Examples of Behaviorism Pavlov’s Dog Education Classical Conditioning Operate Conditioning
Cognitivism Need to Understand the way the mind works or processes information Tower of Hanoi Game Tower of Hanoi Game 2 More Games
Cognitivism- Learning is a Mental Process LongTerm Memory Short Term Memory Sensory Information Forgotten Forgotten
Cognitivism - What is Happening in the BRAIN? The brain organize information into patterns or Schemata
Constructivism Information Information Information
Knowledge acquisition and integration results from the learning process.
Individuals need to make sense of the new information and creates their own meaning based rich experiences.
Constructivism Problem Based Learning Project Based Learning Inquiry Learning Discovery Learning Place based education Real world learning
Review What are the 3 – Main “isms”? Behaviorism Cognitivism & Constructivism How does the theory of behaviorism describe learning? Change in Behavior
Review What was the first theory to acknowledge that the environment matters? Behaviorism The theory of cognitivism notes that humans remember items in groups. What kinds of things do educators use that helps learners remember concepts in groups? Maps, Webs & Graphic organizers
Review What was is the learning theory that acknowledge that the mind makes sense of things? Cognitivism What learning theory acknowledges that learners need to make sense of complex information? Constructivism
Review What was is the learning theory is responsible for the outgrowth of project based learning? Constructivism
Extension Read the following from a neuropsychological learning evaluation Discuss the following: Meanings from the description Learning theory that contributed to its design
From a Neuropsychological Learning Evaluation Long Term Retrieval – The Long Term Retrieval is the ability to store information and fluently retrieve it later in the process of thinking. It should not be confused with long-term memory which actually is the story of acquiring knowledge.
SAM’s on Long Term Retrieval Long-term retrieval is the low average range. Important variability was noted within this factor. She has average visual-verbal associative memory suggestion that she should be able to learn an retain academia skills and information. On the other hand, on the two test that measure verbal fluency, she has scored in the very low range. These scores suggest that when called on in class or taking a test she will need extra time to formulate answers.
From a Neuropsychological Learning Evaluation Short Term Memory – Short term memory is the ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness and then use it within a few seconds.
Sam’s Short Term Memory Short Term memory is in the borderline range and area of the significant weakness. She has low average working memory in term of reorganizing and categorizing information. However, on measures of auditory memory span, she has scored in the borderline to very low range. She is only able to reliably recall up to three words and relatively short sentences. With this weakness in auditory memory space, she may have a great deal of difficulty understanding and retaining longer explanations and directions.
NEXT Done What learning is NOW How do people learn Cognitive Style Learning Style http://mcom520.wikispaces.com/Learning+Styles
References Donovan, S. M., & Bransford, J. D. (2005). How Students Learn: History, Mathematics, Science in the Classroom. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, of the National Academies. Lever-Duffy, J., & McDonald, J. B. (2008). Teaching and learning with technology (3 ed.). NY: Pearson Education Inc. Molenda, M. (2007). Historical foundations. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research educational communications and technology. NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Taylor Francis Group. Spector, J. M. (2007). Theoretical foundations. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research educational communications and technology (pp. 21-28). NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Taylor Francis Group.