Using Cognates to Increase History Vocabulary and ComprehensionCalifornia Council for Social Studies Conference 2012 Dr. Margarita Jimenez-Silva Arizona State University Ruth Luevanos Pacoima Middle School
What are cognates? Words in two languages that share meaning, spelling, and pronunciation. Power of using cognates to transfer vocabulary from the primary language to English Cognates promote comprehension for students whose native language has a Latin base, such as Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Italian Up to 40% of English words have a related Spanish word Helps identify patterns: suffix –mente/English -ly Beware false cognates
No recipe, but… Concordia University U.C. Irvine George Washington University Occidental College Harvard University U.C. Berkeley
It was tough in school…Era of Busing 2 cultures, Low and 2 worlds expectationsDesegregation Falling through the cracks Just wanting to fit in
Identifying Cognates Listof essential concepts and values in U.S. Democracy taken from Social Studies for the Elementary and Middle Grades Which of these words do you believe may be cognates?
Essential Concepts and Values in U.S. DemocracyAmendment Decision making International Pluralism decisión internacional pluralismoAuthority Democracy Justice/fairness Politicianautoridad democracia justicia políticoBill of Rights Diversity Law making Power diversidad poderChanging laws Due process Law/rule Privacy proceso regla privaciaCitizenship Equality Leadership Representativeciudadanía igualdad liderazgo democracy Democracia representativaCivil servant Freedom Loyalty Respect for theSirviente civil Lealtad individual Respeto por el individuoCivil society Government Majority Rule of lawSociedad civil govierno mayoríaCompromise Honesty Minority Security(compromiso) honestidad minoría seguridadFalse cognateConflict Human dignity Nation Self-disciplineconflicto Dignidad humana nación diciplinaConflict resolution Human rights Open-mindedness Social responsibilityResolución de Humanos Resposabilidad socialconflictoConsensus Influence Order Tolerance influencia orden toleranciaConstitution Interdependence Participation viewpointconstitución interdependencia participación
Identifying Cognates 35 cognates or partial cognates of a total of 48 terms or concepts This translates to a total of 73%1 False Cognate: Compromise Note: Check with fluent native speakers!
Classroom Application For example: justification/ justificación. Underline the Latin/Spanish root word, then brainstorm other related words like just, justify, justice Create a visual that helps them remember this word and use it in a sentence or essay to reinforce it Other cognates I have used in the classroom: rectificación, relación, consternación, implicación, clima, civilización, consul, plaza, villa, caúsa, conclusion, mutilación, anticipación, conquistador, geografía, movimiento, región.
Key Test Spanish Vocabulary CognateRaising ELL Test Analyze analizarScores Compare comparar Many experts agree that Contrast constrastar one of the keys and hurdles Define definir to raising test scores is lack of vocabulary. Evaluate evaluar 11 of the 15 most common words used in social studies Identify identificar standardized test questions are cognates Illustrate ilustrar Beware false cognates like Interpret interpretar discuss and summarize. Some cognates have Justify justificar evolved, like location. sequence sequencia synthesize sintetizar
Extension of Cognates Lesson Have students create visuals of cognates to help them with the transition between Spanish and English. Have them include examples. Have parents create visuals of cognates to help reinforce their meaning. Have parents come up with examples of the use of cognates so that they can reinforce these concepts at home.