47
CHIRON
EEEllleeemmmeeennntttsss ooonnn AAArrrttt aaannnddd
HHHiiissstttooorrryyy ooofff PPPaaarrrmmmaaacccyyy
RRRaaaiiimmm...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy4
Copy n. _____________
The autor
__________________________
Ele...
49
Caro Dottor Villano,
ho letto con molto interesse ed apprezzamento il Suo libro “Arte e Storia della Farmacia”.
Rappres...
51
53
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 5
To
my son Francis,
a small admirable
scholar of Egyptian hist...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 7
CONTENTS
Presentations 13
Preface 17
Historical notes 21
Old ...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy8
Study of botany 131
Herbaria figured 131
Herbaria in impressio...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 9
ùSpecialty Pharmaceutical 169
Pharmaceutical Advertising 171
...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 11
“Nobody knows his profession
unless he knows the story”
Joha...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 13
Presentation
he new book by our colleague Raymond Villano ri...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 15
Presentation
t's not often the case in person, exercising a ...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy16
museums, etc.).'s long journey man by the heroic solitude of ...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 17
Preface
aced with the disintegration of complex societies, a...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy18
studiositas on everything is not politics and history, or on ...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 19
The areas of the discipline of History of Pharmacy as define...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy20
Notes
1 John Cantoni - The monastery and monastic pharmacy - ...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy142
“If fear or sadness lasts for a long time,
this is something...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 143
Talmud... domesticated, with rocker empty, containing mercu...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy144
applied primarily to weigh the silver, war damage to the cit...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 145
Tetarton, Quartarius (1 / 4 of sextary) 136.80 ml kotyle, T...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy146
throughout the kingdom". In the second half of the nineteent...
Synthetic
B
h
H
U
K
Group of S
already Pon
Society His
Noble Chem
Collaborat
Editor DPC
(1985); cert
Doctrine of
(2010); S...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy204
REFERENCES
Books
• Champier S. - Le Myrouel des Appothiquair...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 205
• Mariacher G. - Vetri italiani del ‘600 e ’700 - Milano, 1...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy206
• Merlo E. - Gli speziali milanesi nel ‘700. Storie di antid...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 207
• Peruzzi G. - Nuovi strumenti per la lettura dei semplici ...
Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy208
“Pharmacy,
Church of the desperate,
a little god in every pi...
ISBN 978-88-904235-74
CDD 615 VIL tra 2012 v1
LCC R 131-687
“We have a responsability
to keep the past alive
from which we...
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Raimondo villano book - Elements on art and history of pharmacy - Balances, weights & measures

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abs.: 4. R. Villano “Elements of art and history of pharmacy” presentations of Prof. Dr. François Ledermann (President International Society for the History of Pharmacyand of Prof. Antonio Carosella (Past District Governor of Rotary International 2100-Italy) - Published by Chiron, ISBN 978-88-97303-02-2, CDD 615 VIL ele 2011, LCC R131-687, p.. 210 (Naples, February 2011);

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Raimondo villano book - Elements on art and history of pharmacy - Balances, weights & measures

  1. 1. 47
  2. 2. CHIRON EEEllleeemmmeeennntttsss ooonnn AAArrrttt aaannnddd HHHiiissstttooorrryyy ooofff PPPaaarrrmmmaaacccyyy RRRaaaiiimmmooonnndddooo VVViiillllllaaannnooo CHIRON
  3. 3. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy4 Copy n. _____________ The autor __________________________ Elements on art and history of pharmacy © Copyright Raimondo Villano © Research, creation, cover by Raimondo Villano. All right reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced in publications and studies without root’s citation. No part of this book shall be stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by ani means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Editorial: Prof. Dott. Maria Rosaria Giordano. Editors: mobile 338 59 60 222; e-mail: farmavillano@libero.it Advisor executive: Francesco Villano Editions Chiron Found. - Praxys dpt. © 2011 Chiron Foundation, via Maresca 12, scala A - 80058 Torre Annunziata (Napoli) Phone. 081 861 22 99 Fax 081 353 29 81 website: www.chiron-found.org Sales: Prof. Dott. Annamaria Giordano mobile 347 61 71 669. E-mail: annamaria.g10@alice.it; http://www.chiron-found.org Print LP - Napoli. First Edition in December 2004. Second Edition in January 2005. Third edition in April 2006. First published in English in Mars 2011. This volume, with no serial number and signature, shall be deemed counterfeit. ISBN 978-88-904235-36. CDD 615 VIL ele 2011 LCC R131-687 CHIRON FOUND. Praxys dpt
  4. 4. 49 Caro Dottor Villano, ho letto con molto interesse ed apprezzamento il Suo libro “Arte e Storia della Farmacia”. Rappresenta certamente un valente contributo alla Storia della farmacia ed ai suoi uomini che hanno rappresentato una struttura determinante alle cure degli uomini attraverso i secoli. Mi auguro di poterLa incontrare in qualche prossima riunione accademica a Napoli o a Roma. Con i più cordiali saluti. Comm. Prof. Dott. Angelo Capparoni Presidente Accademia di Storia dell’Arte Sanitaria Chiarissimo Dottor Villano, ho avuto modo di leggere ed apprezzare il Tuo testo - Arte e Storia della Farmacia - è scritto con stile piacevole e soprattutto con estrema chiarezza; è il testo ideale per chi vuole conoscere una Disciplina tanto affascinante quale la Storia della Farmacia. Una copia verrà conservata, per i posteri, nella Nostra secolare Biblioteca. Ti ringrazio ancora per il capitolo che hai voluto riservare al Nostro Nobile Collegio e, confidando in una Nostra futura collaborazione, mi complimento vivamente con Te. Nell’anno del Collegio 577 Il Presidente Dott. Gian Carlo Signore Gentilissimo Dottor Villano, mi congratulo con Lei vivamente per la Sua interessante ed elegante opera “Cenni di arte e storia della farmacia”, contributo culturale che certamente figurerà nella nostra biblioteca come volume di referenza. Prof. Rodolfo Paoletti, Preside della Facoltà di Farmacia dell’Università di Milano Gentile Cav. Villano, (…) sono certa che il suo libro sarà una gradita sorpresa anche per i numerosi giovani israeliani che scelgono l’Italia come meta dei loro studi in Farmacologia. Simonetta Della Seta, Direttore Istituto Italiano di Cultura di Tel Aviv, Israele
  5. 5. 51
  6. 6. 53
  7. 7. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 5 To my son Francis, a small admirable scholar of Egyptian history and those who trust in the ethics for a profession to improve quality of life.
  8. 8. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 7 CONTENTS Presentations 13 Preface 17 Historical notes 21 Old recipes and ancient remedies 21 Prescription contraceptive from the "Ebers Papyrus" 113 Recipe for diagnosis of pregnancy by "Papyrus Berlin 113 Amaroco Kos 114 Toothpaste 114 Headaches, due to the heat, especially the Sun 114 Dandruff care 115 Affections of the throat 115 Respiratory diseases 115 Stomach ailments 115 Medicines for hair and skin conditions of the crown 116 Muscerda anti hair loss 117 Elettuario bay 117 Infusion guaiac (or Holy Wood) 117 Emploi Crusta panis 117 Fat rate 118 Hiera composite 118 Mitridatum 118 Medication Roman 118 Arab aphrodisiac potion of formic acid 119 Recipes of the School of Salerno 119 Recipe for stones 120 Recipe for hair removal 120 Prescription painkillers and anticalcolosi 120 Clinical use of urine 121 Therapeutic use of dung 121 Epitima friendly 121 Remedy for hemorrhoids 121 Remedies for skin cosmetics 122 Tamarind 122 Treacle 122 Oil Beeswax 125 Honey Oil 125 Oil Sugar 125 Oil Human Skull 125 Magisterium of red coral 127 Footbath antigelonico of Sennerto 127 Of asthma Sennerto 127 Powder Antigout Benedictine Pistoia 127 Applications aphrodisiac electricity 127 Blood 128 Example of animal products that the chemist must have in its pharmacy 128 Drug minerals used by the Greeks and Romans 129
  9. 9. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy8 Study of botany 131 Herbaria figured 131 Herbaria in impression 132 Dried Herbals 132 Major herbaria Italian 133 Wax Botanical 133 Aloe 134 Instruments and laboratory techniques 135 - Laboratory Techniques 135 Distillation 135 Production of strong acids 135 Distillation (by G. B. Della Porta) 136 Distillation in the sun 137 Heating and temperature misurement 138 The degrees of Fire 138 Bain Marie, or Marino, and vapor 139 - Laboratory instruments 139 Scales, weights and measures 142 Mortars 147 Glass 148 The glass pharmacy 149 Vessels 153 The art of majolica 153 Neapolitan majolica 154 Majolica Cerretese 156 Ceramic Castle 156 Deruta pottery 157 Other production 158 Pharmacies 159 Officina Profumo-Farmaceutica S. Maria Novella 161 Pharmacy Camaldoli Hermitage 162 Pharmacy Pitti 163 Pharmacy banner of the Moro 163 Pharmacy Certosa del Galluzzo 163 Pharmacy of the Boar 164 Pharmacy of the Deer 164 Pharmacy Paturzo 164 Pharmacy Molteni 165 Hospital Pharmacy S. Fina 165 Pharmacy "Del Campo" 165 Pharmacy "Lucerne" 166 Old Pharmacy "Canto alle Rondini" 166 Old Pharmacy Betti 166 Pharmacy Serafini 167 Pharmacy La Fenice 167 Pharmacy "to give St. Marks" 167 Pharmacy Hospital for Incurable Diseases 167
  10. 10. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 9 ùSpecialty Pharmaceutical 169 Pharmaceutical Advertising 171 Noble College Universitas Aromatariorum Urbis 176 Structure and activities 176 Main publications 177 Prize "Superior Gold" 177 Italian Academy of the History of Pharmacy 178 Executive 178 Regional delegations 178 Calendar of recent years 179 Main activities 181 Magazine and Newsletter 182 Editorial Guidelines 183 Statute 183 Foundation "Pier Paolo Daniele" 184 Competition "Christopher Masino" for the History of Pharmacy 185 International Congress of History of Pharmacy 186 Museums 188 Museums in the World 188 Museums in Italy 194 Apothecary jars 196 Apothecary jars in some Italian museums 197 Museum collections: 198 • Aboca Museum of Sansepolcro (AR) 198 • Old Corvi rewarded Pharmacy 198 • Married Anna and Angelo Beccarello 199 • Pharmacy Museum Picciola 1799 - 1999 199 • Pharmacy Museum of Brixen / Bressanone 200 Aphorisms and curiosity 201 Addresses of teh History of pharmacy 203 Internet address 203 Postal addresses 203 References 204 Books 204 Media Books 205 Magazines 205 Communications to Congress 205 Conferences 206 Articles 206 Web Sites 207 Thesis 207
  11. 11. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 11 “Nobody knows his profession unless he knows the story” Johann Wolfgang von Göethe
  12. 12. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 13 Presentation he new book by our colleague Raymond Villano richly illustrated with a gorgeous collection of data and facts about the past of our profession from the earliest times until today. The work offers a presentation of ideas through the history of pharmacy and pharmaceutical literature but also of Italian and European laws, preparation of medicines, and materials used for their preparation by pharmacists. This vast fresco of the author is accompanied by a multitude of practical information on historical pharmacies, museums and structures in the history of pharmacy in the world and in Italy of interest to many enthusiasts of the history of pharmacy. But at the same time, Dr. Villano also effectively addresses the wide audience of pharmacists revealing to people a broad way that leads to cultural and historical knowledge of the pharmacy. Prof. Dr. François Ledermann President of the International Society for the History of Pharmacy T
  13. 13. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 15 Presentation t's not often the case in person, exercising a profession, I also feel the need to possess, in addition to the contents of which it consists and the logic that governs it, including the historical dimension.When this happens, it means that the expertise of the professional field have risen to intellectual needs broader and more articulated, in a word: culture have become such. Such is the case of Raymond Villa, which gives us further evidence of his inexhaustible curiosity and his professional commitment with this work, the fruit together, of painstaking research and intellectual passion. Was well known for its reliability through careful research and diligent other proofs of his industry insight and time to examine with the broad realities of our time (I think especially towards the Global Information Society, 1996) and now that very seriously,rekindles passion and involvement in human search for ways that his profession has changed over the centuries by trial and experiments that have marked and characterized the performance of the same cultural history of mankind. The history of pharmacy, in fact, heard and presented as the struggle that mankind has struggled against physical illness, committed, under the dramatic urgency of suffering, their faith is in divine and the resources of his genius, so that the adventurous tale of attempts successful or denied the experience is identical with man's journey into the dimension of time to the laborious conquest of civilization as slow but inexorable liberation from subjection to the hostile forces of nature and as a gradual but also unstoppable domination of nature. Hence the fascination of a search that will win over not only the interests of employees at work but also, perhaps above all, how many for the first time, as happened to me, facing a horizon stranger who turns out to pleasant surprise harmoniously complements that of the historical and literary studies. If we consider the rich documentation of the professional institutions, civil and political as well as the variety of objects produced by the advance pharmaceutical science historian, you will be more extensive and satisfactory use of fatigue Villano made by offering the vision of many evidence (books, drawings, I
  14. 14. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy16 museums, etc.).'s long journey man by the heroic solitude of the origins of modern comfort care valetudinarian. So we are grateful to the Author of giving us the fruit of his labor can enrich our poor knowledge of the long and difficult man advanced on the path of civil progress with the discovery of an aspect of his achievements so far remained on the margins ofcommon knowledge. Prof. Antonio Carosella Literary critic
  15. 15. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 17 Preface aced with the disintegration of complex societies, as expressed by Salvatore Settis, can be questioned with more acute our present knowledge allows us to open up its sense of the classic elements of story, which never cease to say what they have to say that persists as background noise even when the current rule as incompatible (Calvin) and, having overcome its own ruin and could show his greatness mutilated more attractive to their full integrity, they are both time and memory capacity project. The inferred fragmenta it pereant (John, ch. IV), reconstruction of fragments of the past, long and difficult, which sometimes are not enough tracks, one hand can enhance the awareness of having inherited a well- deserved privilege by our fathers and 'On the other hand, gathering the threads of this same noble heritage, can project into the future today, due to a rapid development of the profession rather than a succession of this is, in fact, almost a present. According Cantoni1 , mainly because Italians often historians tell the story almost entirely of political life, the common awareness of the past, the memory of it comes out deformed, and therefore attention to this. But when this is characterized by a weak policy, the question arises of a reconstruction of this historical time that is not limited solely to a sequence of political action, moreover, at least with recent evidence, not ideologically motivated. And this, the length of time between the twentieth century, the "short century" according to Eric J. Hobsbawm, begun in 1914 and already completed in 19892 , and the early years of Century XXI, which was not chronologically started when he was already under way, is characterized by a common weakness for totalitarian hypertrophy after decompression or compression by other areas of life. That grows in humus, therefore, interest in the life "politics" as politically- conditioning that is the ebb, whether voluntary or promoted, is accompanied by the application of different quality within that unfolds between curiositas and F
  16. 16. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy18 studiositas on everything is not politics and history, or on its characters and permanent changes in its course. If this question remains unanswered and is disappointed by the official authorities, which are most universities, there is legitimate room for corporate initiatives, ie initiatives of those who are curious and scholars of the past of his own business, while satisfying the public interest . While acceptable reflection of the importance of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe completion of their professional knowledge by the knowledge of its intrinsic history, when considered certainty gained profi-cuamente can undoubtedly lead to herald in a remote future, the enormous potential for training on their academic disciplines and professional historian can deploy in implementation projects of even broader than, though valuable, of modern times. In the development of the History of Pharmacy as a scientific discipline are central to the definition of its object of study, its implications on many issues, the demarcation of borders and relations with neighboring or related disciplines. To correctly identify the object of this discipline, therefore, must take into account that the term "Pharmacy" is used to identify both a technical and scientific profession that area: it meets a definition in the various preparatory activities, storage and dispensing of medicines and technical-scientific as the result of an intersection of various disciplines such as Biology, Chemistry, Medicine, having as the relationship between drugs and living organisms. In this view, whatever point of view, the core of its meaning is the medicine. It would be a stretch, therefore, conclude that the subject of History of Pharmacy is the profession and the pharmaceutical medicine. It is not, therefore, to study a medicine as such, nor to study a drug in the abstract but to study a number of different relationships between people and civilizations. Paraphrasing M. Bloch, therefore, the History of Pharmacy is the discipline that studies the relationship between man and medicine. It is this relationship that defines its subject, while its rich domain that shows in all its breadth the importance of this discipline in training future professionals in medicine. In this conceptual framework, the pharmaceutical profession continues to be important as in the past.
  17. 17. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 19 The areas of the discipline of History of Pharmacy as defined above, namely the transformation of theories and concepts in relation to medicines and the transformation that occurred in relation profession-drug-companies, are indeed traditionally the two dominant forms of supervision of History Pharmacy: a History of Science and the other linked to the Economic-Social History. Currently, the main address of pharmaceutical history is the synthesis between these two perspectives that consider the technical specifications of work but are integrated to enable a comprehensive understanding of medicine in human history. The next component integration in the history of science rather than the part next to the Economic-Social History, in each case using methods and techniques identical3 is a problem of relatively recent approach and is largely be the result of the impact of the change it can be seen growing interest and appreciation for Clinical Pharmacy. The attempt here is to be doing, in conclusion, is to stimulate curiosity about the depth of the issues mentioned and Food is responsible for keeping alive the past from which we come at the same time as our father and our son, we can not Moreover, escape from history, or accept that history is made of silence to no end, then, we silence4 below. Engage, even in the relentless race to the future, research applied to the recovery of historical knowledge of the essence and reason of their profession, carefully assessing achievements and mistakes, is - to paraphrase Kaplan consciousness is absolutely necessary because we realize the recognition, of finding oneself, of being. History, in fact, as a "category" of thought, is an inexhaustible source of reflection and critical education exercise, attention and power that is pushing forward is a sense of life, life as one of the pharmacist, but perhaps often misunderstood rich with meaning, full of varied and multiple large part of the great cultural history, civil, economic, political and social of all time. Raimondo Villano
  18. 18. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy20 Notes 1 John Cantoni - The monastery and monastic pharmacy - No Christianity 270, 1997. 2 See Eric J. Hobsbawm, The Age, trans. com., Rizzoli, Milan 1995. 3 To study the sources the History of Pharmacy largely applies essentially the same method and the same techniques of historical sciences. The historical method historical criticism is developed in different techniques. The critical documents is to determine rigorously the value of testimony and information if compared to other historical sources. The first stage, the critical external or authenticity, is to determine if a document is authentic or fake or if it is an original or a copy. It is generally divided into a critique of origin (which includes a determination of the author, place and date of preparation) and a critique of Reconstruction (which aims to reconstruct the original text of a document containing, for example, transcription errors ). The internal criticism or credibility is concerned to determine the accuracy of information contained in a document through five steps: critical interpretation (which merges with part of hermeneutics and through who is concerned to learn the content of the text) critical competence (which determines the quality of the text through the author's assessment of the ability to know and understand the facts), criticism of truthfulness (which examines the possible existence of false), rigorous criticism (which identifies the inadvertent errors in the description of facts), and verification of testimonials (which compares the information contained in the text with other available evidence). The use of historical criticism, along with the use of ancillary sciences gives the story its character as a science that should not be confused with experimental science, it is impossible to riproduduzione of historical phenomena in order to prove the hypothesis of, for example, a chemical phenomenon. 4 Carlos Fuentes, author, Mexico City.
  19. 19. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy142 “If fear or sadness lasts for a long time, this is something melancholic” Hippocrates, Aphorisms (VI, XXIII) BALANCES, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES The scale n Conci1 read about the balance of pharmacy "is very ancient records of one of the most typical and pharmaceutical indispensable tools": Libra (from Lat. Lanx and a"flat"). According to historians, the balance was already known in the East Neolithic age. In Europe, however, would come only in the age of metals, probably through the islands of Cyprus and Crete. Among the various hieroglyphic signs of a tablet inscribed in the Palace of Knossos II (first half of the second millennium BC) there is also that of the scale (equal arm, one foot vertical support). Another document is the tombstone of Kivik (Sweden), probably from the late Bronze Age. Large the budget document is also Egyptian. In addition to the scales to support the old age also knew hanging scales. Of this kind exist in the National Museum of Athens, two Bilancetta gold found in a tomb at Mycenae: the lever is formed by a thin gold bullion, gold wire always hold very thin plates. Scales with sliding weights on the arms were probably well known to the Babylonians. The Jews used to arm balances equal and unequal, with free weights and sliding: and also sling pocket. Balances are recorded in the O
  20. 20. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 143 Talmud... domesticated, with rocker empty, containing mercury, such as moving from the goods, cooperated very well with the dealer to cheat the buyer. No copy of scales Greek historical age there is still preserved. Do not miss instead figured monuments, including one of the oldest is the cup of Cyrenaica Arcesilaus (preserved in the National Library in Paris, where the king is represented Arcesilaus supervising the weighing and preparation of packages sifio, the famous drug formed the wealth of Cyrene and which remains the botanical origin is unknown, despite the research of many modern botanists). The scale corresponds to the Greek Etruscan, at least as can be inferred from the figured monuments (cysts and vases engraved). The Romans used scales with equal arms, bílanx (Trutina pounds and so the balance indicate that the scales), and arms unequal scales. Romans is due the introduction of the index (examen) located above the lever. There are many monuments figured these scales and also many specimens recovered from the excavations (Pompeii). Also preserved specimens of combination balance and equal arm scales (National Museum of Naples) with counterweight cursor fusiform, flowing on one arm. Judging by the number of copies left, the scale, coming from Campania, has been used more than the balance in equal arms. Greek and Roman scales - scales and pounds - remained in use in pharmacies until very recently. Blown glass, the hydrostatic balance combines the principle of buoyancy to that of Galilean small balance. To measure the different densities of fluids through the number of fragments of glass added or subtracted to find the balance arm. Weights and measures In speaking of scales must also remember the units of weight were used in the past. The unit most commonly used are of Greek origin. In Greece itself the unit of measurement varies according to area and the geo-politics. But the definition of the various measures is the subdivision of a sub-unit but not on a decimal-based duodecimal, originally from the Mesopotamian which probably created the first attempts to adjust the measures in a uniform manner. All measurements of weight, volume, linear surfaces, resulting from the first measurements of space in a second phase of the development of knowledge and the relationships between human groups measurements of space are linked to those specific volume (which is always a space) and then the relationship between space (volume) and a sense of gravity that makes sense is the weight that the absolute specific gravity of various substances. You can imagine how the ancient craftsmen would use volume measures to indicate the quantity of various substances to prepare medicinal substances and other materials, like paints walls of buildings or caves or ceramics, textile dyes and so on. Noting that equal volumes of different materials had a different weight, and this is a very primordial sense, at least for certain substances, it is preferred to introduce the measure in units of weight. In ancient Greece there was a complex structure of units of measurement for weight and other physical quantities. The value and weight of the unit changes with the times and areas, the "weight basis" had the talent, depending on the target called "Euboeans (Euboea) or" Eginetico (Aegina), for the most old, then after the reform Soloniana (seventh century BC) was called "Solons". The weight of the Attic talent, after the seventh century was calculated at around 26.20 pounds, was
  21. 21. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy144 applied primarily to weigh the silver, war damage to the city defeats during the frequent battles were established in thousands of talents of silver pay to the winner. A talent was divided into 60 Mine, a mine (436.60 g) was divided into 100 drachmas. The name drachma will serve as the unit of measurement for millennia, until we practically Italian unity and the introduction of the metric system, the drachma was the currency of modern Greece until the introduction of the Euro. Furthermore, the word drachma became the common language drama, contribute to the formation of the name Gram (with the grain). A drachma Greek classical age, for both coin weighing, into the system called "eginetico" but accepted that said "Euboean" and finally "penthouse", weighed about 4.366 g. In turn, the drachma was divided into six Oboli (approximately 0.728 g), the Pence, for minimum weight measurements were further divided into 8 Calculations corresponding to about 0.091 grams. The Romans built a weighing system, based on numerical relationships a bit different. Contact the greek world, mergers between systems and in some areas there was coexistence. The Roman system is interesting because in many technical and medical texts are found both the units and those Greek and Roman because its traces remain in the system in the Anglo-Saxon world (in current transactions). Talent and Mina served the Romans for large units of weight and the weight was definitely more a pound (Libra), equivalent to 327.456 grams, which was divided into 12 ounces (Uncia), equivalent to 27.288 grams, in the Anglo-Saxon there is also a fluid ounce (Fluid Ounces) for liquids and the same term was used per unit of linear measurement and area. Both Pound Ounce that were further divided: one for the weights and the second grossest and the most accurate. The pound was also known as Iron (As), which is one of the oldest units, 1 / 11 pounds was the Deunx (300.168 g) 1 / 12 the Dextans, 1 / 9 the Dodrans and so on. Among the most frequent units in the texts and pharmaceutical technicians found: Semis or Semissis, or half a pound (163.728 g), or Triënte Triens, one third of a pound (109.152 g) and Quadrans Teruncius or a quarter of a pound (81.864 g). Ounce is always used for many subdivisions, but the most frequent and interesting are undoubtedly the Semuncia, half ounce (13.644 grams), the Sextula, almost one quarter ounce of the corresponding Greek drachma, the Scripulum (which during thetime to become the scruple unit used widely in the late Renaissance Cookbooks and later), a twenty- fourth of an ounce, or 1.137 g. Finally, we find the shrunken Pence, to 0.5685 g. and, as a unit smaller, the Siliqua corresponding to third of the Obolo (and thus a centoquarantaquattresimo ounce), ie 0.1895 g. The Greeks built, therefore, a measurement of weight very effective, articulate and precise, while the Romans had to supplement it by adding weights "average" to relate some of their units to those of Greece, especially for accurate weighing. The Greeks had units smaller and therefore more suitable for more precise measurements. In fact, with the conquest of the Hellenistic world by Rome occurred in this field of so-called loss of technology. From the medical works of Celsus, Dioscorides, Galen and Pliny states that the Roman pound was divided into 12 ounces 288 96 Drama Scruples. Between the Greek and Roman units of measurement of volume in the liquids2 , then, were: Cocliarion, lat. Coclearius, which "spoon": 0.56 ml, 9.12 ml keme; Mystron 11.40 ml 22.80 ml Kocc; Kiatos, CIAT 45.60 ml Oxybafon, acetabulum 68.40 ml
  22. 22. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 145 Tetarton, Quartarius (1 / 4 of sextary) 136.80 ml kotyle, Triblyon, Hemina 273.60 ml Zestes, the most famous Sestarius 547.20 ml; Koiso, Congius 3.28 liters; Semi- Modius 4.381 itri only Roman Modius8.75 liter only Roman Amphorein Metretes 39.39 liters (Greek); Amphora Quadrantal 26.26 liters (Roman); Culeus only Roman Roman 525.26 liters only. The Coclearius (the name derives from the greek Cocliarion and probably refers to an ancient usage of snail shells to pick up substances) was only used in classical Greece and the Hellenistic world for misuremolto precise, in the Roman world using the Culeus, units for transport and transactions almost "industrial". Widely used in Roman times were the sextaries (pint) and Moggio (8.75 liters); indeed and Semi-Modius Modius units are typically Roman. Again there is a "loss of accuracy" technological era through the Hellenistic to the Roman Empire. Only during the principality of Antonini (Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Commodus), the period in which he worked Galen (160-199 AD), there was a partial recovery of the great Hellenistic science. In the Byzantine Empire after the fall of Western Roman Empire, there emerged a new monetary unit, resulting from solid gold and had two names have become important Nomisma (probably from "Nummus" Latin) and Bisanti, which became the currency gold more important in the Mediterranean until the Arabs do not undermine the primacy. The Arabs did and managed to beat the competition with their main Bisanti gold coin, the dinar, which derives its name from the Latin denarius, but its weight (4.25 g) comparable to the drachma. How weight, the Dinar was normally used in pharmaceutical Cookbooks instead of drachma and the important innovations were the dirham (a silver coin of 2.97 g) and the Rub a quarter of a dinar of 1.06 g. Cookbooks are also in the Aureus, corresponding to 1.5 drachmas (which is about 6.75 g.). The text "speeches" of Mattioli (1573) which is the most important commentary of the work "De Materia Medica" of Dioscorides Pedace (Anazarbus born in Cilicia in the first century. AD) we read the names and amounts of weight according to Dioscorides and also how we must understand the measure of things solid and liquid. Before the introduction of the metric system there were no uniform criteria regarding the values of weight, capacity and length. The system of weight or pharmaceutical product in use throughout the Middle Ages and beyond was based on the Roman system where the pound with its subdivisions was the usual measure. The Pavia Louis Valentino Brugnatelli in its General Pharmacopoeia of 1807 shows the weights of pharmaceutical use, expressed in grains, which "are used
  23. 23. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy146 throughout the kingdom". In the second half of the nineteenth century, in Italy every state had its own metric system and you should always specify whether a pound or a drachma were Milanese or Florentine, or Neapolitan, comparing the various systems that metric already invented and widely disseminated, there is as, for example, Pound range between 301.224 g (Venice) and 340.456 g (Modena), while the drama from 2.672 g (Naples) to 3.546 g (always in Modena). Over the years, the drachma was gradually reduced more or less the value of the dirham Arabic and belittled the units can be seen as an attempt to adapt to a more accurate measurement. Also, Pound and Ounce Roman unit of weight and are therefore equipped ab Origo greater "legal authority". Wheat, which is then half chalcone, reflects the need for greater accuracy. Pounds, ounces, drams, grains, with the introduction of the metric system were converted into grams, grains and milligrams. There were, however, significant weight fluctuations of values between the various Italian cities. From Pharmaceutical Military Code of 1862, we read that in Pavia 1 pound corresponded to 326.793 g. Also on Brugnatelli us back in his Pharmacopoeia next to the signs used in medical prescriptions empirical weights were used. Notes 1 Julius Conci (1934), "Pages of History of Pharmacy" Victory Editions Milan. Reprint of 1994, the Venetian publisher, Conselve (PD). Brugnatelli L.V. (1807), "Pharmacopoeia General use of modern medical dictionary that is of pharmaceutical preparations - Medical simple and compound used in our time and in accordance with new theories medicinal chemistry. Pavia, typography From John Hair. 2 Luigi Granelli - "The old unit - Pharmacy News, September 2004.
  24. 24. Synthetic B h H U K Group of S already Pon Society His Noble Chem Collaborat Editor DPC (1985); cert Doctrine of (2010); Scie organizer an (2000), Sec Academy B (responsible Foundation Member sin in Commett Pompeii. C and founde Assistant ro Internation of Action by Crime-Task (Rm 2008); and Society Piccinini-R 2010); Tibe 2013); Rew sanitary, pr Zanichelli, present in i Nations (in Culture, un Intellectuals BAC. Vario Father. Some book (pres. 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  28. 28. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy 207 • Peruzzi G. - Nuovi strumenti per la lettura dei semplici agli albori della scienza nuova - A.I.S.F. Atti e Memorie, Anno XX, N.3, dicembre 2002; • Canova G. M.- La cultura universitaria padovana e la nascita del realismo dell’immagine botanica - A.I.S.F. Atti e Memorie, Anno XX, N.3, dicembre 2002; • Cappelletti E. - I semplici vegetali negli erbari veneti quattrocenteschi - A.I.S.F. Atti e Memorie, Anno XX, N.3, dicembre 2002; • Peruzzi G. - Nuovi strumenti per la lettura dei semplici agli albori della scienza nuova - A.I.S.F. Atti e Memorie, Anno XX, N.3, dicembre 2002; • Giannelli L. - Alopecia, un problema antico - Farmacia News, febbraio 2003; • Giannelli L. - Alle origini dell’Alchemia - Farmacia News, aprile 2003; • Catellani P.- La Croce di Sant’Elena - Punto Effe, settembre 2003; • Catellani P.- Farmacisti o attori? - Punto Effe, settembre 2003; • Giannelli L. - Manualetto per la preparazione di rimedi facili - Farmacia News, ottobre 2003; • Farma Mese - Continuità nella tradizione - gennaio 2004; • Corvi A. - Perché a Bressanone - Farma Mese, gennaio 2004; • Giannelli L. - Gli Egizi e la “Scienza nascosta” - Farmacia News, marzo 2004; • Barberi M. - Quando a salute e malattia ci pensavano gli speziali - Farma News, 14.05.04; Website • cadnet.marche.it/farmacia; • chifar.unipv.it/museo; • diocesi.genova.it; • dipbot.unict.it; • eikonos.it/roccavaldina/farmacia; • elbuenosaires.com.ar; • emmeti.it/arte/toscana; • eurialo.cib.na.cnr.it; • farm.unipi.it; • home.swipnet.sc/pharmhist/museer; • imolanetwork.com; • imss.florence.it; • landferie.dk/pics/sc/detgamle.apotek.htm; • museionline.com; • nobilecollegio.com; • rettorato.unito.it; • mega.it/ita/gui/epo/medalb.htm; • edscuola.com/archivio/alchimia.html; • galileo.imss.firenze.it/multi/luoghi/oggetti/iimsso.html; • galileo.imss.firenze.it/multi/luoghi/indici/ipersona.html; • thais.it/scultura/sch00075.htm; • mega.it/ita/gui/monu/bo.htm; • galileo.imss.firenze.it/multi/luoghi/oggetti/imspecoo.html; • www.unifi.it/unifi/msn/main_eng.htm; • galileo.imss.firenze.it/multi/luoghi/oggetti/imbotano.html; • chifar.unipv.it/museo/storia_Farm_Pv/St_farmacia_Pv.htm; • medlav.unimo.it/dida/storimed.HTM#Ilrinascimentoscientifico;• medithema.it/testi/storia/sto14_1.htm; • medithema.it/testi/storia/indice.htm; • galileo.imss.firenze.it/farmacie/ifi1.html; • chim1.unifi.it/group/education/montalve/montalve.htm; Thesis • Giordano M. R. – Key historical developments and prospects of Pharmacy – University Federico II of Naples, Faculty of Pharmacy - Thesis completed in Pharmacognosy, AA 2003-04.
  29. 29. Raimondo Villano - Elements on art and history of pharmacy208 “Pharmacy, Church of the desperate, a little god in every pill” Pablo Neruda, Ode
  30. 30. ISBN 978-88-904235-74 CDD 615 VIL tra 2012 v1 LCC R 131-687 “We have a responsability to keep the past alive from which we come from; is both our father and our son” Carlos Fuentes

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