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Learning isms w/ Class notes

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learning perspectives with class notes

learning perspectives with class notes

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  • Take notes from the students ideas. Save.Then… Teaching : Whisper down the lane. – Relate this to the communication cycle in the next slide.
  • “How do we learn is answered differently by different people.One way how we learn can be explained via the communication. Explain the different features of the cycle.
  • (REMOVE & add to the next one!)
  • This was a big question and it was formally & systematically addressed in the 1920 by educational physiologists (NOT TEACHERS!). You are going to begin to answer this question. Now – Give the experiment on the wiki: http://mcom520.wikispaces.com/TheoriesNOTE: How do people learn and what is learning – NOT how to teach!!!! – That is instructional technology
  • Perspective – GOING to explain to people – How do people learnBehaviorismCognitivismConstructivism
  • First explanation is credited – BehaviorismExplain the Rise – 1920’s – Famous scientist – Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson & Skinner Historically think about what was going on.This is the TEXT BY Pavlov- http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Pavlov/ “First, learning is manifested by a change in behavior. Second, the environment shapes behavior. And third, the principles of contiguity (how close in time two events must be for a bond to be formed) and reinforcement (any means of increasing the likelihood that an event will be repeated) are central to explaining the learning process.”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_theory_%28education%29
  • First explanation is credited – BehaviorismExplain the Rise – 1920’sHistorically think about what was going on.This is the TEXT BY Pavlov- http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Pavlov/
  • Classical Conditioning - where the behavior becomes a reflex response to stimulusMost FAMOUS – example Pavlov’s dog. Question – How can this explain learning that we have in our lives?Operate Conditioning - here there is reinforcement of the behavior by a reward or a punishmentEducation – Reward systems. – Got gum or marble for behavior. Memorizing multiplication facts – ask for examples Question – How can this explain learning that we have in our lives?As a learning theory – and a study theory applied to education – this was the only one that showed to positively effect learning. Gum Ball image from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/media/inline/counting-candy-jar-packing-density_1.jpg
  • Students can play the games and talk about what their brain is doing. These types of games were “evidence” to educational psychologist that behavoristic explanations were not enough. Learning – was not only stimulus, response & reinforcement.
  • Lots went into the brain other than stimulus & response ( Behaviorism) Eye Image: http://michelemiller.blogs.com/marketing_to_women/eye.bmpEar: http://www.mccullagh.org/db9/1ds2-2/ear-closeup.jpgHand: http://www.fam.tuwien.ac.at/~schamane/galleries/juliet_ernst/hand_thumb_up_00.jpg
  • Believe that the brain organized things in patterns lead to the belief that organizing information helps the brain organize the information. Needs to make connections. The idea of schema or Schemata led to to the idea in education of graphic organizers.*Other theories that came out – Gestalt theory and much Instructional theory Question – How can this explain learning that we have in our lives?Image from: http://members.tripod.com/mr_lego_joe/images/Reorganization_Screen_Bean.gif
  • "learning involves constructing one's own knowledge from one's own experiences Learners need RICH experiences
  • Give students a concrete example Show Edutopia videoImage links to a picture on Soil Super Heros movie at Edutopia - http://www.edutopia.org/maine-project-learning-multiple-disciplines-community-guide-video
  • Note (environment is NOT equated with the outside)
  • Note (environment is NOT equated with the outside)
  • Note (environment is NOT equated with the outside)
  • Note: Neuropsychological learning evaluation can be done on a Young learner (student in k-12), Adult after trauma or a elderlyNeuropsychological learning evaluation is NOT done by a K-12 teacher, but by a trained psychologist out of the IU, Private Practice or Therapy group. The information informs parents, students and teachers. In K-12 is is usually a part of an IEP.
  • Learning Theory – CognitiveNote – Information recall
  • Sam is our fictitious student whose information we are going to review. Discussion:What does this information mean to the teacher?What theory served as the foundation for this type of information?
  • Cognitivism –
  • Cognitivism but see the contributions of behaviorism (discussing the stimuli) Note that the emphasis is on recall – not the students ability to make sense of the information. One can see from the examples that direct influence of learning theory.
  • Hand out map & students fill in, OR write here OR have the students do in inspiration

Transcript

  • 1. Foundations of Instructional Technology
    3Perspectives on Learning Theory
  • 2. What is learning?
  • 3. How do we learn? (Communication Cycle)
    Instructor
    Learner
    Sender
    Receiver
    Instruction
    Personal Filter
    Personal Filter
    Feedback
  • 4. Environment & Experience
    Environment & Experience
    How do we learn?
    Learner
    Instructor
    Instruction
    Personal Filter
    Personal Filter
    Feedback
    Cognitive Style
    Learning Style
    Intelligence
    Psychological Variables
    Physical Variables
    Cognitive Style
    Learning Style
    Intelligence
    Psychological Variables
    Physical Variables
  • 5. What is learning?
  • 6. 3 Main Perspectives (Paradigms) on Learning
  • 7. Behaviorism Emphasizes 3 things!
    1 LEARNING = Change in Behavior
    3
    Continuity
    (Time distance)
    &
    2 Environment
    Shapes Behavior
    Reinforcement
  • 8. Behaviorism
    Response
    Stimulus
  • 9. Examples of Behaviorism
    Pavlov’s Dog
    Education
    Classical Conditioning
    Operate Conditioning
  • 10. Cognitivism
    Need to Understand the way the mind works or processes information
    Tower of Hanoi Game
    Tower of Hanoi Game 2
    More Games
  • 11. Cognitivism-
    Learning is a Mental Process
    LongTerm Memory
    Short Term Memory
    Sensory Information
    Forgotten
    Forgotten
  • 12. Cognitivism -
    What is Happening in the BRAIN?
    The brain organize information
    into patterns or Schemata
  • 13. Constructivism
    Information
    Information
    Information
    • Knowledge acquisition and integration results from the learning process.
    • 14. Individuals need to make sense of the new information and creates their own meaning based rich experiences.
  • Constructivism
    Problem Based Learning
    Project Based Learning
    Inquiry Learning
    Discovery Learning
    Place based education
    Real world learning
  • 15. Review
    What are the 3 – Main “isms”?
    Behaviorism
    Cognitivism &
    Constructivism
    How does the theory of behaviorism describe learning?
    Change in Behavior
  • 16. Review
    What was the first theory to acknowledge that the environment matters?
    Behaviorism
    The theory of cognitivism notes that humans remember items in groups. What kinds of things do educators use that helps learners remember concepts in groups?
    Maps, Webs & Graphic organizers
  • 17. Review
    What was is the learning theory that acknowledge that the mind makes sense of things?
    Cognitivism
    What learning theory acknowledges that learners need to make sense of complex information?
    Constructivism
  • 18. Review
    What was is the learning theory is responsible for the outgrowth of project based learning?
    Constructivism
  • 19. Extension
    Read the following from a neuropsychological learning evaluation
    Discuss the following:
    Meanings from the description
    Learning theory that contributed to its design
  • 20. From a Neuropsychological Learning Evaluation
    Long Term Retrieval – The Long Term Retrieval is the ability to store information and fluently retrieve it later in the process of thinking. It should not be confused with long-term memory which actually is the story of acquiring knowledge.
  • 21. SAM’s on Long Term Retrieval
    Long-term retrieval is the low average range. Important variability was noted within this factor. She has average visual-verbal associative memory suggestion that she should be able to learn an retain academia skills and information. On the other hand, on the two test that measure verbal fluency, she has scored in the very low range. These scores suggest that when called on in class or taking a test she will need extra time to formulate answers.
  • 22. From a Neuropsychological Learning Evaluation
    Short Term Memory – Short term memory is the ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness and then use it within a few seconds.
  • 23. Sam’s Short Term Memory
    Short Term memory is in the borderline range and area of the significant weakness. She has low average working memory in term of reorganizing and categorizing information. However, on measures of auditory memory span, she has scored in the borderline to very low range. She is only able to reliably recall up to three words and relatively short sentences. With this weakness in auditory memory space, she may have a great deal of difficulty understanding and retaining longer explanations and directions.
  • 24. Concept Map (Inspiration®)
  • 25. NEXT
    Done
    What
    learning is
    NOW
    How do people learn
    Cognitive Style
    Learning Style
    http://mcom520.wikispaces.com/Learning+Styles
  • 26. References
    Donovan, S. M., & Bransford, J. D. (2005). How Students Learn: History, Mathematics, Science in the Classroom. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, of the National Academies.
    Lever-Duffy, J., & McDonald, J. B. (2008). Teaching and learning with technology (3 ed.). NY: Pearson Education Inc.
    Molenda, M. (2007). Historical foundations. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research educational communications and technology. NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Taylor Francis Group.
    Spector, J. M. (2007). Theoretical foundations. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research educational communications and technology (pp. 21-28). NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Taylor Francis Group.