How it works?
Sports has great commercial importance and
popularity. As a result, there’s a need to make
the game more interesting and make it as fair
Human error plays vital role in decision making
at decisive moments.
There is need to bring a technology to
minimize the chances of human error in such
Help players to study their past games and
Hawk-Eye is a system used in cricket, tennis,
snookers and other sports to visually track the
path of the ball and display a record of its most
statistically likely path as a moving image.
Hawk-Eye is most innovative technology in
sports broadcasting and is a development that
will reinforce the group's presence and
Hawk-Eye can track any type of bounce, spin,
swing and seam movement of ball.
Give a prediction as accurate as 99.99 percent.
It was developed by
engineers at Roke Manor
Research Limited of Romsey in 2001.
The patent being held by Paul Hawkins and
The system was first used during a Test match
between Pakistan and England at Lord's Cricket
Ground, on 21 April 2001.
It was first used in tennis 2006 US open.
Hawk-Eye system is based
on the principle
Triangulation is the
process of determining the
location of a point by
measuring angles to it from
known points at either end
of a fixed baseline.
Fig 1. Triangulation
The hawk eye system consists of two significant
• Camera .
• Speed gun.
Video Replay System.
The tracking data provides the coaches and
players with the information for HOW they
The tracking system consists of High speed
vision processing cameras to track the ball
from the bowler’s hand to the batsman.
The system will automatically calculate the following
The speed of the ball leaving the bowler's hand.
The swing of the ball from the bowler's hand to where the
ball pitched .
How much the ball bounced.
How much the ball deviated sideways off the wicket.
A prediction of where the ball would have passed the
Hawkeye cameras placed high
above the court to track the
trajectory (path followed) of the ball.
It can point out the bounce of the
ball upto the precision of 3.6mm.
The cameras record the
movement of ball at the rate of 100
frames per second.
Fig 2. Hawk Eye Cameras
A speed gun measures the ball
It shoots a very short burst of
infra-red laser and receives it back.
The gun, counts the nanoseconds it
took for the light to travel to and
Fig 3. Speed Gun
from the ball, divides it by two and
gives the speed of the ball.
The Hawk-Eye System can incorporate
more video replay cameras for analysis
from different angles, which can be
The video is captured and stored
digitally on hard disks.
This uses display unit like monitor and
Distance at which cameras see
the pitch and the ball are
dependent on dimensions of
Process is started with some
calibration of the cameras.
Fig 5. Position of cameras
around the field
Additional features might be loaded into the system to
process data in a more reliable and useful manner.
It include loading of statistical generator, which is used
to produce statistics based on data collected.
Statistics generator might also aid in storing data such
as average velocity of the ball.
This data is useful in predicting rough location of the
ball in an image given the position in previous image.
Done by process called Blob detection.
Blob detection senses the size of the ball.
It negates the confusion of the ball shadow which may be
confused with the ball pixel by comparing the ball position
in previous images & position of the sun at that instant.
Geometric algorithm is used to look at multiple images and
then combine them cleverly to get the coordinates of the
ball in 3D space.
2D images captured from each cameras are combined to
get a 3D position of the ball.
3D images are taken at various instance of
3D Images collected at various instants are
putting together to form a single picture, which
shows the trajectory of the ball.
Its applications are mainly in sports.
In some games
Used in strengthening military power.
Used in automobile industry.
Hawk-Eye is used in cricket in
Path of the ball can be
projected forward through the
batsman’s leg to see if it has
hit the stumps.
Fig 6. Analyzing Leg
The singles, 2s, 3s, 4s
and 6s that make up
quick-fire 50s or
vital centuries are
represented by the
different colors of the
Wagon Wheel, which
shows the area of the
field that the batsman
has been targetting.
Fig 7. Wagon Wheel generated
by Hawk Eye
Hawk-Eye Despin Graphics
demonstrate how far a delivery
has deviated after pitching.
Fig 8. Hawk Eye Spin Graphics
highlight a bowler’s
Fig 9. Maps in a split screen format
Beehives show where the
ball has passed the
Fig 10. Beehives
Can be used to represent
differences in speed, bounce
Ball two represented by blue
color has more bounce than
ball one represented by red
Fig 11. RailCam
The Hawk-eye system
is also used effectively
to calculate and
represent the reaction
time taken by a fielder
to catch the ball.
Fig 12. Reaction time
In tennis Hawk-Eye generates the impact of the ball
whether the ball is “IN” or “OUT”
Fig 13. Hawk Eye in Tennis Court
This technology is useful in cases where the cue ball
touches the specified ball first or any other ball.
Hawk Eye Snooker Software enhances the TV
spectator’s viewing experience.
Fig 14. Hawk Eye in
The use of hawk eye technology to
retrieve the enemy locations from
far away distance without coming
to their notice. The E-2C aircraft
used by US army uses this
Fig 15. E-2C aircraft
Hawk-eye technology is used
for wheel aligning in
Offers multiple benefits of
alignment and greater
Fig 16. Wheel alignment using
Give a prediction as accurate as 99.99 percent.
Its a very effective system which works in real time.
Minimize the chances of human error in decision
Help players to study their past games and improve.
The system is too costly.
The system needs complex arrangements.
Sometimes Hawk-Eye struggle with predicting the
curved trajectory of a cricket ball after bouncing.
Sometimes it challenges umpires dignity.
The future of hawkeye technology looks
bright as it has been
used in various
applications in a very
short duration after its
eg: use of goal line
technology has been
proposed in football.
Fig 17. Goal line technology
Hawk Eye is working on implementing a system for
Use of hawk eye brand has been licensed to
Codemasters for use in the video game
Brian Lara International Cricket 2005 to make the
game appear more like television coverage.
Similar version of the system has been incorporated
into the Xbox 360 version of
After all the test that have been conducted on this
technology, it has always come out successful and it
promises to be a boon for the world of sports and now it
is up to the different councils to decide whether to use
this technology or not.
This technology has met the high reality and accuracy
As the system runs in real time ,there is no extra time
required to see the visualizations and graphics.
This technology helps to have correct decisions in any kind
Great tool which can be used by players ,tacticians, coaches
to analyze previous games and come up with strategies for