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Sugges&ng Space or Depth on a Two-‐Dimensional Surface The loca)on of objects is judged in rela)on to the horizon line (eye level). The bo;om of the picture plane or drawing format is seen as the closest visual point to the viewer. The degree to which a form rises on the picture plane towards the horizon line indicates receding spa)al posi)ons. Wayne Thiebaud, “Lips&cks” 1972 Pastel on paper
Overlapping: If one object covers part of the surface of another object, overlapping occurs and the ﬁrst object is assumed to be nearer. Size: Two objects or forms that are in reality the same size will appear diﬀerent in size depending on their proximity to us. Student work: The size and placement of these ﬁgures creates a strong illusion of depth and space.
Sharp and Diminishing Detail: Close objects appear sharp and clear in deﬁni)on, while objects seen at a distance appear blurred and lacking in deﬁni)on, focus, and detail. Close objects will reveal more texture then distant objects. Close objects will reveal a fuller valurange (higher contrast), while distant objects will reveal a limited value range with a reduc)on in strong darks and lights (low contrast). e High contrast advances, while low contrast recedes. This is related to the concept of Atmospheric Perspec&ve.
Student work: This drawing uses changes in contrast and detail to reinforce depth and space. The forms in the foreground are sharp and clear, with detail and full value contrast. The forms in the background are soIer in focus with less value contrast and detail.
Georges Seurat, French, Winter, nte crayon on paper 1881co
Atmospheric Perspec&ve describes characteris)cs seen in objects seen at a distance from the observer. A veil of atmospheric haze aﬀects and decreases clarity, contrast, detail, and color. Atmospheric perspec)ve is a powerful compliment to linear perspec)ve.
Da Vinci observed diﬀerences between the subject and objects in the background, and used atmospheric perspec)ve to create the illusion of depth: the farther something is in the distance, the smaller the scale, the more muted the colors and the less detailed the outlines. Leonardo Da Vinci