Rainwater Disinfection Options<br />Presented By<br />Jack Holmgreen, ARCSA-AP, WTS III<br />SparkleTap Water Company<br />
Licensing & Regulatory Requirements<br />The 77th Texas Legislature in June 2001 passed legislation transferring the legal...
Disinfection Methods<br /><ul><li>Boiling
UV Irradiation
Newer Technologies</li></li></ul><li>Chlorination<br /><ul><li>Kills most bacteria, viruses and fungi
Set-up and maintenance costs low
Residual free chlorine remains
Affected by organic matter loads
Affected by pH and temperature
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Rainwater Disinfection Options


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An overview of the newest methods of disinfecting rainwater for potable use.

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Rainwater Disinfection Options

  1. 1. Rainwater Disinfection Options<br />Presented By<br />Jack Holmgreen, ARCSA-AP, WTS III<br />SparkleTap Water Company<br />
  2. 2. Licensing & Regulatory Requirements<br />The 77th Texas Legislature in June 2001 passed legislation transferring the legal authority to Chapter 341 of the Texas Water Code and designating the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) as the licensing agency for Water Treatment Specialist (WTS) licenses. The legislative goal is “to insure the public health and to protect the public from unqualified persons engaging in activities related to water treatment.” The TCEQ can be contacted at the address below.<br /> Texas Commission on Environmental Quality<br /> Compliance Support Division (MC-178)<br /> Operator Certification Program<br /> P.O. Box 13087<br /> Austin, TX 78711-3087<br /> 512-239-6165<br />Water Treatment - as defined by this act, “Water treatment means a business conducted under contract that requires experience in analysis of water, including the ability to determine how to treat influent and effluent water, to alter or purify water, and to add or remove mineral, chemical, or bacterial content or substance. The term also includes the installation and service of potable water treatment equipment in public or private water systems and making connections necessary to complete installation of a water treatment system.”<br />Water Treatment Equipment – Appliances used to alter or purify water or alter a mineral, or bacterial content or substance.<br />Water Treatment Specialist (WTS) – A person who is licensed to perform water treatment on a contractual basis.<br />Disinfection – A process to cleanse of pathogenic microorganisms.<br />
  3. 3. Disinfection Methods<br /><ul><li>Boiling
  4. 4. Iodine
  5. 5. Chlorination
  6. 6. Solarization
  7. 7. UV Irradiation
  8. 8. Ozonation
  9. 9. Microfiltration
  10. 10. Ultrafiltration
  11. 11. Newer Technologies</li></li></ul><li>Chlorination<br /><ul><li>Kills most bacteria, viruses and fungi
  12. 12. Set-up and maintenance costs low
  13. 13. Residual free chlorine remains
  14. 14. Affected by organic matter loads
  15. 15. Affected by pH and temperature
  16. 16. Disinfection by-products remain
  17. 17. Cryptosporidium & Giardia are resistant</li></li></ul><li>Solarization<br />The SODIS efficiency is dependent on the amount of solar energy available:<br />• Expose the bottle to the sun for 6 hours if the sky is cloudless or up to 50% cloudy.<br />• Expose the bottle to the sun for 2 consecutive days if the sky is more than 50% cloudy.<br />• At a water temperature of at least 50°C (122°F), 1 hour exposure time is sufficient.<br />• During days of continuous rainfall, SODIS does not perform satisfactorily. Rainwater harvesting or boiling is recommended during these days<br />
  18. 18. UV Irradiation<br /><ul><li>Not affected by pH
  19. 19. Inexpensive and easy to install
  20. 20. Flow rate must be matched to unit
  21. 21. Flow pattern must keep chamber full
  22. 22. Water must be clear and free of suspended solids
  23. 23. Crystal sleeve/tube must be kept clean
  24. 24. UV bulb must be replaced annually
  25. 25. Does not affect algae
  26. 26. May not inactivate Giardia & Cryptosporidium
  27. 27. No residual</li></li></ul><li>Ozone<br />Recirculating System<br />
  28. 28. Ozone<br />Closed System<br /><ul><li>Ozone is effective over a wide range of pH
  29. 29. Kills algae as well as microbes
  30. 30. Eliminates a variety of organic and inorganic compounds
  31. 31. Does not add chemicals
  32. 32. Limited residual
  33. 33. Could produce harmful by-products
  34. 34. May need ozone destructor post treatment
  35. 35. Escaping ozone is fire and toxicity hazard</li></li></ul><li>Micro & Ultra-filtration<br /><ul><li>Microfiltration is 0.2 micron absolute
  36. 36. Ultrafiltration is 0.02 micron absolute
  37. 37. Not affected by pH
  38. 38. No chemicals or by-products
  39. 39. Some loss of pressure
  40. 40. May need pre-treatment
  41. 41. No residual</li></li></ul><li>Newer Technology<br /><ul><li>Nanoalumina bonded to microglass fibers
  42. 42. Photodisinfection with very high intensity LED light
  43. 43. Electrolyzed water
  44. 44. Capacitive Deionization
  45. 45. Copper Ion Dispersion
  46. 46. Hydrogen Peroxide Injection
  47. 47. Solar Electrolysis</li></li></ul><li>Capacitive Deionization<br />
  48. 48. Copper Ion Dispersion<br />
  49. 49. Hydrogen Peroxide Injection<br />
  50. 50. Hydra Solar Electrolysis<br />
  51. 51. Contact Info & Links<br />Texas Water Quality Association<br />1904 San Houston Drive Phone: (361) 573-6707<br />Victoria, TX 77901 Fax: (361) 575-7959<br />email: twqadirector@twqa.org Website: http://twqa.org<br />SparkleTap Water Company <br />2951 Marina Bay Dr, #130-199 Phone: (281) 538-1430<br />League City, TX 77573 Fax: (281) 334-1639<br /> Website: http://www.sparkletap-rain.com<br /> email: jholmgreen@sparkletap.com<br />blog: http://www.rainwaterharvestingtexas.com<br /> Kindle book: http://www.amazon.com/dp/B005HJRBWE<br />2011 Berkeley Springs International Water Tasting Competition<br />GOLD MEDAL WINNER for PURIFIED WATER<br />