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  • 1.          Introduction History Principle Components How it works? Application Advantages Disadvantages Future enhancement
  • 2.  Sports has great commercial importance and popularity. As a result, there’s a need to make the game more interesting and make it as fair as possible.  Human error plays vital role in decision making at decisive moments.  There is need to bring a technology to minimize the chances of human error in such decision making.  Help players to study their past games and improve.
  • 3.  Hawk-Eye is a system used in cricket, tennis, snookers and other sports to visually track the path of the ball and display a record of its most statistically likely path as a moving image.  Hawk-Eye is most innovative technology in sports broadcasting and is a development that will reinforce the group's presence and influence.  Hawk-Eye can track any type of bounce, spin, swing and seam movement of ball.  Give a prediction as accurate as 99.99 percent.
  • 4.  It was developed by engineers at Roke Manor Research Limited of Romsey in 2001.  The patent being held by Paul Hawkins and David Sherry.  The system was first used during a Test match between Pakistan and England at Lord's Cricket Ground, on 21 April 2001.  It was first used in tennis 2006 US open.
  • 5.  Hawk-Eye system is based on the principle of ”Triangulation”  Triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by measuring angles to it from known points at either end of a fixed baseline. Fig 1. Triangulation
  • 6. The hawk eye system consists of two significant parts Tracking System. • Camera . • Speed gun. Video Replay System.
  • 7.  The tracking data provides the coaches and players with the information for HOW they have performed.  The tracking system consists of High speed vision processing cameras to track the ball from the bowler’s hand to the batsman.
  • 8. TRACKING SYSTEM The system will automatically calculate the following information: The speed of the ball leaving the bowler's hand. The swing of the ball from the bowler's hand to where the ball pitched . How much the ball bounced. How much the ball deviated sideways off the wicket. A prediction of where the ball would have passed the stumps.
  • 9. HAWK-EYE CAMERA Hawkeye cameras placed high above the court to track the trajectory (path followed) of the ball.  It can point out the bounce of the ball upto the precision of 3.6mm. The cameras record the movement of ball at the rate of 100 frames per second. Fig 2. Hawk Eye Cameras
  • 10. SPEED GUN  A speed gun measures the ball speed.  It shoots a very short burst of infra-red laser and receives it back.  The gun, counts the nanoseconds it took for the light to travel to and Fig 3. Speed Gun from the ball, divides it by two and gives the speed of the ball.
  • 11.  The Hawk-Eye System can incorporate more video replay cameras for analysis from different angles, which can be controlled remotely.  The video is captured and stored digitally on hard disks.  This uses display unit like monitor and projector screens.
  • 12. Fig 4. Top Level View of the Hawk Eye System
  • 13.  Distance at which cameras see the pitch and the ball are dependent on dimensions of ground.  Process is started with some calibration of the cameras. Fig 5. Position of cameras around the field
  • 14.  Additional features might be loaded into the system to process data in a more reliable and useful manner.  It include loading of statistical generator, which is used to produce statistics based on data collected.  Statistics generator might also aid in storing data such as average velocity of the ball.  This data is useful in predicting rough location of the ball in an image given the position in previous image.
  • 15.  Done by process called Blob detection.  Blob detection senses the size of the ball.  It negates the confusion of the ball shadow which may be confused with the ball pixel by comparing the ball position in previous images & position of the sun at that instant.  Geometric algorithm is used to look at multiple images and then combine them cleverly to get the coordinates of the ball in 3D space.
  • 16.  2D images captured from each cameras are combined to get a 3D position of the ball.  3D images are taken at various instance of time.  3D Images collected at various instants are putting together to form a single picture, which shows the trajectory of the ball.
  • 17.  Its applications are mainly in sports.     Cricket Tennis Snookers and In some games  Used in strengthening military power.  Used in automobile industry.
  • 18.  Hawk-Eye is used in cricket in LBW decisions.  Path of the ball can be projected forward through the batsman’s leg to see if it has hit the stumps. Fig 6. Analyzing Leg Before Wicket
  • 19.  The singles, 2s, 3s, 4s and 6s that make up quick-fire 50s or vital centuries are represented by the different colors of the Wagon Wheel, which shows the area of the field that the batsman has been targetting. Fig 7. Wagon Wheel generated by Hawk Eye
  • 20.  Hawk-Eye Despin Graphics demonstrate how far a delivery has deviated after pitching. Fig 8. Hawk Eye Spin Graphics
  • 21.  highlight a bowler’s consistency or expensiveness, line and length. Fig 9. Maps in a split screen format
  • 22.  Beehives show where the ball has passed the batsman. Fig 10. Beehives
  • 23.  Can be used to represent differences in speed, bounce and delivery.  Ball two represented by blue color has more bounce than ball one represented by red color. Fig 11. RailCam
  • 24.  The Hawk-eye system is also used effectively to calculate and represent the reaction time taken by a fielder to catch the ball. Fig 12. Reaction time
  • 25.  In tennis Hawk-Eye generates the impact of the ball whether the ball is “IN” or “OUT” Fig 13. Hawk Eye in Tennis Court
  • 26.  This technology is useful in cases where the cue ball touches the specified ball first or any other ball.  Hawk Eye Snooker Software enhances the TV spectator’s viewing experience. Fig 14. Hawk Eye in Snooker table
  • 27.  The use of hawk eye technology to retrieve the enemy locations from far away distance without coming to their notice. The E-2C aircraft used by US army uses this technology. Fig 15. E-2C aircraft
  • 28.  Hawk-eye technology is used for wheel aligning in automobiles.  Offers multiple benefits of precision, high-speed alignment and greater productivity. Fig 16. Wheel alignment using Hawk Eye
  • 29.  Give a prediction as accurate as 99.99 percent.  Its a very effective system which works in real time.  Minimize the chances of human error in decision making.  Help players to study their past games and improve.
  • 30.  The system is too costly.  The system needs complex arrangements.  Sometimes Hawk-Eye struggle with predicting the curved trajectory of a cricket ball after bouncing.  Sometimes it challenges umpires dignity.
  • 31.  The future of hawkeye technology looks bright as it has been used in various applications in a very short duration after its introduction. eg: use of goal line technology has been proposed in football. Fig 17. Goal line technology
  • 32.  Hawk Eye is working on implementing a system for basketball.  Use of hawk eye brand has been licensed to Codemasters for use in the video game Brian Lara International Cricket 2005 to make the game appear more like television coverage.  Similar version of the system has been incorporated into the Xbox 360 version of Smash Court Tennis 3.
  • 33.  After all the test that have been conducted on this technology, it has always come out successful and it promises to be a boon for the world of sports and now it is up to the different councils to decide whether to use this technology or not.  This technology has met the high reality and accuracy features.  As the system runs in real time ,there is no extra time required to see the visualizations and graphics.
  • 34.  This technology helps to have correct decisions in any kind of game.  Great tool which can be used by players ,tacticians, coaches to analyze previous games and come up with strategies for subsequent ones.
  • 35.  http://v3.espacenet.com/textdoc  http://www.usopen.org/en_US/news/articles/200     6-08-10/ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/4/story.cfm? c_id=4 http://archive.gulfnews.com/indepth/dubaitennis 2007/08379 http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/hawkeye http://www.hawkeyetechnology.com/tech/