.176.9/library/healthguide/en- us/images/media/medical/hw/h9991388_001.jpg&imgrefurlus/images/media/medical/hw/h9991388_001.jpg&imgrefurl  http://www.geology.iupui.edu/academics/CLASSES/g130/reefs/imhttp://www.geology.iupui.edu/academics/CLASSES/g130/reefs/im ages/f1523th.gif&imgrefurlages/f1523th.gif&imgrefurl  http://king.portlandschools.org/files/houses/y7/animalmaineia/files/http://king.portlandschools.org/files/houses/y7/animalmaineia/files/ species/coyotebq/Ecology/Commensalism.jpg&imgrefurlspecies/coyotebq/Ecology/Commensalism.jpg&imgrefurl  http://www.clemson.edu/public/scbg/images/birds_nest.jpg&imgrefhttp://www.clemson.edu/public/scbg/images/birds_nest.jpg&imgref urlurl  http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3142/2743531144_a7464a0ba6.jpghttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3142/2743531144_a7464a0ba6.jpg %3Fv%3D0&imgrefurl%3Fv%3D0&imgrefurl

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