The five themes of geography 2013(1)


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  • FIGURE 1.19
  • FIGURE 1.36
  • FIGURE 1.40
  • The five themes of geography 2013(1)

    1. 1. Chapter 1 Diversity amid globalization As the title of the book suggests, this course examines the world around us. As geographers, we search for spatial patterns and information to understand WHY these patterns exist. For example, we can ask ourselves why there are so many people from various parts of Asia living in Qatar. They come for work in the oil economy. A food-court type restaurant in the City Center Mall Doha, Qatar that caters specifically to the Pilipino resident workers there. (Photo credit: N Jensen, 2011.) 1
    2. 2. Concept 1:Globalization The increasing interconnectedness of people and places throughout the world through converging processes of economic, political and cultural change. 2
    3. 3. For example, many processes thought to be local or assigned to a certain place are actually the result of actions occurring around the globe. VW, a German auto maker, has parts of its production in places such as Latin America and southern Africa to minimize cost. 3
    4. 4. Global drug trafficking Here is another example of how places interconnect, this time in the informal (and in this case, illegal) economy. 4
    5. 5. Hybridization Global trends meld with local traditions.  Examples include aspects of:     Global consumer culture (i.e. brand names) Transnational firms (like Apple, McDonald’s) International migration (such as Sudanese refugees in Chad) 5
    6. 6. The opening of the MacDonald’s in Fez, Morocco. How is this location similar to others you have seen? How is it different? 6
    7. 7. Self quiz Read the section in the book entitled “Advocates and critics of globalization” (pages 6-11 in 5th edition)  Answer the following question:   Why are some people advocates of Globalization? What are the benefits of the trend? What are the negative or objections of those who are critics of globalization? 7
    8. 8. Theme 1. Population and Settlement At various scales City Country Region Globally 8
    9. 9. World population density. What accounts for the population pattern? Why do people live in some places but not others? 9
    10. 10. World Urbanization Pattern Urban=city. Why are some places more urban than others? What is the pattern displayed on this map? Is there anything on this map that is surprising? 10
    11. 11. How does population grow? 1.Naturally. Balance between births and deaths  2.Migration. People move in and out of a location.  …lets start with natural population growth. 11
    12. 12. 1.Natural population increase Focus on the following terms and concepts.  You will be expected to know and use this ideas in all of the following chapters.  These ideas are useful in comparing and contrasting different places.  12
    13. 13. Demography       Demos=people Graphy=description Demography=study of the characteristics of a population What can we do with these statistics? What do we learn about a population? Watch this video from the Population Reference Bureau d&v=uwMUV1ks3vo 13
    14. 14. Rate of Natural Increase (RNI) Birth rate minus the death rate, implying the annual rate of populations growth without regard for migration. Expressed as a percentage. Can be positive OR negative number.  RNI for India is 1.5  RNI for Russia is -0.1 (negative growth)  14
    15. 15. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) The average number of children a woman can expect to bear in her lifetime.  India 2.5  Norway and USA 1.9  Mali 6.3  World 2.4  15
    16. 16. Dependency Ratio  The ratio of the economically dependent part of the population to the productive part. Population under 15  Population over 65   Often displayed in a population pyramid 16
    17. 17. How a population pyramid works 17
    18. 18. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)  The number of deaths of infants under age 1 per 1,000 live births in a given year. IMR in Sweden is 2.5  IMR in Brazil is 24  IMR in India is 50  World IMR is 44   What could a high IMR indicate? 18
    19. 19. Life expectancy Average length of life expected at birth for a typical person.  Based on National Death Statistics.  China 72  USA 78  Botswana 32   19
    20. 20. Demographic Transition Stage rates.  Stage  Stage  Stage rates.  Stage  I: high birth and high death II: Death rates fall. III: Birth rates fall. IV: Low birth and low death V: Zero population growth. • Watch this video. 20
    21. 21. _model.htm
    22. 22. What is the spatial distribution of population growth? Why are some places growing faster than others? 22
    23. 23. Under 5 mortality Number of children who die per 1,000 live births  Human Development Index, used by the United Nations and others  This composite indicator tells much about the health, health care and stability of a place  23
    24. 24. 2.Migration Why would someone migrate?  Push/Pull Factors  Push: negative conditions that drive people from a location  Pull: favorable conditions at a destination that attract people  24
    25. 25. Global trends in migration About 3% cross international borders  Labor and the global economy  Transnationalism  Gender  Temporary v permanent  Rural to urban  25
    26. 26. Where do people migrate? Check out the relationships between places.  How might you explain these population flows? 26
    27. 27. Quiz Take quiz 1.1 under Assignments and Quizzes tab on Blackboard 27
    28. 28. Theme 2. Cultural Coherence and Diversity Palestinian woman shopping at Friday market in Jerusalem (N Jensen 2009). Village council in a refugee camp in Darfur, Sudan (T 28 White 2008).
    29. 29. What is culture?   Learned and shared behavior by a group of people empowering them in a distinct “way of life” Material and immaterial elements In the suq or marketplace of Doha, Qatar, sits a dhow, or traditional ship used for pearl diving. Pearl diving was the base of the economy here before oil was discovered. 29
    30. 30. UNESCO  Culture is a set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group. It encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, values systems, traditions and beliefs. To which culture do you belong? Why? 30
    31. 31. World Languages While a language is not equal to a culture, language is an aspect of culture. When a part of the world has a lot of linguistic variety, we also see cultural diversity. Here is an example of linguistic diversity in CA, USA. 31
    32. 32. World Religions Religious believes and religious heritage also can influence culture, both at the local scale and globally. 32
    33. 33. Cultural Imperialism  Active promotion of one cultural system over another. This is a famous political cartoon that displays the imperialist fervor of Cecil Rhodes, a British businessman who is know for his ambition to create a railway Cape of South Africa to Cairo. His dream was nearly realized as the British holdings in Africa were quite extensive. Along with actual imperialism, aspects of British culture were enforced in this colonies, including dress, education, language and economic policies. 33
    34. 34. What is the relationship between former colonies and their colonizers? Do ties remain between them? 34
    35. 35. Cultural Syncretism  The blending of two or more cultures, which produces a synergistic third culture that exhibits traits of all. 35
    36. 36. Quiz Take quiz 1.3 under Assignments and Quizzes tab on Blackboard 36
    37. 37. Theme 3. Geopolitics Link between geography and politics.  Importance of SCALE  inter-relationships between people, state, and territory.  37
    38. 38. Centrifugal forces  Those that pull people apart. A Uyghur child protests against China’s contested occupation of what he calls Eastern Turkestan. 38
    39. 39. Centripetal Forces  Those that bring people together. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks in New York City, there was a rise in national pride and support of the US military. 39
    40. 40. Nation Group of people, clearly distinguishable, selfidentifying.  For example, the French people are a nation  40
    41. 41. Nations Hopi  Navajo  Han Chinese  Welsh  Pastuns  Japanese  Palestinians  41
    42. 42. As discussed in your text, the Kurds are a nation, or people that does not have a corresponding state in which they can live. The Kurds are divided between Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran. They speak the same language, but write it in 3 different alphabets. 42
    43. 43. Cultural Nationalism  Process of defending a cultural system Ex: Graffiti in Seville, Spain demonstrating the divide between Andalusia in the south and the central government located in Madrid. 43
    44. 44. State Centralized political system with internationally recognized boundaries. Think country, not state like Idaho.  Ex. France, The USA, Turkey  44
    45. 45. Glassner’s characteristics of a state Territory, defined by boundaries  Permanent resident population  Government  Organized economy  Circulation system  Sovereignty/independence  Recognition  45
    46. 46. Types of Boundaries     Physiographic (physical features) Anthropogeographic (man made) Geometric (lines) Ethnographic (according to ethic areas) 46
    47. 47. A case study in boundaries: Israel/Palestine This area is contested. Basically there are two nations who want a state in the same location. Israel is attempting to build an anthropogeographic boundary by building a wall around the Palestinian territories. 47
    48. 48. The wall or separation barrier 48
    49. 49. A view of the barrier from a nearby hilltop. Note how the agricultural areas are separated from the city of Jerusalem by the wall. 49
    50. 50. Nation-state  Nation with a state wrapped around it. Extremely rare, > 5%  Ex. Japan, Iceland, Portugal  The USA is not a nation-state 50
    51. 51. Quiz Take quiz 1.3 under Assignments and Quizzes tab on Blackboard 51
    52. 52. Theme 4. Economic and Social Development 52
    53. 53. How are these statistics used? These indicators are useful in understanding the disparity between places.  Each indicator tells us part of the story of a place.  Use indicators together to compare and contrast and get insight into what life is like around the globe.  53
    54. 54. Disparity Setting terms  1st, 2nd, 3rd  North/South  East/West  Core/Periphery  MDC/LDC: More developed countries/Less developed countries.   Preferred terminology 54
    55. 55. 4.1 Social Indicators Life expectancy  Under 5 mortality  Secondary School Enrollment  Females in the Labor Force   Can also be used in conjunction with some population indicators to illustrate patterns at various scales. 55
    56. 56. 4.2 Economic Indicators  Gross National Income (GNI): the value of all final goods and services produced within a country plus net income from abroad. 56
    57. 57. 57
    58. 58. Notice how GNP has changed over time, as countries become more industrialized and as their economies change. 58
    59. 59. 59
    60. 60. 60
    61. 61. GNI 61
    62. 62. PPP: Purchasing Power Parity a comparable for a standard “market basket” of goods and services purchased with a local currency.  Sometimes referred to as the “Big Mac” index to give a sense of what money can buy in various economies.  62
    63. 63. 63
    64. 64. Poverty The United Nations defines poverty as living on less than $2 a day. We are all tied into the global economy. 64
    65. 65. Self quiz  Using the Datafinder on, compare and contrast the demographic data of a country in Latin America, the United States and Denmark. What do you learn about each of these countries? 65
    66. 66. Quiz Take quiz 1.4 under Assignments and Quizzes tab on Blackboard 66
    67. 67. End of Module 1 67