Raimondo Villano - book: History of pharmacy knight of naples - part 1


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abs. : 3. R. Villano “Activities and Apothecaries Pharmaceutical Companies in the Kingdom of Naples”, Presentation by Italian President Academy History of Pharmacy Dr. A. Corvi; Published by Chiron, ISBN 978-88-97303-04-6, LCC DG 831, CDD 177 VIL tim 2011, p.. 112 (Naples, Jan. 2011);

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Raimondo Villano - book: History of pharmacy knight of naples - part 1

  1. 1. RRRaaaiiimmmooonnndddooo VVViiillllllaaannnooo AAAccctttiiivvviiitttiiieeesss aaannnddd AAApppooottthhheeecccaaarrriiieeesss PPPhhhaaarrrmmmaaaccceeeuuutttiiicccaaalll CCCooommmpppaaannniiieeesss iiinnn ttthhheee KKKiiinnngggdddooommm ooofff NNNaaapppllleeesss CHIRON Presentation of Antonio Corvi President of the Italian Academy History of Pharmacy
  2. 2. Raimondo Villano – Attività speziali e farmaceutiche nel Regno di Napoli 5
  3. 3. Raimondo Villano – Attività speziali e farmaceutiche nel Regno di Napoli6 Copy n. _____________ The autor __________________________ © Copyright Raimondo Villano © Research, creation, cover by Raimondo Villano. All right reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced in publications and studies without root’s citation. No part of this book shall be stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by ani means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Editorial: Prof. Dott. Maria Rosaria Giordano. Editors: mobile 338 59 60 222; e-mail: farmavillano@libero.it Advisor executive: Francesco Villano Editions Chiron Found. - Praxys dpt. © 2010 Chiron Foundation, via Maresca 12, scala A - 80058 Torre Annunziata (Napoli) Phone: +39 81 861 22 99 Fax: +39 81 353 29 81 Website: www.chiron-found.org Sales: Prof. Dott. Annamaria Giordano mobile 347 61 71 669. E-mail: annamaria.g10@alice.it; http://www.chiron-found.org Print LP - Napoli. First published in May 2010. First reissue in November 2010. First published in English in January 2011. Finished writing April 2, 2009. Cover photo of Raymond Villano (2005): two-handled amphora factory Naples in the second half of the seventeenth century apothecary ancient monument of the Certosa di San Martino in Napoli (Vomero). Numbered series. This volume, with no serial number and signature, shall be deemed counterfeit. ISBN 978-88-97303-04-6. CDD 615 VIL act 2011. LCC DG831. CHIRON FOUND. Praxys dpt
  4. 4. Raimondo Villano – Attività speziali e farmaceutiche nel Regno di Napoli 7 Index Presentation 9 Since the end of the Roman Empire to the Byzantine Duchy 13 From United Ostrogothic the Duchy 17 By the Normans Swabians 27 The Angevin period 39 The age Aragonese and Spanish 49 Habsburgs to the Bourbons 67 Ceramics production 91 Historic Pharmacies 97 Appendix: Historical eras 101
  5. 5. Raimondo Villano – Attività speziali e farmaceutiche nel Regno di Napoli 9 Presentazione his essay by Raymond Villano, in addition to other investigations conducted on pharmaceutical art scenario even more broadly, is a major effort of synthesis. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies has found its unity, at least since 1200, with the first modern monarchy Frederick II. The author does not forget even the beginnings of a Mediterranean civilization which then saw the birth of the extraordinary School of Salerno in the Campania region, of uncertain origin but crucial popular, extended from Bologna, with William Saliceto in Paris' sAntidotario of Nicholas proclaimed official pharmacopoeia in '400. The primacy of the birth of the pharmacy public wanted by a genius, even if inspired by a previous partial French condition that State to pay close attention to our art, culture favored by monastic scriptorium of Cassiodorus universalism of Constantine the African. Many dynasties have occurred in this country without distorting its features, leaving much room for local baronies and activity of the Church. For this reason it is never born a strong state and the valuable legislative update due to a university, so famous, has been applied sporadically and perhaps patchy. Can you explain the monopoly of pharmacies Benedictine monastery in Naples in 700, as the impressions of foreigners in 800 single chemist perhaps praised for his honesty, but underline the shortcomings of the system. What, for example, they explode with the law liberalization Crispi end of the century while being in force a plant organ, which in the north limited the proliferation of unconditional years here, see Messina and Catania, hundreds of stores rose sign limiting the collection of recipes, conveyed the sole pharmacist remuneration. The study documented the story by Mario Zappala joins several sources consulted by Villano, with special regard to the works of Andrea Russo and Chichierchia and Pope On this basis, the author manages to write an exhaustive history of the oldest pharmacy in the United Italian, even decadent period in the nineteenth century, will be more attentive to update its Petitoria and Cookbooks Neapolitans than other Italian states. Dr Antonio Corvi President Italian Academy History of Pharmacy T
  6. 6. Raimondo Villano – Attività speziali e farmaceutiche nel Regno di Napoli 11 “Wi have a responsabily to keep alive the past from which we come from: is both our father and our son” Carlos Fuentes
  7. 7. Raimondo Villano – Attività speziali e farmaceutiche nel Regno di Napoli12
  8. 8. Raimondo Villano – Attività speziali e farmaceutiche nel Regno di Napoli 13 Since the end of the Roman Empire to the Byzantine Duchy At sunset of the Roman Empire in the East, where you live contact with the Byzantine world, the Arabs accept what is most precious in the classical tradition in medicine. They, therefore, through the great Arab empire, based in Baghdad but radiated to the Mediterranean, spread the clever and Arab culture in the West by involving the sages of Spain, Sicily, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.The knowledge of Arabic science filter coming soon in southern Italy received and processed. For medicine of the medieval world “the appearance of Arab civilization in the Mediterranean” constitutes “a jolt of novelty(1) ”. This also applies not only to preserve and pass on knowledge greek, of which the Arabs are the true heirs, but to enrich it considerably engaged at the same time to pursue their own experimental science strengthening, in particular, their knowledge of pharmacology botany with the knowledge and use of plants unknown to antiquity, such as fruit trees imported from Persia, and influencing the culture of the existing reality convent Christian expands the knowledge of both herbs and drugs proper ways to combine both the laboratory instruments and techniques of conservation of the various drugs. In fact, the Arabs use the trivialization of the still (at this time essential for the preparation of alcohol, alcohols, aromatic essences and waters), filtration equipment, vessels of silver and gold for the storage of medicinesmore complex and vessels of glass or porcelain from China for the preservation of syrups, vegetable materia medica also enriched cassia, senna, tamarind, nux vomica, rhubarb, holy seed, sugar, camphor. Also prominent are both literary contributions, inclusive also important "pharmacopoeias, both organization and management of hospitality and private pharmacies. In the late empire as in the early Middle Ages are active in the territory of special tabernae engaged in production and packaging of medicines. Some are more properly the herbalists (Herbaria), even with sales specialists in roots (rhizomatoi). Tabernae are real laboratories for the preparation of drug compounds (but fragrances) and pharmacists operate using pots, mortars, glasses, bottles and glass vials, scales and units. The part of the public workshops is often adorned with stuffed animals or plants from more distant regions. The pharmacist is a professional and well-defined generically distinct pharmacopola, the pharmacy is called pharmacopolio and drugs are an adjective with the name of Pharmaceutica. Already Plautus, also called the pharmacist in his plays and also myrapola myrapolium pharmacy. Pliny, however, use the term seplasia and seplasarii for pharmacists. Seplasium has the meaning of remedy (there is a square in Capua Seplasia referred to the place where they go once the drug market). _______________ (1) Torroncelli A., Flos medicinae. Surgery of Roland in "Kos", year II, No 19, Franco Maria Ricci Editore, 1985-86, p.. 18..
  9. 9. Raimondo Villano – Attività speziali e farmaceutiche nel Regno di Napoli14
  10. 10. Raimondo Villano – Attività speziali e farmaceutiche nel Regno di Napoli 15 Pharmacists are specialists in these ointments ointment (In Rome many shops are concentrated in and in the adjacent Vicus Vicus Thuriarius Unguentarius to Velabro), perfumes aromatarii merchants, merchants of colors and scents pigment and, finally, traders of incense thurarii and drugs are the myrobecharii. The box or the box of medicines that the doctor brings in home visits is the loculus or narthecium. In the fifth, then make their appearance in Southern Italy the deacons who have, among many duties, to deal with the public charity and, therefore, care of the sick, joining the soul to the care of the body with 'obligation and / or the possibility to have the doctor and this is inferred from the fact that the deacons for the most part have attached a hospice, a hospital and several fraternities of completion functions and medical care in case of illness(2) . Other important institutions are the famous Estaurite (from one who carries the cross), with strong charitable and relief, whose deacons are roaming the city on Palm Sunday, carrying a cross and dwelling on street corners collecting alms for the marriages , prisoners, and especially the sick. After a new, brief cheek (the reconquest of Totila 542), Naples is firmly in hand thanks to the Byzantine military Narses and becomes Byzantine Duchy since 534 and for the next six centuries. At the beginning of the Middle Ages, from the sixth century, leprosy can be considered firmly established in Western Europe. In the Dark Ages, it is a disease endemic in scattered foci or scattered; the places of concentration are only gatherings of wandering lepers expelled as an alternative to segregation from the group of healthy aggregates from a spontaneous solidarity among marginalized patients: the diagnosis of leprosy is in fact a true civil death!(3) During the sixth century, then in Naples raging pestilence and famine continued the magnitude of which is likely to contract the Italian population of about 7.4 million inhabitants were Christians start to 4 million while the European population ranges from 32,8 million to 27,5(4), (5), (6) . _______________ (2) In 1875, a statistic mentions, 199 institutions in the city of Naples! (Source: Andrea Russo, Apothecaries and Chemists of religious orders in the Neapolitan (Paper presented at the VII Meeting of the National Association for the Study of the History of Pharmacy, Pavia, 20-21 October 1962), Agar Naples, June 1967). (3) Things will change with the express words or sentence in the Canon XXIII of the Third Lateran Council in 1179 celebrated by Pope Alexander III: "The apostle (Paul) says," We must honor those who suffer most. " (...) We establish therefore, by virtue of apostolic benignity, that wherever these men (the lepers) are gathered in sufficient numbers to conduct life in common, can have a church and a cemetery and take advantage of a priest "( Source: G. Cosmacini cit.., p.. 112). (4) CM Cipolla, Economic History of Europe, vol. I: The European population from 400 to 1500, UTET, Torino, 1979. (5) This demographic collapse is completed in 650 when the Italian population shrinks even 2.5 million while the European Union to 18. (6) The historian Procopius of Caesarea in the Secret History is estimated that in Italy even the dead are 15 million.
  11. 11. Raimondo Villano – Attività speziali e farmaceutiche nel Regno di Napoli16
  12. 12. Raimondo Villano – Attività speziali e farmaceutiche nel Regno di Napoli 101 APPENDIX
  13. 13. Raimondo Villano – Attività speziali e farmaceutiche nel Regno di Napoli 103 Historical eras • United Odoacer, up to 493 (Heruli and others) • United Ostrogoths, up to about 542 (Ostrogoths) • Set the Byzantine Empire, until 763 (Byzantine) • Duchy of Naples, until 1137 • Duchy of Naples, until 1195 (Norman) • Kingdom of Sicily, until 1266 (Swabian) • Kingdom of Naples until 1442 (Anjou, family Durres) • Kingdom of Naples until 1646 (Aragon, Spain) • Neapolitan Republic, until 1647 • Kingdom of Naples until 1713 (Spanish) • Kingdom of Naples until 1734 (Austria) • Kingdom of Naples until 1799 • Neapolitan Republic, 1799 • Kingdom of Naples until 1806 • Kingdom of Naples until 1815 (French) • Kingdom of the Two Sicilies until 1860
  14. 14. Synthetic B h H U K Group of S already Pon Society His Noble Chem Collaborat Editor DPC (1985); cert Doctrine of (2010); Scie organizer an (2000), Sec Academy B (responsible Foundation Member sin in Commett Pompeii. C and founde Assistant ro Internation of Action by Crime-Task (Rm 2008); and Society Piccinini-R 2010); Tibe 2013); Rew sanitary, pr Zanichelli, present in i Nations (in Culture, un Intellectuals BAC. Vario Father. Some book (pres. Dr. Ledermann, edit., 2007) National C Mandelli 20 of homo fa Pharmaceu Logos and Council, 20 2002); Influ profile of t Born in 19 honorary me Healt Admi Universitas ( Knight SMO Study ISHP ntifical Tiber story Pharma mical Pharm es with impo C, which pub tified courses f the Church, ences of the nd chairman cretary Inter Biomedical T e company o for cancer r nce 1990, Se tees of Italy: arthage arch er Youngs P ole Pharmacy nals awards y Rotary Inte k Force Rota Legion Uni y (2011); Nat Research (Rm erin-Science ward by Certif rofessionals, with sponso talians Libr ncluding: Na niversity, mu s IBC-Camb ous books ar ks: Gobal so Renzulli, al , Presid. Inte ; Pharmaceu ommettee, 3 009); Time ca aber (pres. tical Activit theophany i 012). Among uence A/H1N the author 960. Roles:M ember (2013 inistration P (BR, Miami O of Malta, P History Ph rina, Studies acy, Italian maceutical C ortant nation blishes in m s of: Officina Theology. D Communica n Safety cou rnational Co Technology (U of safety of researh with ecretary at ag : Professiona heology; Com Pharmacists y Phaculty o : Diploma of ernational Pr ary Italy, Alb on of Gold-W tionals awar m 2006); LX and Culture ificate of me scientifics, orships from aries (includ ational Instit useums;a you bridge since e appreciate ciety of info lready Safet ernational So utical meridia 3 edit., 2008 arved in the eminent his ties Kingdom in digital tim g the 40 mu N1 (patron. U Manager Vi ) and honor Pharmaceutic i, Florida, U President hum harmacopoeia Melitensi, M Pharmacy H College. Ove nals and inter more than 15 al plants, Co Degrees h.c. ation (2013). urse for mana ommittee B Unesco 2007 Tribunals A Prefect of N ge 29 1990-9 al Etic, Mon mmittee Priz Federation; of Naples (19 f Honor for resident (Eva bany, former Work (Rm 20 rds: Aesculap XV Stramezz e (Rm 2012 erits public it historicals, m the Minis ding: Quirina tute Health- ur book deb 2010; Opac ed from auth rmation, 199 ty Advisor ociety History ans between 8); Thesauru silence of et storian Fra’ m of Naple mes (pres. M ultimedia: P Unesco, 2009) llano Intern rary member cal Departm USA, 2014), manitarian F as-Bern. Aca Medical Trad History, Neap er 100 confe rnationals Jo 50 Nations. osmetics tech : Human and Master h.c. agers, gettin iothecnologi 7-12), 11 yea Appeals Cou Naples (201 95 and Presid dial Action, ze Magna G ; national R 985-90), pro exceptional anston 2001: Yugoslavia 010); Veritas pius-Health i-Health (Rm 2); LXXIV S talian Health religiosus; stry of Cultu ale, National -USA, Natio buted to the c Sbn with o horities, inclu * * * 96; Rotary fo of ONU, 2 y Pharmacy, secular ethi us Pharmac ternity. Diacr von Lobste es (pres.: Pre Mons. Trafn Perfume of t ). national Bus r (2013) and ment of Ru Diplomatic Foundation C ademy: His dition Smiths politan Soci erences and ournals. Is Ad Study: class hnical, Corpo d Social Scie .: Science M ng High Patr ies Wabt-Un ars in Scienti urt Naples), 1-12). 32 y dent 2000 Ro Informatic; Grecia. Presid Representativ ofessorship L Services on only 100/ye , S. Marine ( s in Charitat Patron. Coun m 2007); Ca Serono- Histo h (DPR 2013 over 50 bo ural Heritag l Science Ac onale de Fra Fair of Fran over 130 wo uding more t for Men, 200 2004); Phar , 2 edit., 200 ics and catho cologicus (pr ronic reflect ein and crit esid. It. Ac. ny, Presid. D times.Art an siness Team d Associate uggero II U Advisor A Chiron since tory Art of sonian Institu iety History d chairman dvisory Boar sic; degree a orate security ences (2009); Medical Ethic ronages by C nesco 2008- ific Board fo Board memb ear partner a otary Club P among the m dent in Napo ve Federativ Lembo - Sup an individua ear/1,5 milion (Zurich 2001 te-Religion ( ncil of Minis apitolino-Hu ory (Rm 20 3). Author o ooks with p ge,Unesco, R ccademy, M ance, Congr nkfurt. Cata orks; Card o times the He 01; Managem rmacy art a 06); History a olic moral (p res. Presid. ions on inves tic PhD Ca Pharmacy H Dpt Science- nd pharmacy m; CEO Ch Professor in University - Aerec,Trader 1985, memb f Health-Min ution-USA, I Homeland, in dozens o rd Member f and enabling y, Haccp, Hi ; History and cs (2010). It Chief of Stat -13, membe or safety of h mber of Beau and owner o Pompei-Oplon many interna oli, national ve Pact of P perior Institut al basis in th n member); R 1); Sapientia (2011); Bonif sters (Rm 19 umanitarian a 12), Aerec-C of over 630 p restigious p Rotary, Univ inistries) and ress UK), in alogs: 2000 of Authority ead of State a ment safety i and history and activity o pres. PhD Tar Italians Pha stigation for arosella, 6 r History Dr. C Faith Pontif y history (pa iron Editor, n History of Studiorum since 1976, ber Internat. nistery B.C., International honorary of of congress. for american g: Pharmacy story, Social d Philosophy was: author, te and ONU er of World ealth of IBD umont Onlus of pharmacy. nti-Vesuvio; ational roles: coordinator Pharmacists. t of Health). he 5 Avenues Reward Anti a Mundi-Etic face-Culture 987); LXVIII activity (Rm Culture (Rm publications ublishers as versity, etc., d of over 40 n Istituts of Outstanding by Ministry and the Holy in Pharmacy (pres. PhD of SMOM (4 rro, Bioethic armacist Dr. r the memory repr., 2010); Corvi, 2010); fical Culture atron. AISF, , f m , . , l f . n y l y , U d D s . ; : r . . s i c e I m m s s , 0 f g y y y D 4 c . y ; ; e ,
  15. 15. Raimondo Villano – Attività speziali e farmaceutiche nel Regno di Napoli104
  16. 16. “““III aaammm mmmeeedddiiicccaaatttiiiooonnn hhhaaannndddsss ooofff ttthhheee gggooodddsss””” HHHeeerrrooofffiiillluuusss CDD 615 VIL act 2011 LCC DG831