Tectonics and volcanoes pack

2,184 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,184
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
10
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
72
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Tectonics and volcanoes pack

  1. 1. WORK IN LOWER FOURTH 1
  2. 2. Acid lava – thick, viscous lava with a high silica content which flows short distances forming steep sided volcanoes Active volcano – a volcano that has erupted recently and is likely to erupt again Ash – fine material thrown out by an erupting volcano Basic lava – thin runny lava with low silica content that flows long distances crating gentle slopes Collision/convergent plate boundary (margin) – two plates move into each other creating Fold Mountains Constructive/divergent plate boundary (margin) – where two plates are moving side by side Conservative/transform plate boundary (margin) - where two plates are moving apart Continental drift – the movement of the earth’s tectonic plates Continental plate – under land 2
  3. 3. Convection currents – changes in the flow and pressure of the earths mantle affecting plate movement Core – the centre of the earth Crater – bowl-shaped depression, usually round and with steep sides formed by explosive events such as the eruption of a volcano Crust – the thin layer at the earth’s surface Destructive plate boundary (margin) where two plates are moving together Dormant volcano – a volcano that has erupted within historic times but not recently Earthquake – a sudden movement of the earth’s crust Epicentre – the point on the earth’s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake Extinct volcano – a volcano that has not erupted in historic times and is not expected to erupt ever Focus – the point within the earth’s crust where the earthquake occurred Fold mountains – mountains formed by the movement of the earths crust lifting the rock, tectonic plate movement Lava – the name given to molten magma when it erupts at the surface Magma – molten rock before it leaves a volcano, after it leaves called lava Magma chamber – where molten lava is found deep below the earth’s surface Mantle – the molten rock surrounding the earth’s core 3
  4. 4. Natural hazard – a great force of nature, such as an earthquake or volcano, which threatens to endanger people Oceanic plate – under ocean Plate boundary, margin, and fault line – a place where plates meet Plates – sections of the earth’s crust Primary effects (of an earthquake) – the direct effects of an earthquake e.g. buildings collapsing Richter scale – measure the strength of an earthquake Ring of fire – ring of activity in the Pacific Ocean Secondary effects (of an earthquake) – the indirect effects e.g. fire, tidal waves, disease etc. Seismograph – a sensitive instrument that records shock waves during an earthquake Subduction zone – where a plate is sinking and melting Tectonic plate – large sections of the earth’s crust Tsunami – large waves caused by earthquakes and landslides Vent – the opening through which the lava flows in a volcano Volcanic bomb – large rock fragments thrown out by an erupting volcano Volcano – a cone shaped mountain made from ash and lava Zone of activity – area with lots of volcanic or earthquake activity 4
  5. 5. Use this sheet to help you to do activity 1 on page 2 of the Pupil’s Book. avalanche – a mass of material (usually snow or ice) sliding very fast down a slope. This may happen when the weight of snow can no longer be supported by the slope. drought – a long continuous period of dry weather. In Britain, a drought is 15 days or more with less than 0.2 mm of rain, but in other parts of the world it could be much longer. Drought can lead to crop failure and to famine. epidemic – the rapid spread of disease among people living in one area. In Britain, we sometimes have flu epidemics. Epidemics of more serious diseases (such as cholera, tuberculosis or AIDS) can lead to widespread deaths. earthquake – a sudden violent movement of rock within the Earth’s crust. This can happen along faults or cracks in the Earth’s crust where the rock is under pressure. famine – a serious shortage of food, leading to the death of many people from starvation over a wide area. The main causes of famine are drought and war. flood – the overflow of water from a river or from the sea. One of the most dangerous types of flood is a flash flood. They occur after sudden heavy rain in dry areas and are very difficult to predict. hurricane – an intense storm that usually occurs over tropical areas, sometimes called a cyclone. Warm air rises and is made to spin by the Earth going round. This produces violent winds and torrential rain. landslide – a rapid movement of soil and/or rock down a slope. This can happen when the rock becomes very wet or the base of the slope is cut away. tornado – an extremely violent whirlwind that forms as a dark funnel beneath a storm cloud. Winds can reach up to 400 km per hour, but it is on a much smaller scale than a hurricane. tsunami – also known as a tidal wave or harbour wave. This is a huge wave caused by an earthquake below the sea floor. The wave travels at high speed until it reaches the coastline. volcanic eruption – the appearance of lava, ash and gas from a volcano. Eruptions can be violent or gentle depending on the type of lava the volcano produces. The most dangerous volcanoes erupt occasionally but violently. Fault EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGE 2 Disaster dictionary Name ________________________________________________________________________________ 28 earthworks 3 teacher’s resource book © JOHN MURRAY 1.2 Earthworks unit 1 04/05/2000 2:18 pm Page 28 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. LESSON 1; Poster; research a natural disaster; title, 2 maps (world and local) and pictures – where, when, why, what damage and how people coped. DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 7
  8. 8. 8 KEY; innercore-yellow outercore-orange mantle-red crust-brown ocean-blue magma/lava-red ACROSS-SECTIONOFEARTH CRUST-SOLID200°C MANTLE-SOLIDNEARCRUSTBUTLIQUIDFURTHERDOWN300-4000°C,IRONANDNICKEL OUTERCORE-LIQUID4400°C,IRONANDNICKELGENERATESMAGNETICFIELD INNERCORE-SOLIDASUNDERSOMUCHPRESSURE6100°C,IRON THECOREDRIVESTHEPROCESSOFPLATETECTONICS
  9. 9. 9 WORD BANK; VOLCANOES, MANTLE, PLATES, CENTIMETRES, LIQUID, EARTHQUAKES. SKIN GEOGRAPHY MATTERS If the Earth was the size of an apple, then it's crust would be no thicker than the apples ..................... Underneath the crust is the ............................, here the temperature is so high that the rock is not solid, like on the surface, but is a ............................. The surface of the Earth is divided into several pieces, called ..................... These float on the surface like a raft on a lake and only move very slowly, normally only a few ....................................... every year. The plates meet at plate boundaries that are where most of the world's highest mountain ranges, ................................ and ................................ can be found, very little activity happens in the centre of the plates.
  10. 10. 10 PANGEA What is Pangea?
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1 12
  13. 13. The Indian Ocean tsunami NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations pages 90–91 The earth’s continental plates 5.4 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006138 The outer layer of the earth is like a jigsaw. It is broken into huge pieces called plates. Each plate moves in its own direction. A massive earthquake off the coast of Sumatra produced the Indian Ocean tsunami. Two plates colliding with each other caused the earthquake. Cut out the shapes below. Then fit them together to make the plates of the earth’s crust. The Indian Ocean tsunami NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations pages 92–93 Eye-witness accounts of the tsunami 5.5 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006139 As a newspaper reporter, you must now interview people affected by the tsunami. In turn, imagine that you are each of the people mentioned below. Complete each sentence as if you were being interviewed. Homeowner: I have lost everything I own Mother: I was preparing breakfast when Fisherman: I was mending my nets on the shoreline as the sea suddenly retreated Government representative: I have been sent by the Prime Minister to see for myself Nurse: Hospitals are prepared for disasters but the number of casualties overwhelmed me Rescued victim: I was trapped in the mud and calling for help International Rescue worker: My team arrived on the scene within one day. We saw people digging, using bare hands in search for survivors ‘Sniffer’ dog handler: My dog is specially trained but found it difficult to find buried victims trapped under the debris TV reporter: This must be one of the most terrible sights I have filmed. The devastation is incredible UN Disaster Relief worker: This is one of the worst natural disasters in living memory. I shall be reporting to the UN that Backpacker: I was lazing on the beach writing a postcard when 13 tectonic 1.
  14. 14. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1 14
  15. 15. 2. Draw arrows on your map to show the direction that the different plates are moving in. 3. Mark on your map the following; Atlas mountains, Rocky mountains, Andes mountains, Alps, Himalayas. 4. Explain the connection between the location of these mountain ranges and the plate boundaries. 15
  16. 16. LESSON 2; Pack p13/14/15; The Earth’s Plate’s jigsaw DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 16
  17. 17. Volcanoes and earthquakes NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 30–31 How do volcanoes and earthquakes happen? 2.4 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200758 The earth’s surface is made up of several huge plates that are moving in different directions. These plates move at about the same rate as our fingernails grow! Volcanoes and earthquakes are most likely to occur in areas where the plates collide. ១1 Carefully read the statements below. Shade in red those that are to do with the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes. ១2 Colour in green those statements that are to do with plate boundaries and zones of activity. ១3 Choose a red statement with a fact about earthquakes and volcanoes. Find a green statement with a fact about plate boundaries and zones of activity that can be linked to it. Use Activity Sheet 2.2 to help you. ១4 Using your pairs of statements, describe how volcanoes and earthquakes are most likely to occur in zones of activity where plates meet. Volcanoes and earthquakes often occur in the same places and are usually found in long, narrow belts. The main zone of activity lies along the west coast of the Americas and among the islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Volcanoes and earthquakes happen along the west coast of North America. There is a lot of volcanic activity on Iceland. A belt of volcanoes and earthquakes is located along the west coast of South America. Australia is located in the middle of the Indo- Australian Plate; volcanoes and earthquakes are not found here. The east coasts of North and South America are not close to zones of activity. The Eurasian and Indo-Australian Plates are moving towards each other. Another belt runs through the islands of the Indian Ocean. Volcanoes are found in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean forming a line running from north to south. Another narrow belt goes down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. On the west coast of South America, the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate move together. One belt runs all the way round the Pacific Ocean and is called the ‘Ring of Fire’. The North American and Eurasian Plates are moving away from each other. Zones of activity are found around the edges of many of the world’s plates. Many earthquakes happen in the Himalayan Mountains to the north of India. No volcanoes or earthquakes are found on the east coasts of North or South America. 17 discuss
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 2 teacher’s resource book 211 6.7 INDIA WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGE 116 Continental collision Name ________________________________________________________________________________ The Himalayas to the north of India are the highest mountain range in the world. They have been formed by the collision of two huge plates – the Eurasian Plate, on which most of Europe and Asia lie, and the Indo-Australian Plate on which India and Australia lie. The Indo-Australian Plate is slowly moving northwards and colliding with the Eurasian Plate. Your task 1 Look at the four diagrams below. They show how the Himalayas have been formed. 2 Complete the passage below each diagram to describe what has happened. Use the words in the box on the right to help you. 3 Find a map of Europe in your atlas. The African and Eurasian Plates are also colliding. Suggest what major physical feature in Europe this has formed, and what may happen to the Mediterranean Sea over millions of years. Write your answer in your workbook. 0 100 km N Key Plate boundary Asia 70 Indian sediment disappeared Himalayas ocean narrower Ganges Plain mountain range About ___________ million years ago, an ___________ lay between India and the rest of ___________. The ocean became ___________ as the ___________ Plate moved. ___________ collected on the ocean floor forming new rock. Where the plates met, pressure caused the rocks to be folded. The ocean finally ___________. Folded sediments were forced up to form a new ___________. India and Asia continue to collide. The ___________ have been weathered and eroded to form deep valleys. Rivers have carried sediment to form the ___________. About 10 million years ago Today India Asia Himalayas Ganges Plain Mountain range About 70 million years ago Indian Plate Ocean Trench Asian Plate Crust About 40 million years ago Rivers carry sediment Sediment collects EARTHWORKS TRB2 (B2 (F) TP) 12/8/00 6:44 pm Page 211 19
  20. 20. 20 Decidewhethereaerthquakes,volcanoesor bothhappenateachboundary. 1. 2. 3. 4. TracingPlateBoundaries
  21. 21. Tracing Plate Boundaries; 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23 New Wider World colour; mantle - red ocean - blue surface of land - green
  24. 24. LESSON 3; Pack p22/23; Types of plate movement DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. LESSON 4; 1. Doddle; Plate Tectonics mini and super quiz and Plate Boundaries mini quiz 2. Extra Credit; test your skills; http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/testskills.html DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGE 4 Measuring earthquakes Name ________________________________________________________________________________ © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 3 teacher’s resource book 31 1.5 There are about 500,000 earthquakes around the world each year, but less than 1,000 cause serious damage. Each of these major earthquakes is millions of times stronger than a minor earthquake. Such wide variation creates problems when you try to measure the strength of earthquakes. The problems were overcome by an American seismologist, Charles Richter. He devised the Richter scale, which measures the strength of earthquakes on a scale of 0 to 9. The smallest earthquake it is possible to measure is at 0 and the largest earthquake is at 9. The scale is logarithmic – that means that each number on the scale represents an earthquake ten times stronger than the number below it. Earthquakes are measured with seismometers. They are able to record the strength of the seismic waves (shock waves) that come from the earthquake. The size of the waves decreases with distance away from the focus of the earthquake – if the position of the focus is known, it is possible to work out the strength of the earthquake that produced the waves. Equal to 100 atom bombs. Will cause serious damage over a wide area. Could be recorded on seismometers all around the world. A Too small to be felt by people on the ground. Can only be recorded by seismometers close to the earthquake. B No earthquake this size hasever been recorded, althougha few have come close. Thiswould cause total destructionover a wide area. C About 100,000 earthquakes of this strength are recorded each year. People can only feel the earthquake if it is nearby. D About the same strength as a small atom bomb. Can cause limited damage over a small area. E Richter scale 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Strength compared to 0 on Richter scale 0 10 Small earthquake 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 Normal recording (no earthquake) Minor tremor Major earthquake Richter scale A recording of earthquakes on a seismometer. The size of the waves shows the strength of the earthquake Your task 1 Read the information above. 2 a) Complete the table below to show how the strength of earthquakes varies on the Richter scale. Multiply the previous number by 10 to work out the strength. b) Why is it impossible to show this on an ordinary graph? 3 a) Read the statements about earthquakes below. b) Put them in order from weakest to strongest. Match them with the odd numbers on the Richter scale. Write the scale vertically in your workbook and copy or stick each statement by it at the correct place. Earthworks unit 1 04/05/2000 2:18 pm Page 31 30 See Interactions page 39 E
  31. 31. Measuring earthquakes; 31
  32. 32. EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGE 17 Earthquakes in California Name ________________________________________________________________________________ © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 3 teacher’s resource book 45 1.19 California, on the west coast of the USA, has a long history of earthquakes. It lies on one of the world’s major plate boundaries between the American Plate and the Pacific Plate. The San Andreas Fault is the main fault in a complex network of faults that follows the boundary for hundreds of kilometres. Earthquakes could occur on any one of them. The map below shows the main faults in California and the location of major earthquakes that have occurred over the past 200 years. Your task 1 Look at the map. It shows the location of major earthquakes in California over the past 200 years. a) Along which faults have the three largest sudden movements occurred? b) Which city appears to have suffered the most earthquakes? In which years? c) Along which section of the San Andreas Fault have few earthquakes occurred? Why? 2 Look at the graph showing earthquakes above 5.5 on the Richter scale in Northern California (the area in the box on the map). a) When did the largest earthquake occur? b) During which period did no major earthquakes occur? c) Describe the pattern shown by the graph. d) What predictions for future earthquakes might the graph help geologists to make? Garlock Fault Los Angeles San Francisco 1899 1922 1923 1920 1991 1992 1838 1989 1836 1868 1940 1979 San Jacinto FaultBanning Fault 19921812 1927 Owen'sValleyFault 1952 1857 0 100km 1906 SanAndreasFault Key Segment where there has been sudden movement along a fault Main fault Segment where there is gradual movement along a fault (fault creep) Epicentre of earthquake over 7 on Richter scale City 1906 1850 5.5 19501900 Year 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 Richterscale 1906 1989 1990 Earthworks unit 1 04/05/2000 2:19 pm Page 45 32 See Interactions pages 36 and 37
  33. 33. Earthquake in California; 33
  34. 34. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200774 Complete the diagram below by adding specific strategies to help predict, prepare for and protect against earthquakes in California. The terms in the box at the bottom may help you. Volcanoes and earthquakes NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 40–41 Prediction, preparation, protection 2.17 A Seismograph Radon gas Rubber shock absorbers Cross-bracing Disaster plans Emergency supplies Prediction Preparation Protection How can the earthquake danger be reduced? N N N 34 See Interactions pages 40 and 41
  35. 35. 35 EXAMPLE
  36. 36. LESSON 5; How can earthquake danger be reduced? 1. Interactions p40/41 Ex 3b Poster 2. Pack p 34 Prediction, Preparation, Protection DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 36
  37. 37. Volcanoes and earthquakes NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 42–43 Comparing two earthquakes 2.19a NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200776 Complete the Venn diagram below by writing the letter of each statement from Activity Sheet 2.19b in the appropriate place. Place those statements that relate to both earthquakes in the overlapping section of the diagram. A San Francisco, USA, 1989 Gujarat, India, 2001 37 See Interactions pages 38, 39, 42 and 43 pack page 38
  38. 38. Comparing two earthquakes NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200777 AVolcanoes and earthquakes NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 42–432.19b A A Local rescue workers were poorly prepared and arrived too late to save many lives. G Badly designed and poorly built houses collapsed, crushing people inside. M £10 billion was spent on repairing damage and preparing for the next earthquake. N Hospitals were put on red alert and saved many lives. O Roads were blocked, hampering the rescue effort. L Emergency electricity supplies and telephone links failed to work. J People were injured by pieces of debris hitting them. K Many people died of their injuries due to limited medical facilities. I People lost their lives. H Lack of food and unhealthy living conditions caused further deaths by starvation and disease. B Several huge fires were quickly brought under control by well-trained fire crews. E Helicopters were used to transport rescuers and evacuate the injured. F Highly trained rescue teams reached the disaster area within minutes. D Collapsed bridges and blocked roads hindered rescue teams. C Trying to reconnect electricity and telephone lines was one of the first reconstruction plans. 38
  39. 39. Volcanoes and earthquakes NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 42–43 Two earthquakes compared 2.18 MEDCs (more economically developed countries) are usually better able to cope with a natural disaster than LEDCs (less economically developed countries). Even so, it is a struggle for all people and places to get back to ‘normality’ after an earthquake. ១1 Study the photos A and C on pages 42 and 43 in your New Interactions textbook. ១2 Working with a partner, carefully read each of the statements below. Use two different highlighter pens – one for MEDCs and the other for LEDCs – to colour code them appropriately. Be careful: you may have to use both colours on the same statement! ១3 Use your colour-coded statements to help you write two or three paragraphs explaining why MEDCs are often able to cope better than LEDCs with earthquakes. Good presentation of your work is important so, if possible, use a word-processing program to make your work look more professional. ១4 In the USA, the internet is used as a means of helping people to prepare for an earthquake. Go to www.nelsonthornes.com/keygeography to find two weblinks for the area around San Francisco. Why would the development of websites giving advice about preparing for earthquakes be of limited use in countries such as India? NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200775 There are limited food supplies for large numbers of victims Country has enough money to pay for supplies and help with rebuilding programmes People homeless with no shelter, warm clothing or food Communities lack radio/TV contact – difficulty in warning of likely damage Communities are ready and prepared to search for victims, but lack equip- ment such as heavy lifting cranes to start the work Earthquake evacuation procedures are tested regularly – people know what to do Airfields to bring in rescuers and emergency supplies are often many miles away Roads and railways are not always of a good standard – difficult to reach victims Hospitals put on red alert are well prepared for treating victims and many lives saved Some buildings are earthquake proof, but many are poorly built and badly designed Computers to help manage relief operation Counselling for emotionally distressed children Emergency rescue teams reach disaster areas within minutes with ‘sniffer’ dogs, pneumatic drills and heat-seeking equipment Emergency health kits with a shelf life of 5 years Unemployment where offices and factories were destroyed Huge fires quickly brought under control by well-trained fire crews The government slow to get help to people immediately after the earthquake People evacuated quickly and secondary damage is limited Instant communication about damage and problems Psychological and emotional damage to those involved Helicopters used to transport rescue teams and evacuate the injured Faulty emergency electricity supplies and telephone lines Collapsed bridges and blocked roads hindering rescue teams Economic damage as government spends billions on rebuilding Most electrical and gas supplies reconnected within hours Lack of food and unhealthy living conditions cause further deaths by starvation and disease 39 1. 2. Look at Interactions pages 42 and 43
  40. 40. Two earthquakes compared; 40
  41. 41. 41
  42. 42. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200773 Many people live in areas of the world that may be affected by natural disasters. More economically developed countries (MEDCs) are often able to cope a little better with these disasters than less economically developed countries (LEDCs). But it is a struggle for anyone to get back to ‘normality’ and the routine of life after a catastrophic event. ១1 Read the statements below. Using a red pencil for MEDCs and a green pencil for LEDCs, colour code each statement correctly. Be careful: you may have to use both colours on some of the statements. ១2 Using the information above, explain why the 2005 Asian earthquake, in a remote area of Pakistan and India, killed so many people and caused many more casualties than the severe earthquake that hit San Francisco in the USA in 1989. Use a word-processing program to draft and redraft your thoughts. Volcanoes and earthquakes NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 40–41 How can the earthquake danger be reduced? 2.16 Massive disruption to power lines, transport and communications Makeshift hospitals treating survivors in the open air Local services, e.g. fire, police and ambulance, are well trained to cope with disaster Hospitals are well prepared for treating victims and survivors New buildings must comply with strict earthquake planning regulations Roads and railways are not always built to a high standard – difficulty in reaching victims Evacuation centres are set up in safe areas Buildings, roads and bridges are improved and strengthened Monitoring movements in the earth’s crust helps to inform scientists of likely danger Airfields to bring in rescue teams and emergency supplies are often many miles away Earthquake-proof buildings are safe and protect people rather than cause danger in an earthquake Country looks to international aid and world charities for help Open areas outside buildings allow pedestrians to assemble if evacuated Some buildings are earthquake-proof, but poorly built People are educated on what to expect in the event of an earthquake Community is ready and willing to search for victims and survivors, but lacks equipment like heavy lifting equipment International Emergency Response Team assembled and ready to help in under 24 hours Many households have an emergency earthquake kit packed There is limited access to computers which would help manage relief operations Visible identification numbers on roofs help helicopters assess the damage after an earthquake Some people lack radio or TV contact that would allow time for people to evacuate danger zones Disaster plans are prepared and regular earthquake drills practised every month There are very limited supplies for a large number of victims Counselling is available for emotionally distressed children Country has limited money to help pay for supplies and rebuilding programmes Automatic shutters come down over the windows to prevent pedestrians being showered in glass Need to cremate the thousands of dead to prevent the spread of disease 42 See Interactions pages 40 and 41
  43. 43. TSUNAMIS 43
  44. 44. EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGE 3 Tsunami Name ________________________________________________________________________________ © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 3 teacher’s resource book 29 1.3 Tsunami – or harbour wave – is a Japanese word used to describe a huge wave caused by an earthquake beneath the ocean floor. It is sometimes also called a tidal wave, though it has nothing to do with tides. A tsunami begins with a jolt on the sea bed when an earthquake occurs, sometimes caused by the eruption of an underwater volcano. This sends out a huge wave that travels in increasing circles from the epicentre of the earthquake (similar to the ripples caused by dropping a pebble into a pond). The deeper the ocean, the more energy it creates and the faster the wave can travel. Tsunamis have been known to cross the ocean at 800km per hour – as fast as a jet plane! A tsunami that hit Java in Indonesia in 1883 killed 36,000 people, wrecked some 5,000 boats and stranded a ship more than a kilometre inland! Most tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean where there are thousands of low-lying islands and many countries with densely populated coastlines. Waves slow down as they approach the coast and wave height increases Epicentre of earthquake beneath the ocean floor Wave hits coast with terrific force causing mass destruction Initial wave caused by earthquake moves very fast but does not rise much above normal sea level Your task 1 Study the information on this sheet and answer the questions in your workbook. 2 Look at the map. It shows tsunamis from an earthquake off the coast of Alaska in 1964. a) Find a map of the Pacific Ocean in your atlas. b) Name five countries that might have been affected by these tsunamis. How long did it take the waves to reach each country? 3 Find a map showing world population density in your atlas. Where are the most people under the greatest threat from tsunamis? 0 N 4,000km 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 19 16 17 18 20 21 Key Number of hours after earthquake 5 Earthworks unit 1 04/05/2000 2:18 pm Page 29 44
  45. 45. 45 Foundations
  46. 46. 4646
  47. 47. 47 Foundations
  48. 48. 48
  49. 49. How did the tsunami affect different countries?; 49
  50. 50. How did the tsunami affect different countries?; 50
  51. 51. LESSON 6; Pack p47/48/49,50 How did the Tsunami affect different countries? Ex 1, 2 and 3 DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 51
  52. 52. 52 Foundations
  53. 53. 53 53
  54. 54. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006150 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006151 The Indian Ocean tsunami NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations pages 98–99 Reducing the effects of tsunamis 5.12a A Cut out the dominoes below and study the phrases written on them. Set the dominoes out in a straight line. Now arrange the dominoes in the correct order. You may only put a domino in place if you can explain to your group the link between the phrases you are putting together. There is only one correct order! START Bangladeshprediction. Scientists use a sensitive instrument called a seismometer START Bangladesh affect the size and speed of the waves. Sensors send data from the sea bed START Bangladeshhowl. Sri Lankan elephants and leopards START Bangladesh to a buoy floating out at sea. The buoy then sends data to a START BangladeshSTART The first method that can be used to reduce the effects of a tsunami is START Bangladesh crawl out of their holes. Dogs START Bangladeshsatellite. When information is received by the tsunami centre from the satellite START Bangladesh it issues alert warnings. The fact that scientists can predict a tsunami is important START Bangladesh were reported dead after the Asian tsunami. FINISH START Bangladesh to measure shockwaves. The size of the shockwaves START Bangladesh Pacific Ocean has been successful for years. Scientists are not the only ones who START Bangladesh time to prepare for a disaster. The early warning system in the START Bangladesh can predict a tsunami. Animals like snakes and rats START Bangladesh because it gives people and emergency services START Bangladesh were seen to leave the danger area. Few animals The Indian Ocean tsunami NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations pages 98–995.12b A Reducing the effects of tsunamis START Bangladeshdisaster plan. A good disaster plan will START Bangladeshpreparation. This is where you prepare START Bangladesh avoid the huge waves. A young British girl in Thailand saved START Bangladeshlocal people and the emergency services START Bangladesh so that they are ready for a disaster. Most countries prepare by writing a START Bangladesh time to escape. FINISH START BangladeshThey can then run for high ground and START BangladeshSTART The second method that can be used to reduce the effects of a tsunami is START Bangladesh involve local authorities, emergency services and START Bangladeshflooding. The best way to stop this is to START Bangladesh educate people about the signs of a tsunami. START Bangladesh local people in the area. Most deaths are caused by START Bangladeshreceded. She warned people on the beach and gave them START Bangladesh 100s of people by noticing that the sea had Predicting a tsunami Preparing for a tsunami 54 Read Number them in the correct order
  55. 55. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006150 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006151 The Indian Ocean tsunami NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations pages 98–99 Reducing the effects of tsunamis 5.12a A Cut out the dominoes below and study the phrases written on them. Set the dominoes out in a straight line. Now arrange the dominoes in the correct order. You may only put a domino in place if you can explain to your group the link between the phrases you are putting together. There is only one correct order! START Bangladeshprediction. Scientists use a sensitive instrument called a seismometer START Bangladesh affect the size and speed of the waves. Sensors send data from the sea bed START Bangladeshhowl. Sri Lankan elephants and leopards START Bangladesh to a buoy floating out at sea. The buoy then sends data to a START BangladeshSTART The first method that can be used to reduce the effects of a tsunami is START Bangladesh crawl out of their holes. Dogs START Bangladeshsatellite. When information is received by the tsunami centre from the satellite START Bangladesh it issues alert warnings. The fact that scientists can predict a tsunami is important START Bangladesh were reported dead after the Asian tsunami. FINISH START Bangladesh to measure shockwaves. The size of the shockwaves START Bangladesh Pacific Ocean has been successful for years. Scientists are not the only ones who START Bangladesh time to prepare for a disaster. The early warning system in the START Bangladesh can predict a tsunami. Animals like snakes and rats START Bangladesh because it gives people and emergency services START Bangladesh were seen to leave the danger area. Few animals The Indian Ocean tsunami NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations pages 98–995.12b A Reducing the effects of tsunamis START Bangladeshdisaster plan. A good disaster plan will START Bangladeshpreparation. This is where you prepare START Bangladesh avoid the huge waves. A young British girl in Thailand saved START Bangladeshlocal people and the emergency services START Bangladesh so that they are ready for a disaster. Most countries prepare by writing a START Bangladesh time to escape. FINISH START BangladeshThey can then run for high ground and START BangladeshSTART The second method that can be used to reduce the effects of a tsunami is START Bangladesh involve local authorities, emergency services and START Bangladeshflooding. The best way to stop this is to START Bangladesh educate people about the signs of a tsunami. START Bangladesh local people in the area. Most deaths are caused by START Bangladeshreceded. She warned people on the beach and gave them START Bangladesh 100s of people by noticing that the sea had Predicting a tsunami Preparing for a tsunami 55
  56. 56. 56
  57. 57. 5757
  58. 58. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006144 Copy and complete the table below using the statements on Activity Sheet 5.9b. Statements relating to: u how the tsunami happened are causes u the results of the tsunami are effects u what the authorities did to help the people affected are examples of management. The Indian Ocean tsunami NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations pages 90–97 The causes, effects and management of the tsunami 5.9a A Causes Effects Management Indian plateIndian plateIndian plate Eurasian plateEurasian plateEurasian plate Indian Ocean EarthquakeEarthquakeEarthquake Epicentre SUMATRA The Indian Ocean tsunami NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations pages 90–97 The causes, effects and management of the tsunami 5.9b A Local authorities are developing disaster plans Plate movement causes earthquake Two million jobs lost 1.7 million people made homeless Coastal roads and railways were wrecked Indian plate moves towards Eurasian plate Over 310,000 people dead or missing 12 countries were seriously affected by the waves Over 650,000 people seriously injured Coastal rice fields of Sumatra destroyed by sea water Governments provided trained personnel, helicopters and heavy machinery Governments promised money for rebuilding schools and hospitals and to restart industries destroyed Tsunami waves travel at up to 800 km/h in deep water Sea above the earthquake is forced upwards A tsunami early warning system is to be implemented in the Indian Ocean Many people donated money after TV, radio, newspaper and internet appeals Thailand’s tourist industry badly hit as hotels and facilities were damaged 70% of Indonesian fishing boats destroyed meaning people lost their livelihood International relief organisations flew blankets, tents, clean water, food and medical supplies into the areas affected NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006145 58 the next page
  59. 59. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006144 Copy and complete the table below using the statements on Activity Sheet 5.9b. Statements relating to: u how the tsunami happened are causes u the results of the tsunami are effects u what the authorities did to help the people affected are examples of management. The Indian Ocean tsunami NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations pages 90–97 The causes, effects and management of the tsunami 5.9a A Causes Effects Management Indian plateIndian plateIndian plate Eurasian plateEurasian plateEurasian plate Indian Ocean EarthquakeEarthquakeEarthquake Epicentre SUMATRA The Indian Ocean tsunami NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations pages 90–97 The causes, effects and management of the tsunami 5.9b A Local authorities are developing disaster plans Plate movement causes earthquake Two million jobs lost 1.7 million people made homeless Coastal roads and railways were wrecked Indian plate moves towards Eurasian plate Over 310,000 people dead or missing 12 countries were seriously affected by the waves Over 650,000 people seriously injured Coastal rice fields of Sumatra destroyed by sea water Governments provided trained personnel, helicopters and heavy machinery Governments promised money for rebuilding schools and hospitals and to restart industries destroyed Tsunami waves travel at up to 800 km/h in deep water Sea above the earthquake is forced upwards A tsunami early warning system is to be implemented in the Indian Ocean Many people donated money after TV, radio, newspaper and internet appeals Thailand’s tourist industry badly hit as hotels and facilities were damaged 70% of Indonesian fishing boats destroyed meaning people lost their livelihood International relief organisations flew blankets, tents, clean water, food and medical supplies into the areas affected NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Foundations Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006145 59
  60. 60. LESSON 7; Pack p58/9; Causes, effects and management of tsunamis DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 60
  61. 61. VOLCANOES 61
  62. 62. 10 LARGEST VOLCANOES 1. Mount Mazama/Crater Lake, Oregon-Over 6,000 years ago Mount Mazama (posthumously named) erupted. Before the explosion the mountain was 12,000 feet high; when it was over it had been replaced by a 1,900-foot deep crater. Crater Lake, famed for its intense blue waters, was made a National Park in 1902. Volcanic activity occurred sometime after the Mount Mazama explosion, creating Wizard Island in the middle of the lake. 2. Mount Etna, Sicily-Although Mount Etna (or Aetna) is the highest active volcano in Europe, its renown comes from its role in Greek legends and in ancient works by writers such as Hesiod, Pindar and Aeschylus. According to Greco-Roman mythology, the giants -- the enemies of the gods -- were buried beneath Mount Etna. In their efforts to break free, the Giants caused frequent earthquakes around the mountain. The most recent eruption, in the Bove Valley section of Etna Volcano Park, occurred in December 1991. 3. Mount Vesuvius, Italy-Vesuvius' eruption in 79 A.D. covered the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, preserving them for generations to come. But this eruption also holds a place in history because of its documentation. Pliny the Younger left a detailed description of the event in two letters to Tacitus. A type of eruption -- the Plinian type -- is named for Pliny the Elder who died in the catastrophe. The volcano is still active and has had several eruptions -- the most deadly being in 1631. 4. Mount Tambora, Indonesia-The largest eruption during the last two centuries, as well as the deadliest volcano in recorded history, Mount Tambora exploded April 10-11, 1815. It killed an estimated 92,000 people. Almost 80,000 of the victims died of starvation brought on by the agricultural devastation in the volcano's wake. The eruption and the resulting massive clouds of dust and ash affected most of the Northern Hemisphere, causing unusually cool temperatures and failed crops in 1816 -- sometimes referred to as "the year without a summer." 62
  63. 63. 5. Mount Krakatau, Indonesia-On August 27, 1883, Mount Krakatau exploded with such force that it was heard in Australia, over 2,000 miles away. The force of the eruption triggered a series of tsunamis that reached the Hawaiian Islands and the coast of South America, killing more than 36,000 people. The five cubic miles of ejecta covered the surrounding areas in darkness for over two days and caused a series of dramatic sunsets around the world throughout the following year. The explosion and subsequent collapse of the volcano left only a remnant of the island above sea level. By 1928, another small island had emerged from a rising volcanic cone. 6. Mount Pelee, Martinique-The eruption on May 8, 1902, killed 29,000, destroying the port town of Saint-Pierre four miles away. Almost all the deaths were caused by the resulting pyroclastic flow -- a deadly, fast-moving cloud of hot gas and dense liquidized volcanic particles. Only two residents of the town survived the flow. Volcanology (also called Volcanism) was at best a primitive science in 1902, and the existence of pyroclastic flows was unknown. After this disaster a "new" type of eruption was named after Mount Pelee - the Pelean-type eruption.. 7. Parícutin, Mexico-In February 1943, a pile of ash began to rise from a corn field near the town of Parícutin, Mexico. A mountain began to emerge from the earth, reaching a height of 1,200 feet in one year. Although the ensuing nine-year eruption resulted in the destruction of the town of Parícutin, it presented the modern world with a remarkable opportunity to see the birth of a volcano. Only three people died, all by lightning associated with the eruption. 8. Mount St. Helens, Washington-One of the more highly publicized and studied volcanic explosions, Mount St. Helens erupted on May 18, 1980. The volcano, which had been dormant since 1857, began erupting steam after a series of earthquakes in March 1980. The 1978 prediction of the U.S. Geological Survey that violent and intermittent volcanic activity would begin, "within the next 100 years, and perhaps even before the end of this century," had come true. Luckily, close study of St. Helens prevented a major loss of life. Even so, 60 deaths resulted from the May 18 eruption. 63
  64. 64. 9. Nevada del Ruiz, Colombia-Although the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz (or Mount Ruiz) on November 13, 1985, was relatively small, the ensuing mudslides caused by melting ice and snow resulted in the death of 23,000 people and the destruction of the town of Armero. Most of the residents would have survived had they moved to higher ground. This eruption brought attention to the fact that growing numbers of people live within the danger zones of the world's volcanoes. A larger eruption of Ruiz in 1845 killed about 700 people. 10. Mount Pinatubo, Philippines-Killing almost 800 and leaving an estimated 100,000 homeless, Mount Pinatubo's eruption in June 1991 was 10 times larger than the Mount St. Helens' eruption and one of the biggest of the 20th century. It emitted a cloud of smoke and ash over 19 miles high. The evacuation of more than 70,000 people and the volcanic event were broadcast worldwide, making Pinatubo (in)famous throughout the world. 64
  65. 65. Volcanoes and earthquakes NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 32–33 What are volcanoes? 2.6 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200761 The diagram below is a cross-section through a volcano. ១1 Cut out and stick the statements below to label the diagram. Use arrows to show each feature of an erupting volcano. ១2 Draw a flow diagram to describe the sequence of a volcanic eruption. Secondary cones form if the main vent is blocked and the magma is forced to the surface by another route Molten rock is called lava when it comes out of the ground and it flows down the mountainside as a lava flow Magma chamber – a store of molten rock deep inside the earth forces its way to the surface Falling ash – small pieces of shattered rock thrown from the volcano which may block out the sunlight Layers of ash and lava from previous eruptions Crater – a funnel- shaped hollow at the top of a volcanic cone Volcanic bombs – lumps of molten rock that solidify as they fall When a volcano erupts, the magma from below the earth’s surface rises up the main vent Steam, gas, lava and dust 65 Number or colour code the boxes and then show where they go on the diagram
  66. 66. Volcanoes and earthquakes NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 32–33 Most likely to ... 2.8 A Read each statement in the table below. For each statement choose the most likely answer. Then provide some evidence for your answer in the final column. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200763 Statement Most likely ... Evidence and explanation 1 crater/vent/chamber 2 chimney/funnel/vent 3 explosive/constant/ expected 4 moisture/debris/ash 5 fire/lava/water 6 heat/ash/moisture 7 noise/lava flows/dust 8 a secondary crater/ fire/floods Volcanoes occur because of a build-up of pressure deep beneath the earth’s crust in a magma ... Lava rises through a ... The release of lava from the volcano is ... The air will be filled with ... The ground will be covered in... It is hard to breathe because of the ... People are scared of the ... To one side of the volcano you can see ... 66
  67. 67. LESSON 8; Pack p65/6; Inside a volcano DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 67
  68. 68. 68
  69. 69. 69
  70. 70. 70
  71. 71. 71
  72. 72. 72
  73. 73. 73
  74. 74. 74
  75. 75. 75
  76. 76. 76
  77. 77. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1 77
  78. 78. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1 78
  79. 79. 79
  80. 80. 80
  81. 81. 81 EXAMPLE
  82. 82. LESSON 9; Pack p76-81; Newspaper report Mt St Helen’s DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 82
  83. 83. 58 earthworks 3 teacher’s resource book © JOHN MURRAY EARTHQUAKES/VOLCANOES SELF-ASSESSMENT SHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 1–22 Earthquakes and volcanoes self-assessment Name ________________________________________________________________________________ When you have completed the Earthquakes and Volcanoes unit, assess how well you are able to do the following things. Not at all With help Quite well Very well – distinguish natural hazards from other hazards – describe what happens during an earthquake and/or volcanic eruption – explain the causes of an earthquake and/or volcanic eruption – describe and explain the effects of an earthquake and/or volcanic eruption – locate earthquakes and volcanoes on a world map using latitude and longitude – research recent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions using the Internet – explain the global distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes – explain why volcanoes are found in the Caribbean and/or explain why earthquakes occur in California – describe how geologists are able to forecast volcanic eruptions and/or predict earthquakes – draw a map to show how the dangers from an eruption can be reduced and/or how the dangers from an earthquake can be reduced What have you enjoyed in this unit? _______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ What have you found easy in this unit?_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ What have you found difficult in this unit? __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ What do you need to improve on in the next unit? ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Earthworks unit 1 04/05/2000 2:19 pm Page 58 83
  84. 84. TECTONICS AND VOLCANOES HOMEWORK  Lesson 1; Poster; research a natural disaster; title, 2 maps (world and local) and pictures – where, when, why, what damage and how people coped  Lesson 2; Pack p13/14/15; The Earth’s plate’s jigsaw  Lesson 3; Pack p22/23; Types of plate movement  Lesson 4; 1). Doddle; Plate Tectonics mini and super quiz and Plate Boundaries mini quiz 2). Extra credit; test your skills; www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/testskills.html  Lesson 5; How can earthquake danger be reduced? 1). Interactions p40/1 Ex 3b poster 2). Pack p34; Prediction, Preparation, Protection  Lesson 6; Pack p47/48/49/50; How did the tsunami affect different countries? Ex 1, 2 and 3  Lesson 7; Pack p58/9; Causes, effects and management of tsunamis  Lesson 8; Pack p65/6; Inside a volcano  Lesson 9; Pack p76-81; Newspaper report Mt St Helen’s Extra extension work/independent learning; Doddle - browse in all resources for energy and resources; https://www.doddlelearn.co.uk 84
  85. 85. SPARE PAGES 85
  86. 86. SPARE PAGES 86
  87. 87. SPARE PAGES 87

×