ELECTRICAL MACHINES-II LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERINGAARUPADAI VEEDU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,Old Mahabalipuram Road, Paiyanoor-603104, Kanchipuram (dt), Tamilnadu VINAYAKA MISSIONS UNIVERSITY SALEM, TAMILNADU
• Name of the Laboratory : ELECTRICAL MACHINES-II • Year/Semester : II/IV • Branch : EEEHOD/EEE Principal
PREFACEThis Laboratory book in Electrical Machines – II has been revised in order to be up to date withCurriculum changes, laboratory equipment upgrading and the latest circuit simulation. Every effort has been made to correct all the known errors, but nobody is perfect,if you find any additional errors or anything else you think is an error, Please contact theHOD/EEE at email@example.com The Authors thanked all the staff members from the department for their valuableSuggestion and contributionThe Authors Department of EEE
TABLE OF CONTENTS Safety Rules and operating Procedures I Laboratory Safety information II Guidelines for Laboratory Notebook III Troubleshooting Hints IVSl.No Experiment Name Page No 1. Regulation of 3-phase alternator by EMF and MMF 1 methods. 2. Regulation of 3-phase alternator by ZPF and ASA methods. 3. Slip test on 3-phase alternator. 4. Load characteristics of 3-phase alternator by bus bar loading. 5. V and inverted V curve of synchronous motors. 6. Load test on 3-phase induction motor. 7. No load and blocked rotor test on 3-phase induction motor. 8. Study of Synchronous induction motor. 9. Study of induction motor starters. 10 Separation of losses in three-phase induction motor. . 11 Load test on 1-phase induction motor. . 12 Equivalent circuit and pre–determination of performance characteristics of single-phase induction motor. .Appendix
LABORATORY PRACTICE SAFETY RULES1. SAFETY is of paramount importance in the Electrical Engineering Laboratories.2.Electricity NEVER EXECUSES careless persons. So, exercise enough care and attention in handlingelectrical equipment and follow safety practices in the laboratory. (Electricity is a good servant but a badmaster).3.Avoid direct contact with any voltage source and power line voltages. (Otherwise, any such contact maysubject you to electrical shock)4.Wear rubber-soled shoes. (To insulate you from earth so that even if you accidentally contact a livepoint, current will not flow through your body to earth and hence you will be protected from electricalshock)5.Wear laboratory-coat and avoid loose clothing. (Loose clothing may get caught on anequipment/instrument and this may lead to an accident particularly if the equipment happens to be arotating machine)6.Girl students should have their hair tucked under their coat or have it in a knot.7.Do not wear any metallic rings, bangles, bracelets, wristwatches and neck chains. (When you move yourhand/body, such conducting items may create a short circuit or may touch a live point and thereby subjectyou to electrical shock)8.Be certain that your hands are dry and that you are not standing on wet floor. (Wet parts of the bodyreduce the contact resistance thereby increasing the severity of the shock)9.Ensure that the power is OFF before you start connecting up the circuit.(Otherwise you will be touchingthe live parts in the circuit)10.Get your circuit diagram approved by the staff member and connect up the circuit strictly as per theapproved circuit diagram.11.Check power chords for any sign of damage and be certain that the chords use safety plugs and do notdefeat the safety feature of these plugs by using ungrounded plugs.12.When using connection leads, check for any insulation damage in the leads and avoid such defectiveleads.13.Do not defeat any safety devices such as fuse or circuit breaker by shorting across it. Safety devicesprotect YOU and your equipment.
14.Switch on the power to your circuit and equipment only after getting them checked up and approvedby the staff member.15.Take the measurement with one hand in your pocket. (To avoid shock in case you accidentally touchtwo points at different potentials with your two hands)16.Do not make any change in the connection without the approval of the staff member.17.In case you notice any abnormal condition in your circuit ( like insulation heating up, resistor heatingup etc ), switch off the power to your circuit immediately and inform the staff member.18.Keep hot soldering iron in the holder when not in use.19.After completing the experiment show your readings to the staff member and switch off the power toyour circuit after getting approval from the staff member.20.While performing load-tests in the Electrical Machines Laboratory using the brake-drums: i. Avoid the brake-drum from getting too hot by putting just enough water into the brake- drum at intervals; use the plastic bottle with a nozzle (available in the laboratory ) to pour the water.(When the drum gets too hot, it will burn out the braking belts) ii. Do not stand in front of the brake-drum when the supply to the load-test circuit is switched off. (Otherwise, the hot water in the brake-drum will splash out on you) iii. After completing the load-test, suck out the water in the brake-drum using the plastic bottle with nozzle and then dry off the drum with a spongewhich is available in the laboratory. (The water, if allowed to remain in the brake-drum, will corrode it)21.Determine the correct rating of the fuse/s to be connected in the circuit after understanding correctlythe type of the experiment to be performed: no-load test or full-load test, the maximum current expected inthe circuit and accordingly use that fuse-rating.(While an over-rated fuse will damage the equipment andother instruments like ammeters and watt-meters in case of over load, an under-rated fuse may not allowone even to start the experiment)22. At the time of starting a motor, the ammeter connected in the armature circuit overshoots, as thestarting current is around 5 times the full load rating of the motor. Moving coil ammeters being verydelicate, may get damaged due to high starting current. A switch has been provided on such meters todisconnect the moving coil of the meter during starting. This switch should be closed after the motorattains full speed. Moving iron ammeters and current coils of wattmeters are not so delicate and hencethese can stand short time overload due to high starting current. No such switch is therefore provided onthese meters. Moving iron meters are cheaper and more rugged compared to moving coil meters. Movingiron meters can be used for both a.c. and d.c. measurement. Moving coil instruments are however moresensitive and more accurate as compared to their moving iron counterparts and these can be used for d.c.measurements only. Good features of moving coil instruments are not of much consequence for you asother sources of errors in the experiments are many times more than those caused by these meters.23. Some students have been found to damage meters by mishandling in the following ways:
i. Keeping unnecessary material like books, lab records, unused meters etc. causing meters to fall down the table. ii. Putting pressure on the meter (specially glass) while making connections or while talking or listening somebody.STUDENTS ARE STRICTLY WARNED THAT FULL COST OF THE METER WILL BERECOVERED FROM THE INDIVIDUAL WHO HAS DAMAGED IT IN SUCH AMANNER.Copy these rules in your Lab Record. Observe these yourself andhelp your friends to observe.. I have read and understand these rules and procedures. I agree to abide by these rulesand procedures at all times while using these facilities. I understand that failure to followthese rules and procedures will result in my immediate dismissal from the laboratory andadditional disciplinary action may be taken.Signature Date Lab
GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORY NOTEBOOKThe laboratory notebook is a record of all work pertaining to the experiment. Thisrecord should be sufficiently complete so that you or anyone else of similartechnical background can duplicate the experiment and data by simply followingyour laboratory notebook. Record everything directly into the notebook during theexperiment. Do not use scratch paper for recording data. Do not trust your memoryto fill in the details at a later time.Organization in your notebook is important. Descriptive headings should be used toseparate and identify the various parts of the experiment. Record data inchronological order. A neat, organized and complete record of an experiment is justas important as the experimental work.1. Heading: The experiment identification (number) should be at the topof each page.Your name and date should be at the top of the first page of each daysexperimental work.2.Object: A brief but complete statement of what you intend to find outor verify in the experiment should be at the beginning of each experiment3.Diagram: A circuit diagram should be drawn and labeled so that theactual experiment circuitry could be easily duplicated at any time in the future.Be especially careful to record all circuit changes made during the experiment.4.Equipment List: List those items of equipment which have a direct effect onthe accuracy of the data. It may be necessary later to locate specific items ofequipment for rechecks if discrepancies develop in the results.5.Procedure: In general, lengthy explanations of procedures areunnecessary. Be brief. Short commentaries along side the corresponding datamay be used. Keep in mind the fact that the experiment must be reproducible fromthe information given in your notebook.6.Data: Think carefully about what data is required and prepare suitabledata tables. Record instrument readings directly. Do not use calculated resultsin place of direct data; however, calculated results may be recorded in the same tablewith the direct data. Data tables should be clearly identified and each data columnlabeled and headed by the proper units of measure.7.Calculations: Not always necessary but equations and sample calculationsare often given to illustrate the treatment of the experimental data in obtaining the
results.8.Graphs: Graphs are used to present large amounts of data in a concisevisual form. Data to be presented in graphical form should be plotted in thelaboratory so that any questionable data points can be checked while theexperiment is still set up. The grid lines in the notebook can be used for mostgraphs. If special graph paper is required, affix the graph permanently into thenotebook. Give all graphs a short descriptive title. Label and scale the axes.Use units of measure. Label each curve if more than one on a graph.9.Results: The results should be presented in a form which makes theinterpretation easy. Large amounts of numerical results are generally presented ingraphical form. Tables are generally used for small amounts of results.Theoretical and experimental results should be on the same graph or arrange in thesame table in a way for easy correlation of these results.10.Conclusion: This is your interpretation of the results of the experiment asan engineer. Be brief and specific. Give reasons for important discrepancies.
TROUBLE SHOOTING HINTS1. Be Sure that the power is turned ON2. Be sure the ground connections are common3. Be sure the circuit you build is identical to your circuit diagram (Do a node by node check)4. Be sure that the supply voltages are correct5. Be sure that the equipment is set up correctly and you are measuring the correct parameters6. If steps I through 5 are correct then you probably have used a component with the wrong value or one that doesn’t work. It is also possible that the equipment does not work (although this is not probable0 or the protoboard you are using may have some unwanted paths between nodes. To find your problem you must trace through the voltages in your circuit node by node and compare the signal you expect to have. Then if they are different use your engineering judgment to decide what is causing the different or ask your lab assistant
EXP.NO. 1 DATE: REGULATION OF 3–PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF AND MMF METHODSAIM: To predetermine the regulation of 3-phase alternator by EMF and MMF methods and alsodraw the vector diagrams.APPARATURS REQUIRED:SL.NO Name of the Apparatus Type Range Quantity 1 Ammeter MC 0 – 1/2 A 1 2 Ammeter MI 0 – 5/10 A 1 3 Voltmeter MC 0 – 10 V 1 4 Voltmeter MI 0 – 600 V 1 5 Rheostat Wire wound 250 Ω, 1.5 A 1 6 Rheostat Wire wound 1200Ω, 0.8 A 1 7 Tachometer Digital --- 1 8 TPST knife switch -- -- 1THEORY: The regulation of a 3-phase alternator may be predetermined by conducting the OpenCircuit (OC) and the Sort Circuit (SC) tests. The methods employed for determination ofregulation are EMF or synchronous impedance method, MMF or Ampere Turns method and theZPF or Potier triangle method. In this experiment, the EMF and MMF methods are used. The OCand SC graphs are plotted from the two tests. The synchronous impedance is found from the OCtest. The regulation is then determined at different power factors by calculations using vectordiagrams. The EMF method is also called pessimistic method as the value of regulation obtainedis much more than the actual value. The MMF method is also called optimistic method as thevalue of regulation obtained is much less than the actual value. In the MMF method the armatureleakage reactance is treated as an additional armature reaction. In both methods the OC and SCtest data are utilized.PRECAUTIONS: (i) The motor field rheostat should be kept in the minimum resistance position. (ii) The alternator field potential divider should be kept in the minimum voltage position. (iii) Initially all switches are in open position.PROCEDURE: (FOR BOTH EMF AND MMF METHODS) 1. Note down the name plate details of the motor and alternator. 2. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 3. Switch ON the supply by closing the DPST switch.
4. Using the Three point starter, start the motor to run at the synchronous speed by adjusting the motor field rheostat. 5. Conduct Open Circuit test by varying the potential divider for various values of field current and tabulate the corresponding Open Circuit Voltage readings. 6. Conduct Short Circuit test by closing the TPST switch and adjust the potential divider to set the rated armature current and tabulate the corresponding field current. 7. The Stator resistance per phase is determined by connecting any one phase stator winding of the alternator as per the circuit diagram using MC voltmeter and ammeter of suitable ranges.PROCEDURE TO DRAW GRAPH FOR EMF METHOD: 1. Draw the Open Circuit Characteristic curve (Generated Voltage per phase VS Field current). 2. Draw the Short Circuit Characteristics curve (Short circuit current VS Field current) 3. From the graph find the open circuit voltage per phase (E1 (ph) for the rated short circuit current (Isc). 4. By using respective formulae find the Zs, Xs, Eo and percentage regulation.PROCEDURE TO DRAW GRAPH FOR MMF METHOD: 1. Draw the Open Circuit Characteristic curve (Generated Voltage per phase VS Field current). 2. Draw the Short Circuit Characteristics curve (Short circuit current VS Field current) 3. Draw the line OL to representFORMULAE: 1. Armature Resistance Ra = Ω 2. Synchronous Impedance Zs = O.C. voltage S.C. current 3. Synchronous Reactance Xs = √ Zs2 – Ra2 4. Open circuit voltage for lagging p.f = √(VcosΦ + IaRa)2 + (VsinΦ + IaXs)2 5. Open circuit voltage for leading p.f. = √(VcosΦ + IaRa)2 + (VsinΦ – IaXs)2 6. Open circuit voltage for unity p.f = √(V + IaRa)2 + ( IaXs)2 7. Percentage regulation = Eo – V x 100 VRESULT: Thus the regulation of 3-phase alternator has been predetermined by the EMF and MMFmethods.
VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is meant by voltage regulation? 2. What is meant by Synchronous Impedance? 3. What is OC test ? 4. What is SC test? 5. What is meant by mmf or field ampere turns?
REGULATION OF 3-PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF AND MMF METHODS TABULAR COLUMNSOPEN CIRCUIT TEST: Field Current (If) Open Circuit Line Open circuit PhaseS.No. Voltage (VoL) Voltage (Voph) Amps Volts VoltsSHORT CIRCUIT TEST: Short Circuit Current (120% S.No. Field Current (If) to 150% of rated current) (ISC) Amps Amps
REGULATION OF 3-PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF AND MMF METHODS TABULAR COLUMNS EMF METHOD: Eph (V) % Regulation SL.NO. Power factor Lag Lead Lag Lead MMF METHOD: Ifr Eph (V) % RegulationSL.NO. P.F Vph If1 If2 (A) (V) (A) (A) Lag Lead Lag Lead Lag Lead
EXP.NO. 2 DATE: REGULATION OF 3-PHASE ALTERNATOR BY POTIER AND ASA METHODSAIM: To predetermine the regulation of three phase alternator by Potier and ASA methods andalso to draw the vector diagrams.APPARATURS REQUIRED:SL.NO Name of the Apparatus Type Range Quantity 1 Ammeter MC 0 – 1/2 A 1 2 Ammeter MI 0 – 5/10 A 1 3 Voltmeter MC 0 – 10 V 1 4 Voltmeter MI 0 – 600 V 1 5 Rheostat Wire wound 250 Ω, 1.5 A 1 6 Rheostat Wire wound 1200Ω, 0.8 A 1 7 Tachometer Digital --- 1 8 TPST knife switch -- -- 1FORMULAE USED:Percentage regulation = Eo – Vrated x 100 (For both POTIER & ASA methods) VratedPRECAUTION: (i) The motor field rheostat should be kept in the minimum resistance position. (ii) The Alternator field potential divider should be in the position of minimum potential. (iii) Initially all switches are in open position.PROCEDURE FOR BOTH POTIER AND ASA METHODS: 1. Note down the complete nameplate details of motor and alternator. 2. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 3. Switch on the supply by closing the DPST main switch. 4. Using the Three point starter, start the motor to run at the synchronous speed by varying the motor field rheostat. 5. Conduct an Open Circuit Test by varying the Potential Divider for various values of Field current and tabulate the corresponding Open circuit voltage readings. 6. Conduct a Short Circuit Test by closing the TPST knife switch and adjust the potential divider the set the rated Armature current, tabulate the corresponding Field current. 7. Conduct a ZPF test by adjusting the potential divider for full load current passing through either an inductive or capacitive load with zero power and tabulate the readings. 8. Conduct a Stator Resistance Test by giving connection as per the circuit diagram and tabulate the voltage and Current readings for various resistive loads.
PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE POTIER TRIANGLE (ZPF METHOD): (All the quantities are in per phase value) 1. Draw the Open Circuit Characteristics (Generated Voltage per phase VS Field Current) 2. Mark the point A at X-axis, which is obtained from short circuit test with full load armature current. 3. From the ZPF test, mark the point B for the field current to the corresponding rated armature current and the rated voltage. 4. Draw the ZPF curve which passing through the point A and B in such a way parallel to the open circuit characteristics curve. 5. Draw the tangent for the OCC curve from the origin (i.e.) air gap line. 6. Draw the line BC from B towards Y-axis, which is parallel and equal to OA. 7. Draw the parallel line for the tangent from C to the OCC curve. 8. Join the points B and D also drop the perpendicular line DE to BC, where the line DE represents armature leakage reactance drop (IXL) BE represents armature reaction excitation (Ifa). PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE VECTOR DIAGRAM (ZPF METHOD) 1. Select the suitable voltage and current scale. 2. For the corresponding power angle ( Lag, Lead, Unity) draw the voltage vector and current vector OB. 3. Draw the vector AC with the magnitude of IRa drop, which should be parallel to the vector OB. 4. Draw the perpendicular CD to AC from the point C with the magnitude of IXL drop. 5. Join the points O and D, which will be equal to the air gap voltage (Eair). 6. Find out the field current (Ifc) for the corresponding air gap voltage (Eair) from the OCC curve. 7. Draw the vector OF with the magnitude of Ifc which should be perpendicular to the vector OD. 8. Draw the vector FG from F with the magnitude Ifa in such a way it is parallel to the current vector OB. 9. Join the points O and G, which will be equal to the field excitation current (If). 10. Draw the perpendicular line to the vector OG from the point O and extend CD in such a manner to intersect the perpendicular line at the point H. 11. Find out the open circuit voltage (Eo) for the corresponding field excitation current (If) from the OCC curve. 12. Find out the regulation from the suitable formula.PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE POTIER TRIANGLE (ASA METHOD): (All the quantities are in per phase value) 1. Draw the Open Circuit Characteristics (Generated Voltage per phase VS Field Current) 2. Mark the point A at X-axis, which is obtained from short circuit test with full load armature current. 3. From the ZPF test, mark the point B for the field current to the corresponding rated armature current and the rated voltage.
4. Draw the ZPF curve which passing through the point A and B in such a way parallel to the open circuit characteristics curve. 5. Draw the tangent for the OCC curve from the origin (i.e.) air gap line. 6. Draw the line BC from B towards Y-axis, which is parallel and equal to OA. 7. Draw the parallel line for the tangent from C to the OCC curve. 8. Join the points B and D also drop the perpendicular line DE to BC, where the line DE represents armature leakage reactance drop (IXL) BE represents armature reaction excitation (Ifa). 9. Extend the line BC towards the Y-axis up to the point O’. The same line intersects the air gap line at point G. 10. Mark the point I in Y-axis with the magnitude of Eair and draw the line from I towards OCC curve which should be parallel to X-axis. Let this line cut the air gap line at point H and the OCC curve at point F. 11. Mention the length O’G, HF and OA. PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE VECTOR DIAGRAM (ASA METHOD) (To find the field Excitation current If) 1. Draw the vector with the magnitude O’G. 2. From G draw a vector with the magnitude of GH (OA) in such a way to make an angle of (90 ± Φ) from the line O’G [ (90 + Φ) for lagging power factor and (90 – Φ) for leading power factor] 3. Join the points O’ and, H also extend the vector O’F with the magnitude HF. Where O’F is the field excitation current (If). 4. Find out the open circuit voltage (Eo) for the corresponding field excitation current (If) from the OCC curve. 5. Find out the regulation from the suitable formula.RESULT: Thus the regulation of 3-phase alternator has been predetermined by the Potier and ASAmethods.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is meant by ZPF Test? 2. What is Potier reactance? How is it determined by Potier triangle? 3. What is meant by armature reaction reactance? 4. What is the significance of the ASA modification of MMF method? 5. What is air gap line in Potier method?
EXP.NO. 3 DATE: SLIP TEST ON 3-PHASE ALTERNATORAIM: To conduct a slip test on 3-Ф alternator and pre-determine the regulation through vectordiagram.APPARATUS REQUIRED:S.no Name of Range Type Quantity Apparatus1 Ammeter (0-5)A MI 1 (0-1)A MC 12 Voltmeter (0-150)V MI 1 (0-5)V MC 13 Rheostat 250 Ω /1.5A 14 Tachometer Digital 15 TPST Switch 16 Connecting As reqd. WiresFUSE RATING:(a)For Motor- 125% of rated current = 125% of 17A=21.25A=25A(b)For Alternator- 125% of rated current =125% of 4A= 5ATHEORY:In a salient pole alternator, the reactance of magnetic circuit along is along its quad stator axis.The alternator is driven by auxiliary prime mover at a speed slightly less than the synchronousspeed under these conditions. The armature current is when the armature current mmf is in linewith the field poles. The reactance by the magnetic field current is minimum. The ratio ofmaximum voltage to minimum current gives the direct axis impedance and the ratio of minimumvoltage to maximum current gives the armature axis impedance.PRECAUTIONS: 1. The motor field rheostat should be kept in minimum. 2. The direction of the rotation due to prime mover and the alternator on the motor should be the same. 3. Initially all the switches are kept open.
PROCEDURE: 1. Note down the name plate details of motor and alternator. 2. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 3. Give the supply by closing the DPST switch. 4. Using the three point starter, start the motor to run at the synchronous speed by varying the motor field rheostat at the same time check whether the alternator field has been opened or not. 5. Apply 20% to 30% of the rated voltage to the armature of the alternator by adjusting the autotransformer. 6. To obtain the slip and the maximum oscillation of pointers the speed is reduced slightly lesser than the synchronous speed. 7. Maximum current, minimum current, maximum voltage and minimum voltage are noted. 8. Find out the direct and quadrature axis impedances. PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE VECTOR DIAGRAM: 1. Draw the line OA that represents the rated voltage V. 2. Draw the line OB vector to represent the rated current I, which makes an angle Φ (it may lag/lead/in phase) with the voltage. 3. Draw the line AC vector to represent IRa drop, which is parallel to OB vector. 4. Draw the perpendicular line CD to the line AC (IRa drop) that represents IXq drop. 5. Draw the line from the origin through the point D, which represents the no load voltage (Eo). 6. Draw the pole axis through origin, which should be perpendicular to vector OD. 7. Draw a perpendicular line to the pole axis from the same point E which should pass through the point B [where vector OE represents Direct Axis Current (Id) and Vector EB represents Quadrature Axis Current (Iq)]. 8. Find out the reactive voltage drops IdXd and IqXq. 9. Draw a parallel line (ie perpendicular to Id) to OD vector from the point C, with the magnitude of the drop IdXd (Line CF). 10. Draw a parallel line (ie perpendicular to Iq) to OE vector from the point F, with the magnitude of the drop IqXq (Line FG). 11. Let the point at where the IqXq drop meets the OD line be G. here the vector OG represents the no load voltage (Eo). 12. Find out the voltage regulation by using the suitable formula.FORMULAE USED: 1. Rac=1.6Rac Ω 2. Zd = Vmax/Imin Ω 3. Zq = Vmin/Imax Ω 4. Xd = √Zd2 – Rd2 Ω
5. Xq = √Zq2 – Rd2 Ω 6. Id = Ia sinФ amps 7. Iq = Ia cos Ф amps 8. %Reg = (Eo-V/V)*100 Where, Zd = direct axis impedance in Ω Zq = quadrate axis impedance in Ω Xd = direct axis reactance in Ω Xq = quadrate axis reactance in Ω Id = direct axis current in amps Ia = quadrate axis current in ampsGRAPH: Power Factor VS % regulation.RESULT: Thus the pre-determination of regulation of 3-phase alternator by vector diagram wasobtained.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is the purpose of slip test on 3 phase alternator? 2. What is meant by direct axis reactance? 3. What is meant by quadrature axis reactance? 4. How is the regulation of alternator predetermined by slip test? 5. What is the difference between salient pole alternator and cylindrical rotor type alternator?
SLIP TEST ON 3-PHASE ALTERNATOR TABULAR COLUMNS (i) To find the Direct Axis and Quadrature axis impedances:S.NO Vmax Vmin Imax Imin 1 2 (ii) To predetermine % Regulation: S.NO Power Factor % Regulation Lagging Leading Unity 1 0.2 -- 2 0.4 -- 3 0.6 -- 4 0.8 -- 5 1.0
EXP.NO. 4 DATE: LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF 3-PHASE ALTERNATOR BY BUS BAR LOADINGAIM: To synchronize and operate the two electric sources in parallel with bus bar arrangementand draw the performance characteristic curves.NAME PLATE DETAILS: 3Ǿ alternator DC shunt motor 3ǾLoadFUSE RATING: 125% of rated current (full load current) For DC shunt motor: For ac alternatorAPPARATUS REQUIRED:S.No Name of apparatus Type Range Quantity 1 Ammeter MC 0-2A 1 2 Ammeter MI 0 – 10 A 1 3 Voltmeter MI 0 – 600 V 1 4 Frequency meter Reed 0 – 60 Hz 1 5 Rheostat Wire 1200 Ω 1 wound 0.8 A 6 Rheostat Wire 250 Ω 1 wound 1.5 A 7 Tachometer Digital -- 1PRECAUTIONS: (1) The motor field rheostat should be in minimum resistance position. (2) The Alternator field Potential divider should be at minimum voltage position. (3) Initially all switches are in open position.
PROCEDURE: SYNCHRONISATION: (1) Note down the name plate details of motor and alternator. (2) Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. (3) Close the DPST switch. (4) Using the 3-point starter start the motor, by varying motor field rheostat. (5) By varying the potential divider , generated voltage is built up to rated voltage. (6) Now close the TPST switch. (7) TPST is closed and by varying the potential divider the field current is varied so that voltmeter reads the same voltage as measured above. (8) When TPST is closed the lamps may flicker uniformly. (9) If flickering is not uniform then the phase sequences of any two lines are changed. (10) Now synchronization switch is closed when lamps are in dark period . (11) Now the two sources are synchronized. LOAD SHARING (1) Connect the synchronized output with variable load. (2) For various loads, note all the corresponding ammeter and voltmeter readings. (3) Draw the graph between respective voltage and currents (V1 Vs V2, V2 Vs I1 and V1 Vs I1.).V-CURVE (1) After synchronization the prime mover should be switched off and Potential divider should be brought to the maximum position. (2) By adjusting the potential barrier tabulate the various Field currents and corresponding Armature readings. (3) To obtain V- curve draw the graph between Armature current and Field currentRESULT: The 3 phase alternator has been synchronized with the bus bars and the loadcharacteristics obtained.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is meant by synchronization? 2. What are the conditions for synchronization? 3. What is infinite bus? 4. What are the methods of synchronization? 5. How can the voltage and frequency be adjusted?
EXP.NO. 5 DATE: V AND INVERTED V CURVE OF THREE PHASE SYNCHRONOUS MOTORAIM To draw the V and inverted V curves of a 3 phase Synchronous Motor.NAME PLATE DETAILS:3ǾSYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DC EXCITATIONFUSE RATING:l125% of rated current (full load current)For DC excitation:For synchronous motor:]APPARATUS REQUIRED:S.No Name of the Type range Quantity apparatus1 Ammeter MI (0-5)A 22. Voltmeter MI (0-600)V 23. Ammeter MC (0-2)A 14. Rheostat 200Ω,15 1 A5. Wattmeter UPF 2 600V,5A
PRECAUTION: (1) The Potential barrier should be in maximum position. (2) The motor should be started without load . (3) Initially TPST switch is in open position.PROCEDURE: (1) Note down the name plate details of the motor. (2) Connections are made as pr the circuit diagram.. (3) Close the TPST switch. (4) By adjustingthe autotransformer from the minimum position to the maximum position the rated supply is given to motor. The motor starts as an induction motor. (5) In order to give the excitation to the field for making it to run as the synchronous motor, close the DPST switch. (6) By varying the field rheostat note down the excitation current, armature current and the power factor for various values of excitation. (7) The same process has to be repeatedfor loaded condition. (8) Later the motor is switched offand the graph is drawn.GRAPH: The graph is drawn for- (1) Armature current Vs Excitation current. (2) Power factor Vs Excitation current.RESULT: The V-curves and inverted V-curves of the 4 phase synchronous motor have been drawn.
EXP.NO. 6 A DATE: LOAD TEST ON 3-PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTORAIM: To draw the performance characteristics of 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor byconducting load test.APPARATUS REQUIRED:S.No Name of Range Type Qty. apparatus1. Ammeter (0-5)A MI 12. Voltmeter (0-600)V MI 13. Wattmeter (600V,5A) UPF 24. Tachometer Digital 15. 3-Ф 1 autotransformerFUSE RATING; 125% of 4.8A=6A=10ATHEORY:A 3-phase induction motor consists of stator and rotor with the other associated parts. In thestator, a 3-phase winding is provided. The windings of the three phase are displaced in space by120º.A 3-phase current is fed to the 3-phase winding. These windings produce a resultantmagnetic flux and it rotates in space like a solid magnetic poles being rotated magnetically.
PRECAUTIONS-1.TPST switch is kept open initially.2.Autotransformer is kept at min. voltage position.3.There must be no load when starting the load.PROCEDURE-1.Connections are given as per circuit diagram.2.3-Ф induction motor is started with DOL starter.3. If the pointer of one of the wattmeter readings reverses, interchange the current coil terminalsand take the reading as negative.3.The no load readings are taken.4. The motor is loaded step by step till we get the rated current and the readings of the voltmeter,ammeter, wattmeters, spring balance are noted.FORMULAE USED- 1) % slip= (Ns-N/Ns)*100 2) Input Power = (W1+W2)watts 3) Output Power = 2∏NT/60 watts 4) Torque = 9.81*(S1-S2)*R N-m 5) % efficiency = (o/p power/i/p power)* 100GRAPHS- 1) Output Power vs Efficiency 2) Output Power vs Torque 3) Output Power vs Speed 4) Output Power vs %sRESULTThus the performance characteristics of a 3-Ф squirrel cage induction motor by conducting loadtest has been drawn.
EXP.NO. 6 B DATE: LOAD TEST ON 3-PHASE SLIP RING INDUCTION MOTORAIM : To conduct a direct load test on a 3-phase slip ring induction motor and to draw theperformance characteristics.APPARATUS REQUIRED :S.NO NAME OF RANGE TYPE QTY. APPARATUS1 Ammeter MI 1 (0-10)A2 Voltmeter (0-600)V MI 13 Wattmeter (600V,10A) UPF 24 Tachometer Digital 1FUSE RATING-FOR- STATOR- 125% 0f 7.5A = 10AFOR ROTOR – 125% of 11A = 15ATHEORY:Slip ring induction motor is also called as phase wound motor. The motor is wound for as manypoles as the no. of stator poles and always wound 3-Ф even while the stator is wound two-phase.The other three windings are brought out and connected to three insulated slip-rings mounted onthe shaft with brushes resting on them. These three brushes are further externally connected to athree phase star connected rheostat. This makes possible the introduction of an additionalresistance in the rotor circuit during starting period for increasing starting torque of the motor.
PRECAUTIONS: 1. TPST switch is kept open initially. 2. The external resistance in the rotor circuit should be kept at max. value.PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per circuit diagram. 2. After observing precautions motor is started on no load. 3. As speed increases, the external resistance is gradually cut out. 4. The no-load readings are taken. 5. If the pointer in one of the wattmeter reverses, interchange the current coil terminals and take the reading as negative. 6. The meter readings are then noted for various load conditions.FORMULAE USED: 1. Torque= (S1-S2)*9.81*100 N-m 2. O/P Power= 2πNT/60 watts 3. I /P Power = (W1+W2) watts 4. η % = (o/p power/ i/p power)*100 5. %s = (Ns-N)/Ns*100GRAPHS: 1. O/P power vs Speed 2. O/P power vs Torque 3. O/P Power vs η 4. O/P Power vs slip 5. Torque vs Speed 6. Torque vs SlipRESULT:The load test on 3-Ф slip ring induction motor was conducted and the performancecharacteristics curves were plotted.
EXP.NO. 7 DATE: NO LOAD AND BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON 3- PHASE INDUCTION MOTORAIM: To conduct the no load & blocked rotor test on 3- phase induction motor & to draw the equivalent circuit of 3- phase squirrel cage induction motor.APPARATUS REQUIRED :-zS.NO NAME OF RANGE TYPE QTY APPARATUS1. Voltmeter (0-600)V MI 01 (0-150)V MI 012. Ammeter (0-10)A MI 013. Wattmeter (600V,5A) UPF 01 (150V,10A) LPF 014. Connecting wire As requiredFUSE RATING :- 125/100 * 7.5 A ≈ 10ATHEORY :-A 3-phase induction motor consists of stator, rotor & other associated parts. In the stator,a 3- phase winding (provided) are displaced in space by 120. A3- phase current is fed to thewinding so that a resultant rotating magnetic flux is generated. The rotor starts rotating due to theinduction effect produced due the relative velocity between the rotorWinding & the rotating flux.PRECAUTIONS :-NO LOAD TEST –(1). Initially TPST switch is kept open.(2). Autotransformer must be kept at minimum potential position.(3). The machine must be started at no load.
BLOCKED ROTOR TEST -(1). Initially the TPST switch is kept open.(2). Autotransformer must be kept at minimum potential position.(3). The machine should be started on full load.PROCEDURE :-NO LOAD TEST -(1). Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.(2). Precautions are observed and motor is started on the no load.(3). Autotransformer is varied to have rated voltage applied.(4). The meter readings are then tabulated.BLOCKED ROTOR TEST :-(1). Connections are given as per circuit diagram.(2). Precautions are observed and motor is started on full load or blocked rotor position.(3). Autotransformer is varied to have rated current flowing in motor.(4). The meter readings are then tabulated.FORMULA USED-FOR NO LOAD TEST-Wsc = √3 Vo IoCOSФ wattsIw = Io cosФ amps Ro= V0/ Iw ΩXo= Vo/Iu ΩFOR BLOCKED ROTOR TEST-Wsc =3I2*Ro wattsRo1 = Wsc/3(Isc)2 ΩZo1 = Vsc/Isc ΩXo1 = √Zo1^2-Ro1^2 ΩRESULT:- Thus the no load and blocked rotor test on 3-Фsquirrel cage induction motor is performedand the equivalent circuit of 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor has been drawn.
TABULAR COLUMNSNO LOAD TEST:S.No Voltage Current Wattmeter W1 x Wattmeter W2 x Voc Ioc readings (W1) mf1 readings (W2) mf2 Observed Actual Observed Actual Volts Amps Watts Watts 1 Voc= open circuit voltage Ioc = open circuit currentBLOCKED ROTOR TEST:S.No. Voltage Current Wattmeter W1 x Wattmeter W2 x Vsc Isc readings(W1) mf1 readings(W2) mf2 Observed Actual observed Actual Volts Amps Watts Watts 1. Vsc = short circuit voltage Isc = short circuit current
EXP.NO. 8 DATE: STUDY OF SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION MOTORAIM:- To study the construction, working principle and performance characteristics ofSynchronous Induction Motor.APPARATUS REQUIRED:- 3 Phase Synchronous Induction Motor with loading arrangement Auto Induction Starter panel – 1 TPDT knife switch - 1 Tachometer - 1THEORY:- In the applications where high starting torque and constant speed are desired thensynchronous induction motor can be used. It has the advantages of both synchronous motor andinduction motor. The synchronous motor gives constant speed whereas induction motors can bestarted against full load torque. Consider a normal slip ring induction motor having three phase winding on the rotoras shown in the figure. The motor is connected to the exciter which gives d.c. supply to the rotor through sliprings. One phase carries full d.c. current while the other two carries half the full d.c. current asthey are connected in parallel. Due to this d.c. excitation, permanent poles (N and S) formed onthe rotor. Initially it is run as a slip ring induction motor with the help of starting resistances.When the resistances are cut out the motor runs with a slip. Now the connections are changedand the exciter is connected in series with the rotor windings which will remain in the circuitpermanently. As the motor is running as induction motor initially high starting torque (up to twicefull load value) can be developed. When the d.c. excitation is provided it is pulled intosynchronism and starts running at constant speed. Thus synchronous induction motor providesconstant speed, large starting torque, low starting current and power factor correction.PRECAUTIONS: 1. The motor should be started without load. 2. The rotor resistance starter should be kept in the maximum resistance position while starting. 3. The field potential divider should be kept in the maximum resistance position.
PROCEDURE: 1. Note down the name plate details of the motor. 2. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 3. Close the TPST switch in order to supply the rated voltage to the motor. 4. Start the motor by closing the TPDT switch (position 123) with the rotor resistance starter in maximum resistance position to run the motor at rated speed. 5. Change the position of TPDT switch (position 1’2’3’) in order to excite the rotor by DC source where the excitation should be given gradually through the potential divider to maintain the synchronous speed. 6. The resistance if the stator can be measured using Dc supply with voltmeter and ammeter or directly using a multimeter.RESULT: The working principle and performance characteristics of the synchronous inductionmotor have been studied.
EXP.NO. 9 DATE: STUDY OF INDUCTION MOTOR STARTERSAIM: To study and connect (1) Direct Online Starter (2) Auto transformer Starter (3) Star Delta Starter (4) Rotor Resistance StarterAPPARATUS REQUIRED:SL.NO NAME OF APPARATUS QUANTITY 1. DOL Starter 1 No. 2. Auto transformer Starter 1 No. 3. Star Delta Starter 1 No. 4. Rotor Resistance Starter 1 No.THEORY:NECESSITY OF STARTERS: An induction motor is similar to a secondary short circuit three phase transformer so ifnormal voltage is applied to the motor it takes 5 to 6 times of normal current from the mains andstarting torque is also increased to around 1.5 to 2.5 times of their full load torque. This initialexcessive starting current is objectionable, because it will produce large line voltage drop,which in turn will affect the operation of the other electrical equipments connected to the samemains. So the starters are used to reduce the starting current of induction motor and also toprotect the motor and also used to protect the motor from overloading and low voltages.TYPES OF STARTERS: (1) Direct Online Starter (2) Auto transformer Starter (3) Star Delta Starter (4) Rotor Resistance StarterDIRECT ON LINE STARTER [DOL STARTER]:- Generally when the starter winding of on induction motor are connected to the Supply directly .a very large current of about 5-8 times full load current flow initially. such a starting .of the induction motor is called direct on line starting. The initial stage
current decreases of the motor starts accelerating and running at normal speed. Unlike d.c motors where such a starting can damage the windings due to a lsent 0/- backEmf at start induction motor can le started .This way through out not expandly in a short spaceof time called cycling .The only effect of the shorting is the sudden line voltage drop that occurswhich may affect other electrically equipments on the same time line .hence direct an line
starting is not advisable for motor with rating greater than 5 HP. The points to be kept in mindfor DOL starting are • Whether other electrical equipment connected to the same lines can with stand The sudden voltage fluctuation caused by the starting. • Whether the generator and distribution system can with stand the high voltage Dip and large current drawn . • In case of loads having high inertia like centrifugal oil separate time may also be a factor REASON FOR AVOIDING FAST CYCLING At start the starting current Ist is about 5-8 times normal full load current .therefore The starting heat generated itself is related to 1st as Hst α Ist2 And Hst is 26-64 times normal heating also at start there is no winding and other losses .Hence repeated starting in short space of time or fast cycling may cause successive heat anddamage of coil . HOW THE STARTER WORKS: Control circuit: Thus circuit consists of conductor coil in series with start button stopButton and over load trip contacts is called control circuit. When the start button is pressed thecontrol circuit energized to via lines of the 3 phase supply is connected the control coil thecontactor classes and starts The motor after releasing the start .It spring back but the contactor is kept enargised by another auxillary winding . When the stop button is released proceed, it break the circuits & the contactors trips & the motor stops. Under excess current leaving drawn the over current trip coil are energized magnetic coil orthe normally open (NO) the overload trip contact and stop the motor.AUTO TRANSFORMER STARTER This stator is useful and suitable for motor in which each and of the 3-phase are not allthroughout and hence are not suitable for star delta starting gapped or variable autotransformercan be used for starting. The autotransformer are generally used for large motor drives like electric cargo pumps becauseof cost factors . STAR-DELTA-STARTER This starter is used in case of motor which are built normally with a delta connected statorwinding. Basically it consist a two way switch that connected the motor star type of the time of start and delta type under normal running connection . The advantages of having a starconnected winding the voltage applied over each motor phase is reduced to 1/√ 3 times thenormal value and the current to 1/√3 time normal value . But the starting torque is also reducedby a factor of 1/√3.
ROTOR RHEOSTAR STATOR This stator is used for starting slip motors in this the stator terminal are Connected to supply via a variable resistance in series to the stator circuit . The controlling resistance is after connected rheostat type with resistance being graduallycot out as Motor gain speed. The two advantages of this starting is:- 1) starting current is reduced 2) starting torque is increased due to power factor improvement. The controlling rheostat may be of speed or contactor type and may also be manual or autonoted. The starter also consist of low voltage and over current protective devices. There is interlocking mechanism for ensuring proper operation of line contactor and starter. This method is similar to the starter used for starting dc motor in which too, the resistance iscut out gradually ones the motor was started running normally. PRECAUTIONS: (1) All connections should be tight. (2) Metallic body of every equipment used must be properly earthed.PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the DOL starter with the motor terminal in one side and motor switch on another side as shown in figure. 2. Put ON the switch and press the start button (green) of the starter to start the motor. 3. Press the stop button (red) to stop the motor. 4. Connect the auto transformer terminals with the motor terminals and motor switch as shown in figure. 5. Now adjust the required settings on autotransformer starter that is above 60%. 6. Out ON the switch, now the motor will start running. When the motor speed reaches to about 80% of the normal speed, then move the handle of the starter and to other side for giving full voltage to the motor. 7. Connect the Star Delta starter with the motor on one side and motor switch in another side as shown in figure. 8. Put on the switch and move the handle of the starter first in downward position thus connecting the winding first in Star and after a few seconds move it in upward position thus connecting the winding in Delta connection. 9. Connect the rotor resistance starter with the motor on one side and motor switch on another side as shown in figure.
10. Put ON the switch and start the motor with the rotor resistance.RESULT: Hence various types of the three phase induction motor starters have beenstudied.
EXP.NO. 10 DATE: SEPARATION OF LOSSES IN THREE PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTORAIM: To separate the no load losses of a 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor as iron lossesand mechanical losses.NAME PLATE DETAILS:3Ø induction motor Auto TransformerFUSE RATING: No load :10% of rated current (full load current).APPARATUS REQUIRED:S.No Name of the apparatus Type Range Quantity1. Ammeter MI (0-10)A 1 MC (0-1)A 12. Voltmeter MI (0-600)V 1 MC (0-5)V 13. Wattmeter LPF 600V,5A 24. 3-Ф Auto Transformer (415/0-470) 1 V Rheostat5. 1200Ω/0.8A 1PRECAUTIONS:(1) The autotransformer should be kept in minimum voltage position.(2) the motor should not be loaded throughout the experiment.
PROCEDURE:(1) Connections should be made as per the circuit diagram.(2) by giving three phase supply , start the motor.(3)vary the autotransformer till rated speed is attainsd and note the input power, voltage andcurrent.(4)repeat the same procedure for and tabulate the reading.(5)find the stator copper loss and constant loss by respective formulas.(6)draw the suitable graph to find the mechanical losses.(7)obtain the core los by separating the mechanical loss fom constant losses.GRAPH:The graph drawn between constant losses(watts) and input voltage(volts).MODEL CALCULATIONS: 1. Input power(W) =(W1+W2)in watts 2. Stator copper loss =3I2Rs in watts 3. Constant loss/phase(Wc)= (W-3I2Rs)/3 in watts 4 Core loss/phase (Wi)= (constant loss/phase)-mechanical lossRESULT: Thus the no load losses of 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor was separated as corelosses and mechanical losses.
EXP.NO. 11 DATE: LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORAIM: To determine the performance characteristic of a given single phase capacitor startinduction motor by conducting load test.APPARATUS REQUIRED: SL. NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY 1 Voltmeter (0-300)V MI 1 2 Ammeter (0-10)A MI 1 3 Wattmeter 300 V, 10A UPF 1 4 Tachometer 1 5 Connecting wires As requiredFUSE RATING : Fuse rating = 125% of rated current = 125/100 * 7.5 ≈ 10ATHEORY: The single phase induction motor is more or less a polyphase induction motor. The only difference is that is given supply in single phase. This motor connect and motor function without any initial start the motor having some part which is called starter and rotor.These are two types of starting a 1 phase induction motor namely capacitor-start and other issplit- phase. These motors are widely used in domestic purpose. PRECAUTION: 1) Before switching on the supply the variac is kept in minimum position. 2) Initially these should be on no load while starting the motor.
PROCEDURE: 1) Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2) Switch on the supply at no load condition. 3) Apply the rotor voltage to the motor using the variac and note down the readings at ammeter And wattmeter. 4) Vary the load in suitable steps and note down all the meter readings till fill load condition.FORMULA USED: 1) Torque ,T = (S1~S2)*9.81*R N.m 2) Output power = 2π NT/60*W 3) Effecting (η%) = 0/P Power/I/p Power*100 4) Slip (%S) = NS – N/NS*100 5) Power factor = Cos φ=W/VIGRAPH : 1) Output Power Vs speed 2) Output power Vs Torque 3) Output power Vs Effecting 4) Output power Vs slip 5) Output power Vs Power factorRESULT: Thus load test on the single phase induction motor has been conducted and itsperformance characteristics determined.
TABULAR COLUMN m.f =Sl.No. VL IL Speed(N) S1 S2 S1 ̃~ S2 Torque Wattmeter Reading Output Efficiency V A RPM Kg Kg Kg N-m Power η PF= cosΦ Observed Actual W %12345678 MODEL CALCULATION: Input power = W x m.f = Watts % slip = (Ns – N)/Ns x 100 pf= cosΦ = W/VLIL Output power = 2лNT/ 60 Watts Torque T= (S1~S2)*9.81*R N-m, where R is the radius of the brake drum in metre Output power Efficiency η = x 100 Input power
EXP.NO. 12 DATE: EQUIVALENT CIURCUIT AND PRE-DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF 1Ф INDUCTION MOTORAIM: To draw the performance characteristics of a single phase induction motor by conductingthe no-load and blocked rotor test.APPARATUS REQUIRED:S.No Name of Range Type Qty. Apparatus1 Voltmeter (0-300)V MI 1 (0-150)V MI 12 Ammeter (0-10)A MI 1 (0-2)A MI 13 Wattmeter (330V,10A) UPF 1 (300V,5A) LPF 14 Connecting As reqd. wiresFUSE RATING:125% of 7.6A=10ATHEORY:A 1-Ф induction motor consists of stator,rotor and other associated parts.In the rotor of a singlephase winding is provided.The windings of a 1- Ф winding(provided) are displaced in space by120º.A single phase current is fed to the windings so that a resultant rotating magnetic flux isgenerated.The rotor starts rotating due to the induction effect produced due to the relativevelocity between the rotor winding and the rotating flux.PRECAUTIONS:NO LOAD TEST: • Initially TPST Switch is kept open. • Autotransformer is kept at minimum potential position. • The machines must be started on no load.
BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: • Initially the TPST Switch is kept open. • Autotransformer is kept at minimum potential position. • The machine must be started at full load(blocked rotor).PROCEDURE:NO LOAD TEST: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. Precautions are observed and the motor is started at no load. 3. Autotransformer is varied to have a rated voltage applied.BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. Precautions are observed and motor is started on full load or blocked rotor position. 3. Autotransformer is varied to have rated current flowing in motor. 4. Meter readings are the noted. Reff = 1.5*Rdc FORMULAE- NO LOAD TEST- • cos Ф = Wo/VoIo • Iw = Io cosФ • Im = Io sin Ф • Ro = Vo/Iw • Xo = Vo/ImBLOCKED ROTOR TEST-Zsc = Vsc/Isc ΩRsc = Wsc/Isc2 ΩXsc = √(Zsc2 – Rsc2) ΩRESULT-Thus the no load and blocked rotor test on the single phase induction motor has been conductedand the equivalent circuit has been drawn.
TABULATION NO LOAD TEST-S.No. Vo(volts) Io(amps) Wo(watts) m.f Observed Acual BLOCKED ROTOR TEST-S.No. Vsc(volts) Isc(amps) Wsc(watts) m.f Observed Actual