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Acid rain – rainwater that contains chemicals resulting from the burning
of fossil fuels
Adapt – vegetation and animals ha...
Deciduous – plants that lose their leaves in autumn
Decomposition – the process of bacteria such as worms and
mushrooms, w...
Hydro – electricity – energy from water in a reservoir flowing through a
dam
Liana – vine like plants that climb up trunks...
Tropic of Cancer – line of latitude that runs 23 ½  north of the equator
Tropic of Capricorn – line of latitude that runs...
5
Extensions
6
Geography Matters
NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200731
Ecosystems NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages ...
8
9
REVIEW
BBC online
10
LOCATIONS
11
12
EXAMPLE
13
EXAMPLE
LESSON 1; 1. Pack p10/11 Locations
2. Research a biome; information, map and
pictures, see examples p12 and 13
DATE MARKED...
15
Extensions
Ecosystems NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 12–13
What is the equatorial climate?
1.11
NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions ...
REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
17
Background Worksheets > Before your visit
What's the weather like? 1
www.livingrainforest.org
How does our climate compare...
19
Background Worksheets > Before your visit
What's the weather like? 2
www.livingrainforest.org
Complete the table below usi...
21
EXAMPLE
22
EXAMPLE
23
24
LESSON 2; 1. Find pictures of the flora and fauna of
tropical rainforest , at least five of each, extra
merit if you label...
26
Background Worksheets > Before your visit
Rainforest layers
www.livingrainforest.org
Complete the labels for each layer of...
B
ECOSYSTEMS REVIEW PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 1–22
Tropical rainforest
Name _____________________________________________________...
29
REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
30
NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200738
Ecosystems NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages ...
REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
32
REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
33
34
35
EXAMPLE
36
EXAMPLE
37
EXAMPLE
38
39
LESSON 3; 1. Pack p31 Dominoes
2. Write a story about spending the night in the
jungle (tropical rainforest), what do you ...
41
41
REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
42
1.10
ECOSYSTEMS WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGE 9
The nutrient cycle
Name ____________________________________________________...
REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
44
45
46Extensions
47
Think Through Geography
48
Think Through Geography
49
50
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Think Through Geography
Sustainable management: rubber tapping in the Amazon
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51
52
53
REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
54
Ecosystems NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 4–51.1
NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes ...
REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
56
REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1
57
LESSON 4; 1. Pack p48 Ex 1, 2 and 3 (WWF leaflet as a
separate piece to go on the wall)
2. Pack p55 How are ecosystems at ...
1
2
3
4
5
B A
C
6
D
ECOSYSTEMS REVIEW PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 1–22
Deforestation
Name _________________________________________...
60
61
REVIEW
62
63
64
LESSON 5; Doddle;
Developing Rainforests mini quiz,
Resources and rainforests super quiz,
Eco-tourism extension quiz
DATE ...
© JOHN MURRAY earthworks 2 teacher’s resource book 57
ECOSYSTEMS SELF-ASSESSMENT SHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 1–22
Ecosystems ...
ECOSYSTEMS AND TROPICAL
RAINFOREST HOMEWORK
 Lesson 1; 1. Pack p10/11 Locations
2. Research a biome; information, map and...
SPARE PAGES
68
SPARE PAGES
69
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Ecosystems pack

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Transcript of "Ecosystems pack"

  1. 1. Acid rain – rainwater that contains chemicals resulting from the burning of fossil fuels Adapt – vegetation and animals have had to learn to live with their environment e.g. hot, cold, dry, wet etc. Amerindian – indigenous (native) people of South America Biodiversity – the number and range of plants and animals in one ecosystem, greatest in tropical rainforests Biome – a very large ecosystem such as the rainforest or coniferous forest Buttress roots – roots that stand above the ground to support large trees Canopy – an almost unbroken top layer of trees that acts like a roof over a tropical rainforest Climate – the average weather conditions of a place taken over many years Climate change – increase in world temperature – global warming Convectional rainfall – rainfall produced when air rises after being warmed by the ground 1
  2. 2. Deciduous – plants that lose their leaves in autumn Decomposition – the process of bacteria such as worms and mushrooms, which break down dead material Deforestation – the cutting down or burning of trees to clear large areas of land Cattle ranching – grazing cows for beef Climograph – diagram containing a bar graph displaying precipitation and a line graph displaying temperature Coniferous – plants and trees that don’t lose their leaves such as pine trees Consumers – herbivores (plant eaters) and carnivores (meat eaters) Ecosystem – the living community of plants and animals and the physical factors upon which they depend on, such as climate and soil Eco tourism – a sustainable form of green tourism aimed at protecting the environment and local cultures Evergreen – deciduous plants that don’t lose all their leaves at once in the autumn but lose a few leaves daily so trees are green all year round Equator – imaginary horizontal line that runs around the middle of the earth, it is the hottest part of the world and lies between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, therefore tropical Food chain (web)– the transfer of energy through an ecosystem from primary producers to consumers and decomposers Global warming – the increase in the worlds average temperature, believed to be a result of the release of carbon dioxide and other gasses into the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels Hardwood – a very expensive type of wood that is very had such as mahogany, green heart and rosewood 2
  3. 3. Hydro – electricity – energy from water in a reservoir flowing through a dam Liana – vine like plants that climb up trunks of trees before hanging downwards from the branches Living environment – the part of the environment that includes plants, insects and animals Logging – cutting down trees to sell for profit Mining – extracting minerals from deep in the earth Non-living environment – the part of the environment that includes features such as solar energy, water, air and rocks Nutrient recycling – the process by which minerals necessary for plant growth are taken up from the soil and returned when the plant sheds their leaves or die Photosynthesis – the process by which green plants take in sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to produce energy and oxygen Producers – plants use energy from the sun through photosynthesis e.g. leaves Rainforest – jungle or forests found along the equator Slash and burn – the cutting down of small areas of rainforest and burning it to clear the ground fro growing crops Soil erosion – soil is washed away without vegetation to protect it from heavy rain Soil fertility – how nutrient rich the soil is Species – groups of plants or animals e.g. a species of dog is a Spaniel Sustainable – able to be used for many years into the future without harming the environment and depleting reserves 3
  4. 4. Tropic of Cancer – line of latitude that runs 23 ½  north of the equator Tropic of Capricorn – line of latitude that runs 23 ½  south of the equator Tropics – a band circling the earth between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn containing hot and wet tropical rainforests along the equator and hot and dry tropical deserts north and south of the equator 4
  5. 5. 5 Extensions
  6. 6. 6 Geography Matters
  7. 7. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200731 Ecosystems NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 10–11 What is an ecosystem? 1.7 An ecosystem is a community of plants and animals whose lives are closely linked to each other and to the climate and soil of the area in which they grow or live. Copy the labels below onto the correct arrow in the diagram above. Be careful! Some labels match two arrows. ១2 Using the diagram above, write a short summary to describe and explain the impact that human activity has had on a rainforest ecosystem. You could use a word-processing program to draft and redraft your thoughts. Include the following information: N Name and location of ecosystem N Change brought about by human activity N Effects on climate ១1 The diagram below shows how the four parts of an ecosystem depend on each other and are closely interconnected. CLIMATE Leaves decay and rot Insects pollinate flowers Water evaporates from the soil Animals breathe out carbon dioxide Reptiles need warmth to survive Rain falls onto the ground Dead animals decompose Plants take up nutrients The sun gives energy to plantsPlants give out oxygen Soil is food to worms Animals eat plants ANIMALS PLANTS SOIL N Effects on animals N Effects on plants N Effects on soil. 7 energy from the sun
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9 REVIEW BBC online
  10. 10. 10 LOCATIONS
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 12 EXAMPLE
  13. 13. 13 EXAMPLE
  14. 14. LESSON 1; 1. Pack p10/11 Locations 2. Research a biome; information, map and pictures, see examples p12 and 13 DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 14
  15. 15. 15 Extensions
  16. 16. Ecosystems NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 12–13 What is the equatorial climate? 1.11 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200736 Due to its latitude the equatorial climate is hot and wet throughout the year. The weather pattern described below is likely to be repeated day after day for most of the year. ១1 Write the letters of the following weather conditions, in the correct order, against the times of the day on the clock face. It has been started for you. ១2 Find out more about the equatorial climate from a variety of sources (books, CD-ROMs, videos, magazines) including information obtained from the Key Geography website: www.nelsonthornes.com/keygeography ១3 Working in a small group, compile a desktop-published leaflet about the equatorial climate, from a variety of sources including information obtained via the internet, for example the Rainforest Action Network website, which can also be accessed from the Key Geography website. Temperature continues to rise. Storm continues. Storm ends. Clouds begin to break up. Sun rises as always at this time. No clouds in sky. Sun sets. The night is clear and calm. It becomes very hot, as the sun gets higher in the sky. Gets warmer. Very little wind. Temperature 25ºC, as warm as a summer afternoon in England. Hot air rises. Water from rivers, swamps and vegetation evaporates. Temperature reaches 33ºC. Sun overhead. Hot air continues to rise. Torrential rainstorm with thunder and lightning. Clouds increase in size and height. They turn into towering dark grey cumulonimbus clouds. Water vapour carried high into the sky. Cools and condenses to form white cumulus clouds. 12:00 midday 12:00 midnight 3:00 pm 6:00 pm 9:00 pm 6:00 am 3:00 am 9:00 am . D A B C D E F G H I J K L M 16
  17. 17. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1 17
  18. 18. Background Worksheets > Before your visit What's the weather like? 1 www.livingrainforest.org How does our climate compare with that of a typical rainforest? Using the information provided, answer the questions to find out. Average monthly climate statistics for London and Manaus (in the heart of the Brazilian rainforest): Using the figures in the table above, draw two climate graphs, one for London and one for Manaus. Remember to show the rainfall as a bar chart and the temperature as a line graph. Colour the rainfall bars in blue and the temperature lines red. Don't forget to label the graphs. London Temperature (o C) Rainfall (mm) Jan DecNovOctSepAugJulJunMayAprMarFeb 4 56.510.51416.51715128.55.54 49 5159655260594847413939 Manaus Temperature (o C) Rainfall (mm) Jan DecNovOctSepAugJulJunMayAprMarFeb 26 26.52727.527.52726.526.526262626 264 220161111634667103204283298262 18
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  20. 20. Background Worksheets > Before your visit What's the weather like? 2 www.livingrainforest.org Complete the table below using the information from your graphs. Would you prefer to live in London or Manaus? Explain your answer. Extra time? Write a short paragraph explaining the differences between the climate in London and central Brazil. London Which is the wettest month? How much rain fell in the wettest month? What is the total rainfall? Which is the hottest month? How hot is the hottest month? Manaus How cold is the coldest month? What is the difference between the hottest and coldest months? 20
  21. 21. 21 EXAMPLE
  22. 22. 22 EXAMPLE
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  25. 25. LESSON 2; 1. Find pictures of the flora and fauna of tropical rainforest , at least five of each, extra merit if you label them correctly! 2. Doddle; Rainforests mini quiz DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. Background Worksheets > Before your visit Rainforest layers www.livingrainforest.org Complete the labels for each layer of the forest. Choose from the following words: forest floor canopy understorey emergents Some very tall trees tower above the main forest layer. These are called This layer is called the . Many birds, monkeys and other animals live here. Here it is more airy, and climbing plants can be found. This is the . On the it is dark, hot and humid. . Now colour in your picture. Extra time? Add some rainforest animals to your picture. 27
  28. 28. B ECOSYSTEMS REVIEW PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 1–22 Tropical rainforest Name ________________________________________________________________________________ Your task 1 Describe what the term ecosystem means. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 2 Look at the drawing below. Label each of the features shown by the lines. 3 Explain each of the following characteristics of tropical rainforest: a) The trees are tall because _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ b) The plants are evergreen because _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ c) Few plants grow on the forest floor because _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 2 teacher’s resource book 53 EARTHWORKS TRB2 (B1 [F] TP) 12/8/00 4:46 pm Page 53 28
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  30. 30. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1 30
  31. 31. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200738 Ecosystems NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 14–15 What are tropical rainforests? 1.13 The tropical rainforests have more species of trees and wildlife than anywhere else on earth. All plants and wildlife have had to adapt to the hot and wet environment. START Bangladesh Vine-type of plant found in rainforest CanopySTART Bangladesh Name given to large tree roots Mahogany, Greenheart START BangladeshBrazil Layer of dense plant growth containing shrubs and ferns START Bangladesh Layer of trees that blocks out the sun from the lower layers Forest floor START BangladeshSTART The Amazon rainforest is in this country START Bangladesh Hardwood trees Type of weather found in rainforest START Bangladesh The way in which plants and animals survive in the rainforest FINISH START Bangladesh Usually dark and damp: it contains a layer of rotting leaves Emergent START Bangladesh Name given to the tallest trees in the rainforest Evergreen START Bangladesh Appearance of the rainforest all year round Adaptation START Bangladesh Equatorial climate Lianas START BangladeshShrub layer Under- canopy START Bangladesh A layer of bare trees and lianas found under the canopy Buttress roots ១1 Cut out the dominoes below and study the key words written on them. ១2 Working in pairs, set out all the dominoes in a straight line. There is only one correct order! ១3 Stick the dominoes in your book or file in the correct order. 31 pack
  32. 32. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1 32
  33. 33. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1 33
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  35. 35. 35 EXAMPLE
  36. 36. 36 EXAMPLE
  37. 37. 37 EXAMPLE
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  40. 40. LESSON 3; 1. Pack p31 Dominoes 2. Write a story about spending the night in the jungle (tropical rainforest), what do you see, hear and smell? DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 40
  41. 41. 41 41
  42. 42. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1 42
  43. 43. 1.10 ECOSYSTEMS WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGE 9 The nutrient cycle Name ________________________________________________________________________________ Your task 1 Cut out each of the circles and arrows below. They represent the stores and transfers in the nutrient cycle. 2 Make a large copy of the drawing of a cross-section of tropical rainforest from page 7 of the Pupil’s Book. Arrange the circles and arrows on it to make the nutrient cycle. (Try to do this without help but, if you need to, look at Diagram D on page 9 of the Pupil’s Book.) 3 Write a paragraph to describe how the nutrient cycle works. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ 36 earthworks 2 teacher’s resource book © JOHN MURRAY Nutrients contained in the humus Leaves fall to the ground and decay into humus Rain washes nutrients from the humus into the soil Nutrients contained in the soil Rain washes nutrients from the soil Rocks break down to form soil Nutrients contained in the trees Tree roots take up nutrients from the soil Sunshine and rainfall help trees to produce nutrients EARTHWORKS TRB2 (B1 [F] TP) 12/8/00 4:43 pm Page 36 43
  44. 44. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. 46Extensions
  47. 47. 47 Think Through Geography
  48. 48. 48 Think Through Geography
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. 50 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Think Through Geography Sustainable management: rubber tapping in the Amazon
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  54. 54. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1 54
  55. 55. Ecosystems NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 4–51.1 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 200725 How are ecosystems at risk? An ecosystem is a community of plants and animals whose lives are closely linked to each other and to the climate and soil of the area in which they grow or live. Ecosystems may be changed by human activity. Fewer clouds are formed. Rain can now fall directly onto the ground. Tree canopy will no longer protect soil from rain. Fewer leaves fall to the ground. Heavy logging machinery damages the soil. Weather becomes much drier. Soil is more easily eroded. More carbon dioxide in the air. Soil is compacted and a hard crust forms as it dries out. Fewer nutrients enter soil and it becomes less fertile. The moisture given off by trees keeps the air cool. Trees catch rainfall before it reaches the ground. Burning rainforests adds greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and increases global warming. Trees hold the soil together. Each tree cut down is one less that can convert harmful gases to the oxygen we breathe. The loss of forest has changed the ecosystem. Rivers are more likely to flood downstream and on floodplains. Less carbon dioxide will be absorbed from the atmosphere. The air becomes drier and temperatures rise. Half the world’s trees are in the rainforests. The fertile layer of soil becomes much thinner. Large areas of the rainforest have been destroyed. Less heat can escape from the ground. More water will run off the ground surface. Trees and the soil will absorb less water. The climate becomes warmer. Without tree roots to bind it, soil is washed away by rain choking rivers and causing floods. Roots of trees take up moisture from the soil and this helps to prevent flooding. Trees help to keep the climate in balance. They are an important part of the water cycle that produces rain. The soil is poor so tree roots grow close to the surface, to gather nutrients. Trees take in carbon dioxide from the air and give out oxygen. This controls the amount of carbon dioxide in the air and helps us to breathe. ១1 Working with a partner, cut out and read the statements below. ១2 Sort the statements into two groups linked to: N local flooding N global climate change. Be careful! Some statements could fit in either group. ១3 Arrange the statements into a spider diagram with the word Deforestation in the middle. Draw arrows to show links between the statements and say why they are connected. Your diagram should explain how deforestation could result in local flooding and global climate change. 55
  56. 56. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1 56
  57. 57. REMEMBER TITLE AND DATE LESSON 1 57
  58. 58. LESSON 4; 1. Pack p48 Ex 1, 2 and 3 (WWF leaflet as a separate piece to go on the wall) 2. Pack p55 How are ecosystems at risk? DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 58
  59. 59. 1 2 3 4 5 B A C 6 D ECOSYSTEMS REVIEW PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 1–22 Deforestation Name ________________________________________________________________________________ Your task 1 Look at the drawing. It shows an area of tropical rainforest that is changing. List six human activities that are changing the forest. I ________________________ 4 ___________________________ 2 ________________________ 5 ___________________________ 3 ________________________ 6 ___________________________ 2 a) Which of the activities has least effect on the forest do you think? _________________________________ b) Explain why. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ c) Which of the activities has most effect on the forest do you think?_________________________________ d) Explain why. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 Imagine that you are part of the government in a country that has a large area of rainforest. Your country is relatively poor and still has many groups of people who depend on the forest for their survival. Write a report in your workbook to recommend how the forest should be exploited. Mention how you would meet the needs of people living in the forest, and what you would do to conserve areas of forest. © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 2 teacher’s resource book 55 EARTHWORKS TRB2 (B1 [F] TP) 12/8/00 4:46 pm Page 55 59
  60. 60. 60
  61. 61. 61 REVIEW
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  63. 63. 63
  64. 64. 64
  65. 65. LESSON 5; Doddle; Developing Rainforests mini quiz, Resources and rainforests super quiz, Eco-tourism extension quiz DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 65
  66. 66. © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 2 teacher’s resource book 57 ECOSYSTEMS SELF-ASSESSMENT SHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 1–22 Ecosystems self-assessment Name ________________________________________________________________________________ When you have completed the Ecosystems unit, assess how well you are able to do the following things. Not at all With help Quite well Very well – identify different types of ecosystem in your area – carry out a simple plant survey – describe the global distribution of tropical rainforest – describe and draw the main features of rainforest – explain how rainforest is adapted to the climate – use diagrams to explain the natural cycles in rainforest – understand how people adapt their lifestyle to the environment – describe the impact of human activities on the rainforest – interpret satellite images – explain how human actions in one place can affect people elsewhere What have you enjoyed in this unit? _______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ What have you found easy in this unit? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ What have you found difficult in this unit? __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ What do you aim to improve in the next unit? ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ EARTHWORKS TRB2 (B1 [F] TP) 12/8/00 4:46 pm Page 57 66 plants and animals adapt - describe the climate of the tropical rainforest
  67. 67. ECOSYSTEMS AND TROPICAL RAINFOREST HOMEWORK  Lesson 1; 1. Pack p10/11 Locations 2. Research a biome; information, map and pictures, see examples p12 and 13  Lesson 2; 1. Find pictures of the flora and fauna of tropical rainforests; at least five of each, extra merit if you label them correctly 2. Doddle; Rainforests mini quiz  Lesson 3; 1. Pack p31 Dominoes 2. Write a story about spending the night in the jungle (tropical rainforest); What do you see, hear and smell?  Lesson 4; 1. Pack p48 Ex 1, 2 and 3 (WWF leaflet as a separate piece to go on the wall) 2. Pack p55 How are ecosystems at risk?  Lesson 5; Doddle; Developing Rainforests mini quiz, Resources and rainforests super quiz, Eco-tourism extension quiz 67
  68. 68. SPARE PAGES 68
  69. 69. SPARE PAGES 69

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