Weathering and erosion pack

  • 228 views
Uploaded on

 

More in: Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
228
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. WORK IN FOURTH YEAR
  • 2. Abrasion – the effect of erosion on rock, where rock fragments carried by the seas scrape and grind away at a cliff face Arch – a rocky opening through a headland, used to be a cave Attrition – process by which particles of rock being transported by the sea are rounded and gradually reduced in size by being struck against one another Backwash – backward movement of water down the beach after the wave has broken Bar – deposit of sand or silt formed in a river channel, or a long sandy ridge running parallel to coastline. Coastal bars can extend across estuaries to form bay bars Bay – an area of sea between two headlands Beach – material the sea deposits on the coast, can be sand or pebbles
  • 3. Biological weathering – the breakdown of rocks by plants and animals Cave – an area, which has been hollowed out by the waves at the bottom of a cliff Chemical weathering – the breakdown of rocks by chemical action Cliff – a very steep slope Coastal deposition – laying down or dumping of material by wave action Coastal management – attempts by people to maintain or alter the natural features of the coast to their own advantage Coastline – the line between the land and sea marked by high tide Corrasion/abrasion – caused by large waves hurling beach material against a cliff Corrosion/solution – salts and other acids in seawater slowly dissolve a cliff Deposition – the process of laying down material to form new land Deposition landform – spit, beach etc. Destructive waves – high waves, with strong backwashes, which break frequently causing erosion Dune – mound or ridge of wind-drifted sand Erosion – the process by which rocks are worn away Erosion landform – bay, headland etc. Fetch-the length of water over which the wind has blown which affects the size and strength of waves Fjord – long narrow inlet with high cliff like sides, very deep e.g. Milford Sound in New Zealand
  • 4. Freeze/thaw – see frost action (physical weathering) Frost action (freeze/thaw) – a form of weathering where water in cracks freezes and expands to split or shatter the rock (physical) Gabions – boulders wired together in a steel mesh box. The stones absorb the wave energy and are prevented from moving by the wire box Groyne – wooden or concrete barrier built at right angles to a beach in order to block the movement of material along the beach by long shore drift. Groynes are usually successful in protecting individual beaches Headland – land that juts out into the sea Hydraulic action – the pounding of a cliff by the weight of water and the effect of air within cracks being compressed and causing intense pressure to weaken a cliff face Landform – a natural feature of the landscape Long shore drift – the current that transports material along the coastline in a zigzag movement Onionskin weathering – the breakdown of rocks by heating and cooling that can cause the surface layers to peel off (physical weathering) Process – the way something happens Revetment – wooden fences built parallel to the sea. The gaps in them allow wave energy to be absorbed, protecting the base of a cliff Rias – long winding inlet with low gently sloping sides e.g. the creek in Dubai Rip rap – large boulders placed together along the base of a cliff, designed to absorb wave energy and protect the cliff from erosion Sea level changes – sea level rises due to melting ice caps, bergs and glaciers
  • 5. Sea wall – a barrier built behind a beach to protect the coast from the sea Sedimentary rock – a rock formed from material laid down millions of years ago at the bottom of seas and lakes Slumping – the movement of material downhill under the influence of gravity, often associated with rocks becoming saturated Spit – a long ridge of sand and shingle with one end attached to the land and the other end in the open sea Stack – a piece of rock surrounded by sea and left standing away from the coastline Stump – a stack eventually collapses leaving a stump Swash – forward movement of water as the wave breaks on the coast Tombola – spit or ridge of sand or shingle that connects the mainland to an island, e.g. Chesil bank which extends 19km to sea from Dorset Transportation – the movement of material by water, ice or wind Wave – a circular motion of water caused by the wind Wave cut platform – a gently sloping area of flat rocks exposed at low tide Weathering – the breakdown of rocks YOU COULD ADD IGNEOUS, METAMORPHIC, SEDIMENTARY, PERMEABLE, IMPERMEABLE, SLATE, GRANITE, SANDSTONE, BASALT, CHALK, GRAVEL, CLAY, LIMESTONE, MARBLE ETC.
  • 6. 1. ROCKS
  • 7. 8 LANDSCAPE WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 26–7 What’s in a rock? Name ________________________________________________________________________________ 68 earthworks 1 teacher’s resource book © JOHN MURRAY The natural landscape is made up of rocks, and the soil that lies above them. All the landforms that you will study are made of rock. Rocks give us important clues about how the landscape was formed – whether they were forged by heat deep inside the Earth, laid down beneath water on the sea bed, or changed by intense heat and pressure as mountains were built. Igneous rock Molten rock deep within the Earth can explode from volcanoes as lava, or force its way into rocks just below the surface. Here it cools and turns from liquid into solid crystals made from different minerals. This is igneous rock – a hard, solid, crystalline rock. Different igneous rocks can be identified by their crystal structure and mineral composition. The more slowly the rock cooled down at the surface, the larger the crystals tend to be. Granite is a common igneous rock with large crystals of different minerals, giving it a mottled appearance. Basalt is a dark igneous rock, formed from the cooling lava of volcanoes, with crystals which are too small to be seen without a microscope. Sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks were originally loose fragments of rock, or dead plants and animals, laid down on the sea bed. Over millions of years this material, or sediment, was covered by further layers and squeezed until it turned into solid rock. Sedimentary rock can sometimes be identified, where it is exposed in cliffs, by the layers which may still be visible. The fragments from which it was made can range in size from the finest particles of clay to large stones. Sandstone is a common sedimentary rock which is made from sand grains and is often reddish in colour. Limestone is made from the broken shells or skeletons of small sea creatures, making it rich in calcium and often a very light colour. Metamorphic rock Rocks can be changed by intense heat or pressure. Such forces can be found in the Earth’s crust where volcanoes erupt or continents collide. The rocks which come into contact with these forces are changed into a new type of rock. This is metamorphic rock, which is often very hard as a result of the force it has endured. Metamorphic rocks vary depending on how close they were to the heat or pressure which formed them. Slate is a dark metamorphic rock formed from sedimentary mudstone or shale. Although hard, it has horizontal bands, making it easy to split into flat pieces. Your task 1. Read the information about igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. 2. Identify samples of granite, basalt, sandstone, limestone and slate, if your school has a collection of rocks. 3. Explain the shape of the coastline in south-west Wales, using this information about the rocks from which it is formed. New sedimentary rock forms on sea bed Sea Metamorphic rock formed by heat and pressure New igneous rock from volcanoes Layers of old sedimentary rock Old igneous rock forms much of Earth's crust Hot molten rock Earthworks 2 16/8/00 6:33 pm Page 68 ROCKS ROCK! Granite often forms at destructive plate margins in fold mountains, whereas basalt often forms at constructive margins in shield volcanoes. Clay also forms slate and limestone forms marble.
  • 8. NEW WIDER WORLD INTRUSIVE EXTRUSIVE Crystals are large and made up of quartz, mica and feldspar
  • 9. OLDROCKSFORNEW lava-Earth'ssurface+basalt-extrusive magma-belowEarth'ssurface=granite-intrusive Activities 1.Whatisthedifferencebetweenasedimentaryrockandanigneous rock? 2.WhattypeofrocksarebeingformedatA,BandConfigureA? Givereasonstosupportyouranswer. 3.Inthetableonthenextpage,identifythetypeofeachrocklisted, byplacingatickintheappropriatecolumn.Slatehasbeendonefor you.
  • 10. Old rocks for new; 1. 2. 3. Rock Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic Slate √ Limestone Sandstone Granite Chalk Basalt Marble
  • 11. NEW WIDER WORLD
  • 12. ROCKSANDRELIEF Sandstone;impermeable,young,crumbly Flint;old,verystrong Limestone;permeable,weakinwater Clay;impermeable,soft Chalk;permeable,hard Slate;impermeable,hard Granite;impermeable,hard Basalt;impermeable,hard Gravel;permeable Activities; 1. Definetheseterms; a)permeable b)impermeable 2. a)StudyfigureBwhichshowsthestrengthand permeabilityofseveralrocks.Whichoftheserocksare impermeable:granite,chalk,sand,gravel,slate? b)Whichoftheserocksarehard:sand,gravel,chalk, granite? c)Addtwomorepointsonthegraph,oneforclayand oneforlimestone.Givereasonstoexplainwhyyou locatedthemwhereyoudid.
  • 13. Rocks and Relief;
  • 14. EXAMPLE
  • 15. EXAMPLE
  • 16. LESSON 1; Look at MyQG or the Internet at www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths- technology/science/geology/geology-toolkit Click on Landscape Features in the diagram box. Choose one, e.g. The Giant’s Causeway and produce a poster (A3) with a description, map and pictures DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET:
  • 17. KEY GEOGRAPHY PLACES
  • 18. 1. 2.
  • 19. 2. WEATHERING
  • 20. NEW WIDER WORLD Biological weathering is when plants and animals help to break down rocks. The roots of plants and trees can get into cracks in a rock. As they grow, they put pressure on the rock, which can be enough to split it. Burrowing animals such as rabbits, moles and even earthworms can also help break down weaker rocks. Carbonic acid in rain water causes a chemical reaction and dissolves the calcium carbonate (old bones and shells) in limestone and chalk. Chemical weathering can even break down hard igneous rocks like basalt. Oxygen turns the iron in the rock into rust e.g. Hawaii. The rock turns red and crumbly so it is more easily and quickly weathered and eroded. 3.
  • 21. WEATHERING Write a definition of weathering, remember to include the fact that the material does not move; in situ or stationary
  • 22. Weathering, rivers and coasts NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections pages 6–7 Weathering 1.1 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200623 ១1 Read the statements listed below. Use them as labels, drawing arrows to show where they belong in the illustration. ១2 Categorise the labels by colouring them as follows: N Red for chemical weathering. N Green for biological weathering. N Blue for freeze–thaw weathering. ១3 How can the building be protected against each type of weathering? ១4 Which side of your home do you think suffers the most from weathering? Explain your answer. Everything around us is slowly falling to pieces. Buildings, monuments, roads, coasts and mountains are all crumbling away. They are being attacked and broken up by the action of rain, sun, frost and even plants and animals. We call this weathering. A Water freezes and can crack roof tiles. B Drainpipes may rust and leak. C Rainwater contains small amounts of acid. D Mosses and plants can make holes in roof felt. E Insects may burrow into roof timbers leading to rotting. F Sunlight and wind will dry and crack paintwork. G Rainwater can soak into wooden window frames leading to rotting. H Wind may blow off roof tiles. I Rain can get into gaps between bricks and dissolves mortar. J Tree roots and rotting plant roots may weaken house foundations. K Warmth speeds up chemical changes.
  • 23. Weathering, rivers and coasts NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections pages 6–7 What causes weathering? 1.2 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200624 Weathering is the breakdown of rocks by water, frost and temperature change. The effects of plants and animals can also break rocks down. ១1 Study the table below. For each cause of weathering, tick whether you think it is very likely, possible or unlikely to happen around your school. ១2 Using a copy of the table above, carry out a brief survey of your school to discover any examples of weathering. ១3 Present your findings in a short written report with the title: ‘Our school is falling to pieces!’ In your report you should use ICT, maps, sketches and (if possible) photos. Causes of weathering Very likely Possible Unlikely Seeds blow into cracks in walls. Plant and tree roots force cracks to widen. Water freezes and can crack roof tiles. Acid in rainwater causes brickwork to rot and crumble. Wind may blow off roof tiles. Warmth speeds up chemical changes. Rainwater can soak into wooden window frames leading to rotting. Stone is worn away or pitted. Concrete is repeatedly heated and cooled. Moist air helps chemical reactions. Sunlight and wind may dry and crack paintwork. Heated walls expand at different rates. Ice crystals expand and help push cracks apart. Rotting plants corrode brickwork. Tree roots may weaken school foundations. to buildings.
  • 24. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
  • 25. LESSON 2; Test your Skills; www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/testskills.html Print out the score and stick it in your packs DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET:
  • 26. 3. EROSION
  • 27. EROSION
  • 28. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
  • 29. EROSION Write a definition of erosion;
  • 30. Weathering, rivers and coasts NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections pages 8–9 How can erosion help shape the land? 1.4 Weathering and erosion work together. Erosion is the wearing away of rock and its removal by streams, ice, waves and wind. Erosion, transportation and deposition help shape the land. ១2 Which kind of erosion do you think has been most important in shaping the land in the UK? Explain your answer. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200626 ១1 In the diagrams below, use arrows to join the three things to do with erosion by: N ice in blue N rivers in green N the wind in red N the sea in yellow. Water moving in rivers erodes valleys by removing tiny bits of rock from bed and banks. Waves at sea smash into cliffs and break off rock particles, which are broken up into sand. In deserts, the wind carries tiny grains of sand and blasts them into rocks, eroding them into strange shapes. In high mountains, ice collects and moves down valleys as glaciers, grinding away the rock as it travels. Valley worn away in hills. Rocks worn into strange shapes. Cliffs worn away. Deep, straight valley in the mountains.
  • 31. How can erosion help shape the land?
  • 32. LESSON 3; Pack p35/6; How can erosion help shape the land? DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET:
  • 33. Weathering, rivers and coasts NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections pages 8–91.5 How does erosion shape the land? Read the model answer below. It has been written to answer activity 3 on page 9 of the pupil book. Use it to mark either your own answer or the answer of one of your classmates. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200627 A N Rivers wear away the bed and banks of the channel constantly. N The material is transported downstream by the water. N Material is deposited when the water slows down. N Extension: During a flood large boulders can be eroded and transported downstream. N Waves attack the coast all of the time. N Rock at the coast is weakened by the waves and pieces break off. N Currents transport material away and deposit it elsewhere on the coast. N Extension: During a storm each wave has a weight of several tonnes. N A glacier is a tongue of ice which moves down the valley. N Stones and boulders frozen into the ice act like sandpaper on the rock beneath the glacier. N As the glacier moves, it transports material down the valley. N Extension: Glaciers erode both the sides and bottom of a valley. N Wind picks up tiny particles of sand. N The wind uses these particles to erode anything that gets in its way. N The wind also transports particles of eroded material for many miles. N Extension: The wind erodes rock in the desert into strange shapes by sandblasting. Type Description
  • 34. 4. COASTS; a). WAVES b). EROSION, c). TRANSPORTATION, d). DEPOSITION, e). REVIEW
  • 35. COASTS
  • 36. 4a. WAVES
  • 37. FETCH The size and power of a wave are determined by the strength of the wind and the distance over which it blows and the duration of the wind blowing. What is fetch? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________
  • 38. Energy moves, not water! Waves are created by frictional drag as the wind blows over the surface of the water. You can see waves on a lake or pond, not just in the sea! This creates a swell and a wave is formed. Energy from the wind begins to rotate the water, turning it in a forward moving circle. When the water is shallower, friction with the sea bed slows movement at the base but the top of the wave continues to move forward and gets higher (remember tsunamis don't look like anything much out at sea but get bigger and higher as they approach the shore). When the wave breaks, only then does energy, as well as water, plunge forward (swash).
  • 39. CONSTRUCTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE WAVES Fill in the table on the next page to show the differences between constructive and destructive waves
  • 40. 4b. COASTAL EROSION
  • 41. NEW WIDER WORLD
  • 42. 7 LANDSCAPE WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 24–5 How do cliffs erode? Name ________________________________________________________________________________ © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 1 teacher’s resource book 67 Your task 1. Look at the drawings below. They show how the sea erodes cliffs. The top three drawings show how the sea erodes cliffs made of hard rock, such as limestone. The bottom three drawings show how the sea erodes cliffs made of soft rock, such as clay. 2. Write sentences to describe what is happening, in the space below each drawing. Use the labels in your sentences. Hard rock forms vertical cliff High water level Notch cut by waves in cliff Low water level Cliff now overhangs cave Cave formed by waves eroding cliff Wave cut platform New cliff formed as coastline retreats Rocks left by cliff fall Soft rock forms sloping cliff Rainfall seeps into rock High water level Low water level Cliff top begins to fall Landslip where water helps rock to slide down New cliff formed as coastline retreats Sea washes soft material away Earthworks 2 16/8/00 6:33 pm Page 67 N.B. soft rock results in slumping or land slides
  • 43. LESSON 5; 1). Pack p54; How does the sea shape the coast? 2). Pack p55; Coastline erosion 3). Pack p56; How do cliffs erode? DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET:
  • 44. 9 LANDSCAPE WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 26–7 What is happening at Flamborough Head? Name ________________________________________________________________________________ © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 1 teacher’s resource book 69 Your task 1. Label each of the landforms around Flamborough Head, shown in the sketches below, with the correct label – arch, cave, stack. 2. Compare the three sketches with Diagram E on page 27 in the Pupil’s Book. Number them in the correct order. Complete the passage below, to describe how Flamborough Head has been eroded. Use the words from the box. Flamborough Head is a ____________________ which juts out into the North Sea. ____________________ from the sea attack the rock with great ____________________. As each wave hits the cliff, air is _________________ into the cracks in the rock. The pressure ________________ the rock so the cracks __________________. Gradually, the base of the ____________________ is eroded and a large _________________ forms which is a cave. When the sea wears right through the headland the cave becomes an _______________. The rock above the arch is ________________ by frost and rain. Eventually it may ____________________, leaving a ____________________ of rock standing alone in the sea. This is called a stack. shatters arch compressed waves collapse pillar cliff widen hollow weathered force headland Earthworks 2 16/8/00 6:33 pm Page 69
  • 45. 4c. COASTAL TRANSPORTATION
  • 46. 1. Put the correct letter in the numbered box LONGSHORE DRIFT The sea transports the material it has eroded and deposits it in places where the water is calm. The diagram shows the way a pebble moves along a beach with each wave. It starts in position 1 and moves to position 5 before moving on. This process of movement is called longshore drift. a. b. c. d. e. f. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
  • 47. 17 LANDSCAPE WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 33–5 Longshore drift Name ________________________________________________________________________________ © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 1 teacher’s resource book 77 Your task 1. Look at the three diagrams below. They show how the process of longshore drift works. Write your own description of longshore drift in the space provided. 2. Look at the map of the Dorset coast below. Draw an arrow to show the direction of longshore drift along the coast. Explain what effect groynes on the beach at Bournemouth could have on other parts of the coast. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ DORSET Lyme Bay Chesil Beach0 10 km Weymouth Portland Bill Swanage Bournemouth Poole Bay Christchurch Bay Isle of Wight Beach Key Scale Wind direction Water running down the beach Beach Sea Wave direction Beach Sea Earthworks 2 16/8/00 6:33 pm Page 77
  • 48. LESSON 6; Pack pages 63, 64 and 65; longshore drift DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET:
  • 49. 4d. COASTAL DEPOSITION
  • 50. DEPOSITIONAL LANDFORMS
  • 51. EXAMPLE
  • 52. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
  • 53. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
  • 54. LESSON 8; Find an example of a spit, bar and tombolo; name, location and picture DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET:
  • 55. 4e. REVIEW
  • 56. Review;
  • 57. Weathering, rivers and coasts NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections pages 16–17 How does the sea shape the coast? 1.13 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200636 The coastline is always changing its shape. Some parts are being worn away by erosion while other parts are being built up by deposition. ១1 a Cut out the dominoes below and study the key words written on them. b Working in pairs, lay all the dominoes in a straight line. c Now arrange the dominoes in the correct order. You may only put a domino in place if you can explain to your partner the link between the words that you are putting together. There is only one correct order! ១2 Stick the dominoes in your book or file in the correct order. START Bangladesh Wearing away the land by rivers, sea, ice or wind SPIT START Bangladesh An opening through a rock LONGSHORE DRIFT START Bangladesh An area of land that juts out into the sea and usually ends in a cliff ARCH START Bangladesh Movement of eroded material by rivers, sea, ice or wind FINISH START Bangladesh Current which carries material along the beach DEPOSITION START Bangladesh Laying down of material carried by rivers, sea, ice or wind BEACH START Bangladesh Formed when cracks in the rock are widened by erosion of the sea BAY START Bangladesh A wide curved inlet of the sea STACK START Bangladesh Area of sand or pebbles, along a coast CURRENT START BangladeshSTART EROSION START Bangladesh Flow of water in a certain direction START Bangladesh Long, narrow tongue of sand and shingle which grows out from the shoreline CAVESTART Bangladesh A pillar of rock on the sea coast separated from the mainland by erosion HEADLANDTRANSPORTATION Read the dominos below and study the key words written on them. Number or colour code them in the correct order.
  • 58. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200638 Weathering, rivers and coasts NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections pages 16–17 How the sea shapes the coast 1.15a The sea is still. The movement of the air changes the shape of the coast all of the time. Storm waves crash against the coast eroding it away and creating depositional landforms along the coast. Waves gather and move material from one place to another, which is a process called erosion. Storm waves deposit material creating depositional landforms. Erosional landforms are caused by water alone that wear away the coast. This bombardment under- cuts the cliff causing caves to form which expand to make cracks. When the caves erode right through a bay, an arch is formed. Further erosion causes the arch to collapse leaving a pillar of rock standing out in the sea, which is known as a pillar. Soft rock at the coast erodes slowly and can be seen at the coast as a large piece of land jutting out into the sea called a headland. Soft rock at the coast is eroded away very slowly. Where this happens a bay is formed. Beaches and stacks are both types of depositional landform that can be found at the coast. Both are created by waves that transport and erode eroded material to create a build-up of sediment at the coast. It’s the sea’s ability to erode, move and deposit material along the coast that creates the many interesting and changing landforms that you find at the coast. A Explanation Correction Beth was asked to write an explanation of how the sea shapes the land. There are 15 mistakes in Beth’s homework. Each mistake is underlined. For each mistake, write an explanation of why it is incorrect and write the correct answer in the columns alongside.
  • 59. Name of landform Written definition Sketch to show its appearance arch Rocky opening through a headland cave beach cliff
  • 60. headland stack Wave-cut platform
  • 61. Review, answers to pack p19;
  • 62. 5. COASTAL PROTECTION/ MANAGEMENT
  • 63. and
  • 64. Mappleton;
  • 65. Earthworks
  • 66. 19 LANDSCAPE WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 38–9 The cost of coastal protection Name ________________________________________________________________________________ © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 1 teacher’s resource book 79 Your task 1. Read about different methods of protecting the coast on page 38 of the Pupil’s Book. 2. Work out the cost of protecting 60 km of the Holderness coast, using the prices below. Write your answers into the table. a) sea wall: £7,000 per metre b) revetments: £1,000 per metre c) rock groynes: £1,500,000 per groyne (200 m apart) d) beach feeding: £1,000 per metre 3. Think about the advantages and disadvantages of each method, including the cost. Complete the table below. List advantages and disadvantages in the correct spaces. Which method/methods of coastal protection would you choose? ________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Give your reasons: ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Method Cost Advantages Disadvantages sea wall per km = _________________ per 60 km = _________________ revetments per km = _________________ per 60 km = _________________ rock groynes per km = _________________ per 60 km = _________________ beach feeding per km = _________________ per 60 km = _________________ Earthworks 2 16/8/00 6:33 pm Page 79
  • 67. EXAMPLE
  • 68. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
  • 69. LESSON 9; Find 5 pictures of examples of coastal protection and give the advantages, disadvantages and cost of each DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET:
  • 70. 21 LANDSCAPE WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGE 39 Should the coastline be saved? Name ________________________________________________________________________________ © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 1 teacher’s resource book 81 COASTAL CHRONICLE SHOULD THE COASTLINE BE SAVED? Stick map here. Write your explanation here. Stick drawings or diagrams here. Write your views here.Write geographer’s views here. Write farmer’s views here. ‘NOBODY SEEMS TO CARE!’ Interview with a farmer ‘THE SEA WILL ALWAYS WIN’ Interview with a geographer WHY IS THE COAST DISAPPEARING? WHAT CAN BE DONE? THE ‘CHRONICLE’ SAYS – Earthworks 2 16/8/00 6:34 pm Page 81
  • 71. EXAMPLE
  • 72. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
  • 73. CLIFF COLLAPSE
  • 74. 11 LANDSCAPE WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 28–9 The mystery of Holbeck Hall Name ________________________________________________________________________________ © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 1 teacher’s resource book 71 Joan Turner, owner of Holbeck Hall Michael Clements, Director of Technical Services for Scarborough Council James Keld, who lives near Holbeck Hall Deirdre Clutterbuck, geologist at Hull University Your task Use this sheet to help you role play the part of people in Scarborough, for Activity 3 on page 29 of the Pupil’s Book. My family bought the Holbeck Hall Hotel in 1978. It was originally built in 1887 as a home for a wealthy family. It had been converted into a hotel in 1930. We had absolutely no idea that it was in any danger from the sea. If we had known, it is very unlikely that we would have bought it. It was a delightful hotel, full of charm and character. It was built in mock Tudor style with large timber-framed gables and stood, amidst rose gardens and large immaculate lawns, looking out over the sea. We had almost no warning that the hotel was about to collapse. In the early hours of the morning on 4th June 1993 there was a huge landslip in the garden, when part of the lawn fell about 4 metres. We took the guests out of the hotel as quickly as we could. Within 24 hours it was gone. My family has lived in Scarborough for generations. Over the years there have been occasional cliff falls but none as dramatic as this one. The strange thing is that the sea wall was built to protect the cliff, so this came as a complete surprise. We moved to this part of town because it is quiet and the houses are larger. We didn’t expect anything like this to happen. We want the council to reassure us that they are doing everything possible to prevent another cliff collapse. Otherwise we would want to move somewhere else. The trouble is, who would want to buy a house if they thought it might fall into the sea? The cliff collapse which led to the loss of Holbeck Hall was due to a landslip in the clay from which the cliffs are made. Water had collected in the clay and made it easier for the rock to slide down under the force of gravity. We plan to keep the area closed to the public until we are sure that it is safe. It is very unlikely that any other properties in the area are going to be affected. In the long term we will stabilise the cliffs by making drains to take the water away from the cliff top. We will also strengthen the base of the cliff with large rocks that will absorb the energy of the waves. I don’t believe that the cliff will collapse again. In my opinion, it is only a matter of time before many places along the east coast of England disappear into the sea. We may be able to protect some areas for a bit longer by building sea walls and draining the cliffs to stop them collapsing. But within the next hundred years the sea level is going to rise and either we build higher and higher sea defences or we must allow nature to take its course. I think that we need to start planning for the future now. We should stop any more building in areas that are likely to disappear. People who live there now could be given compensation so that they could afford to move. Earthworks 2 16/8/00 6:33 pm Page 71
  • 75. Weathering, rivers and coasts NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections pages 20–21 How can coastal erosion be reduced? 1.19 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200643 Protecting coasts is not easy. There are arguments for and against trying to protect the coastline from erosion. ១1 Attempts to protect the coastline involve engineering. Read this list of coastal protection schemes and complete a copy of the table below. It has been started for you. ១2 Some people think that one policy for coastal protection is to do nothing! They believe that nature will take its course despite coastal defences. Do you agree with this policy? Would you agree with the policy if you lived in a coastal home? Explain your answer. Sea wall: Made with stone or concrete. May be curved at the top to divert the force of the waves back out to sea, but can be undermined by waves. Usual design life is 50–75 years. It costs £5,000 per metre to build. Groynes: A long, low wall built out into the sea at right angles to the beach. Many of them have to be built on one beach several hundred metres apart. The aim is to prevent the loss of precious beach sands through longshore drift. Concrete groynes can cost £200,000 each. They help widen beaches and protect cliffs. Wooden groynes are much cheaper, but they rot and may be damaged by storms. Rock armour: A collection of large interlocking boulders sometimes fixed into position to protect the coast by disrupting the waves. It costs £3,000 per metre to build. Revetment: Gently sloping concrete wall that allows waves to run up it, therefore reducing their energy. It costs £2,000 per metre to build. Offshore breakwater: A concrete wall or interlocking boulders built a little way out from the shore protects the coastline by disrupting wave energy and creating an area of calm water inshore. It is ugly, can disrupt the marine ecosystem and costs over £3 million per km. Stone gabions: Strong steel cages filled with rocks and some sand allowing grasses to grow. The cost to build is £200 per metre but they are ugly constructions. Beach rebuilding: Sand removed by longshore drift is replaced artificially every year. This gives a more natural appearance, but is expensive – £300,000 per km per year. Wooden revetments: Slatted frame that decreases wave energy. The cost to build is £500 per metre, but that does not include repairs. Coastal defence scheme Approximate cost Possible effects Coastal protection methods Sea wall made with stone or concrete. £5,000 per metre.
  • 76. How can coastal erosion be reduced?
  • 77. COASTAL EROSION: SELF ASSESSMENT Assessing 360° Checklists from Skills Workbook 1 © Heinemann 2004, geography 360° Teacher’s Handbook 1 Understand and know Need more practice and revision Do not understand I can define and give examples of the three ways that rocks are formed I can explain how rock types can affect the development of landforms I can define weathering and erosion and give examples I can describe how different types of weathering and erosion happen I know how freeze-thaw works I can explain how waves are formed and what fetch is I can explain the difference between constructive and destructive waves I understand how waves erode I can name at least five coastal landforms resulting from weathering and erosion I can describe the causes and effects of cliff erosion and collapse I can explain the process of long shore drift I can name at least two landforms of deposition I know what groynes are and why they are built I can give examples of ways to protect the coastline What I enjoyed doing most What I found most difficult CHANGING LANDSCAPES AND COASTS
  • 78. CHANGING LANDSCAPES AND COASTS HOMEWORK  Lesson 1; Look at MyQG or the Internet at www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths- technology/science/geology/geology-toolkit Click on Landscape Features in the diagram box. Choose one, e.g. The Giant’s Causeway and produce a poster (A3) with a description, map and pictures  Lesson 2; Test your Skills; www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/testskills.html Print out the score and stick it in your packs  Lesson 3; Pack p35/6; How can erosion help shape the land?  Lesson 4; Revision; waves  Lesson 5; 1). Pack p54; How does the sea shape the coast? 2). Pack p55; Coastline erosion 3). Pack p56; How do cliffs erode?  Lesson 6; Pack pages 63, 64 and 65; longshore drift  Lesson 7; BBC information and animations; http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/riversandcoasts/coasts/cha nge_coast/index.shtml and Revise for exam; look in coastal processes review folder on MyQG for notes etc. that are VERY useful.  Lesson 8; Find an example of a spit, bar and tombolo; name, location and picture  Lesson 9; Find 5 pictures of examples of coastal protection and give the advantages, disadvantages and cost of each Extra extension work/independent learning; Doddle - browse in all resources for energy and resources; https://www.doddlelearn.co.uk
  • 79. SPARE PAGES
  • 80. SPARE PAGES
  • 81. SPARE PAGES