Diversity amid globalization
As the title of the book suggests, this
course examines the world around us.
As geographers, we search for spatial
patterns and information to
understand WHY these patterns exist.
For example, we can ask ourselves
why there are so many people from
various parts of Asia living in Qatar.
They come for work in the oil
A food-court type restaurant in the City
Center Mall Doha, Qatar that caters
specifically to the Pilipino resident workers
(Photo credit: N Jensen, 2011.)
interconnectedness of people
and places throughout the world
through converging processes of
economic, political and cultural
For example, many processes thought to be local or assigned to a certain place are
actually the result of actions occurring around the globe. VW, a German auto maker,
has parts of its production in places such as Latin America and southern Africa to
Global drug trafficking
Here is another example of how places interconnect, this time in the informal (and in
this case, illegal) economy.
Global trends meld with local
Examples include aspects of:
Global consumer culture (i.e. brand names)
Transnational firms (like Apple, McDonald’s)
International migration (such as Sudanese
refugees in Chad)
The opening of
in Fez, Morocco.
How is this location similar
to others you have seen?
How is it different?
Read the section in the book entitled
“Advocates and critics of
globalization” (pages 6-11 in 5th
Answer the following question:
Why are some people advocates of
Globalization? What are the benefits of the
trend? What are the negative or objections of
those who are critics of globalization?
Theme 1. Population and
At various scales
World population density.
What accounts for the population pattern?
Why do people live in some places but not others?
World Urbanization Pattern
Urban=city. Why are some places more urban than others? What is the pattern
displayed on this map? Is there anything on this map that is surprising?
How does population grow?
1.Naturally. Balance between births
2.Migration. People move in and out
of a location.
…lets start with natural population
1.Natural population increase
Focus on the following terms and
You will be expected to know and
use this ideas in all of the following
These ideas are useful in comparing
and contrasting different places.
Demography=study of the characteristics of a
What can we do with these statistics? What do
we learn about a population?
Watch this video from the Population Reference Bureau
Rate of Natural Increase
Birth rate minus the death rate,
implying the annual rate of
populations growth without regard
for migration. Expressed as a
percentage. Can be positive OR
RNI for India is 1.5
RNI for Russia is -0.1 (negative
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children a
woman can expect to bear in her
Norway and USA 1.9
The ratio of the economically
dependent part of the population to
the productive part.
Population under 15
Population over 65
Often displayed in a population
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The number of deaths of infants
under age 1 per 1,000 live births in
a given year.
IMR in Sweden is 2.5
IMR in Brazil is 24
IMR in India is 50
World IMR is 44
What could a high IMR indicate?
Average length of life expected at
birth for a typical person.
Based on National Death Statistics.
I: high birth and high death
II: Death rates fall.
III: Birth rates fall.
IV: Low birth and low death
V: Zero population growth.
• Watch this video.
What is the spatial distribution of population growth? Why are some places
growing faster than others?
Under 5 mortality
Number of children who die per
1,000 live births
Human Development Index, used by
the United Nations and others
This composite indicator tells much
about the health, health care and
stability of a place
Why would someone migrate?
Push: negative conditions that
drive people from a location
Pull: favorable conditions at a
destination that attract people
Global trends in migration
About 3% cross international
Labor and the global economy
Temporary v permanent
Rural to urban
Where do people migrate?
Check out the relationships between
How might you explain these
Take quiz 1.1 under Assignments and
Quizzes tab on Blackboard
Theme 2. Cultural
Coherence and Diversity
Palestinian woman shopping at Friday
market in Jerusalem (N Jensen 2009).
Village council in a refugee camp in Darfur, Sudan (T
What is culture?
Learned and shared
behavior by a group
empowering them in
a distinct “way of
In the suq or marketplace of Doha, Qatar, sits
a dhow, or traditional ship used for pearl
diving. Pearl diving was the base of the
economy here before oil was discovered.
Culture is a set of distinctive
spiritual, material, intellectual and
emotional features of society or a
social group. It encompasses, in
addition to art and literature,
lifestyles, ways of living together,
values systems, traditions and
To which culture do you belong? Why?
While a language is not equal to a culture, language is an aspect of
culture. When a part of the world has a lot of linguistic variety, we
also see cultural diversity.
Here is an example of linguistic diversity in CA, USA.
Religious believes and religious heritage also can influence culture,
both at the local scale and globally.
promotion of one cultural
system over another.
This is a famous political cartoon that
displays the imperialist fervor of Cecil
Rhodes, a British businessman who is
know for his ambition to create a railway
Cape of South Africa to Cairo. His dream
was nearly realized as the British
holdings in Africa were quite extensive.
Along with actual imperialism, aspects of
British culture were enforced in this
colonies, including dress, education,
language and economic policies.
What is the relationship between former colonies and their
colonizers? Do ties remain between them?
blending of two or more
cultures, which produces a
synergistic third culture that
exhibits traits of all.
Take quiz 1.3 under Assignments and
Quizzes tab on Blackboard
Theme 3. Geopolitics
Link between geography and
Importance of SCALE
inter-relationships between people,
state, and territory.
Those that pull people
A Uyghur child protests against China’s contested occupation
of what he calls Eastern Turkestan.
Those that bring people
In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks in New York
City, there was a rise in national pride and support of the
Group of people, clearly
For example, the French
people are a nation
in your text,
the Kurds are
a nation, or
state in which
they can live.
The Kurds are
Iraq and Iran.
write it in 3
Process of defending a cultural
Ex: Graffiti in Seville,
the divide between
Andalusia in the
south and the central
Centralized political system
Think country, not state like
Ex. France, The USA, Turkey
Glassner’s characteristics of
Territory, defined by boundaries
Permanent resident population
A case study in
This area is contested.
Basically there are two
nations who want a
state in the same
location. Israel is
attempting to build an
boundary by building a
wall around the
How are these statistics used?
These indicators are useful in
understanding the disparity between
Each indicator tells us part of the
story of a place.
Use indicators together to compare
and contrast and get insight into
what life is like around the globe.
1st, 2nd, 3rd
MDC/LDC: More developed
countries/Less developed countries.
4.1 Social Indicators
Under 5 mortality
Secondary School Enrollment
Females in the Labor Force
Can also be used in conjunction with
some population indicators to
illustrate patterns at various scales.
4.2 Economic Indicators
Gross National Income (GNI): the
value of all final goods and services
produced within a country plus net
income from abroad.
PPP: Purchasing Power
a comparable for a standard
“market basket” of goods and
services purchased with a local
Sometimes referred to as the “Big
Mac” index to give a sense of what
money can buy in various
The United Nations
defines poverty as
living on less than
$2 a day.
We are all tied into the
Using the Datafinder on PRB.org,
compare and contrast the
demographic data of a country in
Latin America, the United States and
Denmark. What do you learn about
each of these countries?
Take quiz 1.4 under Assignments and
Quizzes tab on Blackboard