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  • 1. Cylinder Liner/ Cylinder Sleeve •A cylinder liner is a cylindrical part to be fitted into an engine block to form a cylinder. It is one of the most important functional parts to make up the interior of an engine. This is called Cylinder liner in Japan, but some countries(or companies) call this Cylinder sleeve. •Cylinder sleeves are used in engine blocks to provide a hard- wearing material for pistons and piston rings. These are main functions of Cylinder Liners (1)Formation of sliding surface (2)Heat transfer
  • 2. MATERIAL FOR CYLINDER LINER •Current Materials for Cylinder Liner The current markets usually use is grey cast iron with lamellar graphite (ASTM Grade 40) with pearlitic type microstructure. Aluminium alloy also used. Liner materials were usually from different alloys of cast iron, such as phosphorous, titanium and vanadium C Si Mn S Cr Ni Mo V Cu Al 3.5 1.9 0.73 <0.2 0.23 0.07 0.31 0.015 0.27 <0.01
  • 3. MANUFATURING PROCESS • The Centrifugal Casting process is used to cast cylinder liners . • With the help of centrifugal casting process the thickness of cylinder liner can easily controlled.
  • 4. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING • In centrifugal casting, a permanent mold is rotated continuously about its axis at high speeds (300 to 3000 rpm) as the molten metal is poured. The molten metal is centrifugally thrown towards the inside mold wall, where it solidifies after cooling. The casting is usually a fine-grained casting with a very fine-grained outer diameter, owing to chilling against the mould surface. Impurities and inclusions are thrown to the surface of the inside diameter, which can be machined away. • Casting machines may be either horizontal or vertical- axis. Horizontal axis machines are preferred for long, thin cylinders, vertical machines for rings. • Most castings are solidified from the outside first. This may be used to encourage directional solidification of the casting, and thus give useful metallurgical properties to it.
  • 5. Features of centrifugal casting • Castings can be made in almost any length, thickness and diameter. • Different wall thicknesses can be produced from the same size mold. • Eliminates the need for cores. • Mechanical properties of centrifugal castings are excellent. • Only cylindrical shapes can be produced with this process. • Size limits are up to 3 m (10 feet) diameter and 15 m (50 feet) length. • Wall thickness range from 2.5 mm to 125 mm (0.1 - 5.0 in).
  • 6. Applications • Typical parts made by this process are pipes, boilers, pressure vessels , flywheels, cylinder liners and other parts that are axi-symmetric. • It is notably used to cast cylinder liners and sleeve valves for piston engines, parts which could not be reliably manufactured otherwise.
  • 7. STEPS TO MANUFACTURE CYLINDER LINER STEP 1: MELTING OF METAL STEP 2: POURING OF MOLTEN METAL STEP 3: CENTRIFUGAL CASTING STEP 4: BORING STEP 5: CNC TURNING STEP 6: HONING STEP 7: GRINDING
  • 8. MELTING OF METAL Cast iron is melted at 1150 to 1200 °C in a furnace.
  • 9. POURING OF METAL IN TO THE CENTRIFUGAL MACHINE • Molten metal is carried from furnace through ladle. • Then the metal is poured in the pouring basin which leads the molten metal into centrifugal casting machine. • Molten metal is poured in moving centrifugal die which provides it a centrifugal force. • Some additives are also added during pouring to get defect free casting. • How much molten metal is poured depends on the desired thickness of casting. • Molten metal should be poured continuously to uniformly distribute the molten metal over the surface of the mold.
  • 10. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING OF CYLINDER LINER • When the metal is poured, As the mold is rotating about its axis So due to centrifugal force the molten metal is uniformly distributed over the surface of mold. • The rotated molds (approx. 900 rpm) forces the molten metal by centrifugal force towards molds cavity walls. • There is no need of central core to cast a hollow cylinder liner. • Due to lighter weigh impurities comes out of molten metal into the center while heavy weigh molten metal goes on the mold cavity walls. • As metal starts solidify and after 5 to 10 min the molds rotation is stopped. • After the solidification of metal the casting is removed by tapping and forcing it out of mold.
  • 11. • Due to thin wall casting the solidification may starts from the center hole before the solid metal from the outside reaches there. • When the solidification proceeds from both the outer and inner surfaces, there necessarily will be a certain amount of shrinkage called center-line shrinkage.
  • 12. WAYS PREVENT THE CENTER LINE SHRINKAGE • One way of preventing this shrinkage is to regulate the rate of pouring in order to keep the inner surface hot and liquid. • Another aid is the spraying of an insulating material which is lighter the cast iron into the central hole over the inner surface. • This material minimizes the transfer of heat from the inner surface and permits the casting to solidify from its outer surface inward as desired.
  • 13. BORING • Boring is the process which gives the final look of inner diameter. • We can perform boring operation on vertical machining center. Which is fully computerized control machine. • We can also use special purpose boring machine. Which maintains dimension accuracy, taper and surface finish.
  • 14. CNC TURNING • We can perform outer diameter of liner on CNC machine, which is computerized control machine, gives high accuracy in dimensional parameters, surface roughness parameters and geometrical parameters. • A main benefit of OD CNC Turing is to minimize cycle time, repeatability of quality and consistency product.
  • 15. Honing • Honing is an abrasive machining process that produces a precision surface on a metal workpiece by scrubbing an abrasive stone against it along a controlled path. • Honing is primarily used to improve the geometric form of a surface, but may also improve the surface texture. • Honing machines Vertical Plateau Honing Machine, Horizontal Honing Machine, Hydraulic Vertical Honing Machine is used for such purposes.
  • 16. GRINDING • Grinding is an abrasive machining process that uses a grinding wheel as the cutting tool. • Grinding is the process where super surface finish can be maintained on products. • We may use two type of grinding process center less grinding and cylindrical grinding. • Grinding controls dimensional parameters, surface parameters and geometrical parameters
  • 17. REFERENCESES • Casting and Forming Processes in Manufacturing by James S. Campbell, jr. • http://www.anandenterprise.com/process.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/ • www.gouldpistonsandrings.com/cylinder_liners.htm