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R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
R. Villano   - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1
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R. Villano - book "Time carved in the silence of eternity" - part 1 cap 1

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Abs: R. Villano “Time carved in the silence of eternity. Diacronic reflections on investigation for the memory of homo faber”; Patronage by: Pontifical Academy Tiberina, Academy of History of Medical …

Abs: R. Villano “Time carved in the silence of eternity. Diacronic reflections on investigation for the memory of homo faber”; Patronage by: Pontifical Academy Tiberina, Academy of History of Medical Art, College Noble Chemical Pharmaceutical, European Academy for Economic and Cultural Relations Norman Academy of the State of Florida USA and of the Republic of the Gambia (Hight Spiritual Patronage of President Em. Pontifical Council of Culture Cardinal Paul Poupard) - Presentation of: Ven. Baliff Gran Cross of Jiustice of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta Exc. Fra’ Franz von Lobstein; P. D. G. of Rotary International 2100-Italy Prof. Antonio Carosella - Presentation Ceremony with the High Patronage of Ministry of Artistic and Cultural Heritageof the Italian Republic (MBAC-UDCM Cabinet 0009440-14/05/2010 Cl. 09.01.00/5491), by Jean Monnet Université Europenne and by Telematic Pegaso University; Published under Patronage by: Pontifical Academy Tiberina, Academy of History of Medical Art, College Noble Chemical Pharmaceutical, European Academy for Economic and Cultural Relations Norman Academy of the State of Florida USA and of the Republic of the Gambia (High Spiritual Patronage of President Em. Pontifical Council of Culture Cardinal Paul Poupard) Chiron, ISBN 978-88-97303-03-9, LCC BH 81-208, CDD 177 VIL tim 2011, Naples, January 2011, p.. 126);

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  • 1. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 13
  • 2. RRRaaaiiimmmooonnndddooo VVViiillllllaaannnooo TTTiiimmmeee cccaaarrrvvveeeddd iiinnn ttthhheee sssiiillleeennnccceee ooofff eeettteeerrrnnniiitttyyy DDDiiiaaacccrrrooonnniiiccc rrreeefffllleeeccctttiiiooonnnsss ooonnn ttthhheee iiinnnvvveeessstttiiigggaaatttiiiooonnn fffooorrr ttthhheee mmmeeemmmooorrryyy ooofff hhhooommmooo fffaaabbbeeerrr CHIRON FOUND. Praxys dpt Presentation Ceremony with the High Patronage of: Ministry of Artistic and Cultural Heritage of the Italian Republic Published under Patronage of: Pontifical Academy Tiberina Academy of History of Medical Art College Noble Chemical Pharmaceutical European Academy for Economic and Cultural Relations Norman Academy of the State of Florida USA and of the Republic of the Gambia Presentation of: Ven. Baliff Gran Cross of Jiustice of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta Exc. Fra’ Franz von Lobstein Past District Governor of Rotary International 2100-Italy Prof. Antonio Carosella
  • 3. Synthetic B h H U K Group of S already Pon Society His Noble Chem Collaborat Editor DPC (1985); cert Doctrine of (2010); Scie organizer an (2000), Sec Academy B (responsible Foundation Member sin in Commett Pompeii. C and founde Assistant ro Internation of Action by Crime-Task (Rm 2008); and Society Piccinini-R 2010); Tibe 2013); Rew sanitary, pr Zanichelli, present in i Nations (in Culture, un Intellectuals BAC. Vario Father. Some book (pres. Dr. Ledermann, edit., 2007) National C Mandelli 20 of homo fa Pharmaceu Logos and Council, 20 2002); Influ profile of t Born in 19 honorary me Healt Admi Universitas ( Knight SMO Study ISHP ntifical Tiber story Pharma mical Pharm es with impo C, which pub tified courses f the Church, ences of the nd chairman cretary Inter Biomedical T e company o for cancer r nce 1990, Se tees of Italy: arthage arch er Youngs P ole Pharmacy nals awards y Rotary Inte k Force Rota Legion Uni y (2011); Nat Research (Rm erin-Science ward by Certif rofessionals, with sponso talians Libr ncluding: Na niversity, mu s IBC-Camb ous books ar ks: Gobal so Renzulli, al , Presid. Inte ; Pharmaceu ommettee, 3 009); Time ca aber (pres. tical Activit theophany i 012). Among uence A/H1N the author 960. Roles:M ember (2013 inistration P (BR, Miami O of Malta, P History Ph rina, Studies acy, Italian maceutical C ortant nation blishes in m s of: Officina Theology. D Communica n Safety cou rnational Co Technology (U of safety of researh with ecretary at ag : Professiona heology; Com Pharmacists y Phaculty o : Diploma of ernational Pr ary Italy, Alb on of Gold-W tionals awar m 2006); LX and Culture ificate of me scientifics, orships from aries (includ ational Instit useums;a you bridge since e appreciate ciety of info lready Safet ernational So utical meridia 3 edit., 2008 arved in the eminent his ties Kingdom in digital tim g the 40 mu N1 (patron. U Manager Vi ) and honor Pharmaceutic i, Florida, U President hum harmacopoeia Melitensi, M Pharmacy H College. Ove nals and inter more than 15 al plants, Co Degrees h.c. ation (2013). urse for mana ommittee B Unesco 2007 Tribunals A Prefect of N ge 29 1990-9 al Etic, Mon mmittee Priz Federation; of Naples (19 f Honor for resident (Eva bany, former Work (Rm 20 rds: Aesculap XV Stramezz e (Rm 2012 erits public it historicals, m the Minis ding: Quirina tute Health- ur book deb 2010; Opac ed from auth rmation, 199 ty Advisor ociety History ans between 8); Thesauru silence of et storian Fra’ m of Naple mes (pres. M ultimedia: P Unesco, 2009) llano Intern rary member cal Departm USA, 2014), manitarian F as-Bern. Aca Medical Trad History, Neap er 100 confe rnationals Jo 50 Nations. osmetics tech : Human and Master h.c. agers, gettin iothecnologi 7-12), 11 yea Appeals Cou Naples (201 95 and Presid dial Action, ze Magna G ; national R 985-90), pro exceptional anston 2001: Yugoslavia 010); Veritas pius-Health i-Health (Rm 2); LXXIV S talian Health religiosus; stry of Cultu ale, National -USA, Natio buted to the c Sbn with o horities, inclu * * * 96; Rotary fo of ONU, 2 y Pharmacy, secular ethi us Pharmac ternity. Diacr von Lobste es (pres.: Pre Mons. Trafn Perfume of t ). national Bus r (2013) and ment of Ru Diplomatic Foundation C ademy: His dition Smiths politan Soci erences and ournals. Is Ad Study: class hnical, Corpo d Social Scie .: Science M ng High Patr ies Wabt-Un ars in Scienti urt Naples), 1-12). 32 y dent 2000 Ro Informatic; Grecia. Presid Representativ ofessorship L Services on only 100/ye , S. Marine ( s in Charitat Patron. Coun m 2007); Ca Serono- Histo h (DPR 2013 over 50 bo ural Heritag l Science Ac onale de Fra Fair of Fran over 130 wo uding more t for Men, 200 2004); Phar , 2 edit., 200 ics and catho cologicus (pr ronic reflect ein and crit esid. It. Ac. ny, Presid. D times.Art an siness Team d Associate uggero II U Advisor A Chiron since tory Art of sonian Institu iety History d chairman dvisory Boar sic; degree a orate security ences (2009); Medical Ethic ronages by C nesco 2008- ific Board fo Board memb ear partner a otary Club P among the m dent in Napo ve Federativ Lembo - Sup an individua ear/1,5 milion (Zurich 2001 te-Religion ( ncil of Minis apitolino-Hu ory (Rm 20 3). Author o ooks with p ge,Unesco, R ccademy, M ance, Congr nkfurt. Cata orks; Card o times the He 01; Managem rmacy art a 06); History a olic moral (p res. Presid. ions on inves tic PhD Ca Pharmacy H Dpt Science- nd pharmacy m; CEO Ch Professor in University - Aerec,Trader 1985, memb f Health-Min ution-USA, I Homeland, in dozens o rd Member f and enabling y, Haccp, Hi ; History and cs (2010). It Chief of Stat -13, membe or safety of h mber of Beau and owner o Pompei-Oplon many interna oli, national ve Pact of P perior Institut al basis in th n member); R 1); Sapientia (2011); Bonif sters (Rm 19 umanitarian a 12), Aerec-C of over 630 p restigious p Rotary, Univ inistries) and ress UK), in alogs: 2000 of Authority ead of State a ment safety i and history and activity o pres. PhD Tar Italians Pha stigation for arosella, 6 r History Dr. C Faith Pontif y history (pa iron Editor, n History of Studiorum since 1976, ber Internat. nistery B.C., International honorary of of congress. for american g: Pharmacy story, Social d Philosophy was: author, te and ONU er of World ealth of IBD umont Onlus of pharmacy. nti-Vesuvio; ational roles: coordinator Pharmacists. t of Health). he 5 Avenues Reward Anti a Mundi-Etic face-Culture 987); LXVIII activity (Rm Culture (Rm publications ublishers as versity, etc., d of over 40 n Istituts of Outstanding by Ministry and the Holy in Pharmacy (pres. PhD of SMOM (4 rro, Bioethic armacist Dr. r the memory repr., 2010); Corvi, 2010); fical Culture atron. AISF, , f m , . , l f . n y l y , U d D s . ; : r . . s i c e I m m s s , 0 f g y y y D 4 c . y ; ; e ,
  • 4. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity4 Copy n. _____________ The autor __________________________ © Copyright Raimondo Villano. © Research, creation, cover by Raimondo Villano. All right reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced in publications and studies without root’s citation. No part of this book shall be stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by ani means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Editorial: Prof. Dott. Maria Rosaria Giordano. Editors: mobile 338 59 60 222; e-mail: farmavillano@libero.it Advisor executive: Francesco Villano. Editions Chiron Found. - Praxys dpt. © 2010 Chiron Foundation, via Maresca 12, scala A - 80058 Torre Annunziata (Napoli) Phone: +39 81 861 22 99 Fax: +39 81 353 29 81 Website: www.chiron-found.org Sales: Prof. Dott. Annamaria Giordano mobile 347 61 71 669. E-mail: annamaria.g10@alice.it; http://www.chiron-found.org Print LP - Napoli. First published in January 2010. Before March 2010 reprint. Second reprint September 2010. First published in English in January 2011. Finished writing the twenty four in December 2009. Cover photo of Raymondo Villano (2005): bust from the cloister of the Certosa of Prosecutors San Martino in Naples. Serialized. This volume, with no serial number and signature, shall be deemed counterfeit. ISBN 978-88-97303-03-9. CDD 177 VIL tim 2011. LCC BH 81-208. CHIRON FOUND. Praxys dpt
  • 5. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 5 For the Professed and no Knights Brothers and Sisters Dame of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta very close to me, which I appreciate the talent that drives my studies and also some of which, above all, love the deep spirituality that inspires and directs significantly my life.
  • 6. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 7 Ceremony of presentation of the book: with the High Patronage of Ministry of Heritage and Culture of the Italian Republic With the participation of: Your Eminence the Mr. Cardinal Poul POUPARD President Poul Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Culture Prof. Dott. Comm. Tito Lucrezio Rizzo Chief Counsel Services Quirinale Studiorum Universitas Ruggero II State of Florida - U. S. A. and Republic of the Gambia Prof. Dott. Gr. Uff. Giulio Tarro WABT c/o UATI-ICET / UNESCO House - Paris Chairman of International Committe Biothecnologies and VirusPhere Coordinator: Duke Riccardo Giordani of Willemburg Master of Ceremonies of the Norman Academy Ceremony: Saturday, October 2, 2010 - 17:00 House of Pilot Air Officers Club - Rome
  • 7. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 9 Published under the Patronage of: Academy of History of Medical Art Norman Academy RECOGNIZED BY THE LAW OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA U.S.A. AND OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE GAMBIA NOT POR PROFIT ASSOCIATION ARTS, LETTERS, HUMANITIES AND OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENCE IN THE WORLD ACCADEMIA TIBERINA University Institute of Culture and Higher Education
  • 8. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 11 Contents Introduction 23 Introduction 25 Preface 27 Part One The sense of history and the duty of memory 35 Memory as perceived sense of collective identity 46 The sense of memory in the arts health 57 Essence and logic of subtraction facts to oblivion 62 The seat of the divine Epiphany in the interweaving of time and eternity 67 Part Two Paradigms methodological and technical aspects of historical sciences 79 Conceptual and methodological approach to history 86 Heuristics historiography of science 87 Issues of interdisciplinarity in the history of science 92 Insight regarding the History of Art Health 94 The historical archive and the museum area 96 Role of ICT in the development of the study and dissemination of health history 100 Further correlative between book in print and multimedia work 111 Study on the funzional integration of informatics: 114 1. Insights on the virtual library online 114 2. Study on virtual museum online 116 3. The Minerva project under the Community Initiatives digitization of cultural heritage 118 4. Examples of support networks for research and consulting historical 124
  • 9. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 15
  • 10. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 17
  • 11. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 19
  • 12. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 21 ACCADEMIA EUROPEA per le RELAZIONI ECONOMICHE E CULTURALI Il presidente Roma, 7 gennaio 2010 Carissimo Raimondo, facendo seguito alla tua richiesta di patrocinio AEREC per la pubblicazione della tua ultima fatica letteraria: “Il tempo scolpito nel silenzio dell’eternità. Riflessioni sull’indagine diacronica per la memoria dell’homo faber”. sono lieto procedere con la concessione, in virtù dell’impegno straordinario profuso in quest’opera che, dai postulati programmatici, si propone come strumento di lettura del nostro Paese in un momento particolarmente delicato ma interessante di cambiamenti epocali e determinanti per il futuro. Augurandoti pieno successo per l’iniziativa, aspetto di leggere il libro ed intanto ti giungano i più affettuosi e sinceri auguri di buon anno. Ernesto Carpentieri Via Sebino 11 – 00199 Roma - Tel. 0039-06.85.86.57.00 Fax 0039-06.84.14.531 Web site: www.aerec.org e-mail: info@aerec.org
  • 13. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 23 Presentation entleman of the composite social and historical interests, by and large, I dare say, even impressive bibliography, the brother Raimondo Villano presents to our attention his last work of fiction entitled “The time carved in the silence of eternity. Diachronic reflections on the investigation for the memory of homo faber”. Is, in fact, a “slender” volume, since it consists of just over one hundred pages, which stands for both consultability and elegance to the iconographic choices indeed refined. I run, however, the obligation to make a clarification, or it is deceit of the term adopted “slender volume” because the phoneme that we allowed to use, mind you, refers to anything but a work of thinness not just because of the topics covered, in fact everyone, but everyone “hard”, but also for the depth of knowledge and the thoughtful attention. To get a vague idea about it, moreover, appears sufficient to put much was already only titles of the chapters of Part One and Two, although it must be confessed that a careful reading of them assume some, if not require, a immediate knowledge of the relevant texts. Pausing, then, to reflect on major themes, however, performed within the highest of the term, the accumulation of an ideal “summa”, the work leads us, in relation to aspects of “memory”, aphorism fruit of ancient wisdom with which Cicero suggests that memory diminishes if not held in year (“memoria minuitur nisi eam exerceas”, “De senectude”, VII VII. 21) while for what concerns “the history and its methodology”, it still refers to Cicero where claims “historia vero testis temporum, lux veritatis, vita memoriae, magistra vitae, qua voce alia nisi oratore immortalitati commendatum ” (“De orat”, II, 9, 36) , but also engaging in a remarkable “leap” in time, to Massimo D'Azeglio, from which we learn that “history is not useful because it reads the past, but because we read the future”, to Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi that “the hole in the sea” remembers how the philosophy of art history is to seek and discover the laws governing the moral world”, to Carlo Belgioioso in G
  • 14. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity24 “School and Family” said that “history is the conscience of the notary public” and, also, to Giacomo Bazzellotti that treating Francesco de Sanctis points out how “the recent progress of the method have increasingly moved away from art history by giving it an increasingly scientific”. Reflecting, again, on aspects of the History of Science and, in particular, medical science and its dissemination, we remember in mind is the thought of St. Gregory the Great, “quando mundus ad extremum ducitur, tanto largior nobis aeternae scientiae aditum aperitur”, that the assertion of Carlo Cattaneo, ie that “knowledge is wealth” and a consideration of Gaetano Negri that “the fundamental characteristic of the modern spirit is that all the forces of intelligence are brought to the investigation of physical phenomena and moral considered themselves outside of any injury each element metaphysical” (“Sign of the times”, 125). But what we love more, as well as historians, professed as members of John, finally, about the developments described on the seat of divine epiphanies in the interweaving of time and eternity, a desire to participate in store last reference the very interesting synthetic fundamental precept that in the Satires of Juvenal (10, 356) points out that “orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpore sano”: “must pray for a healthy mind is a healthy body”! Rome, February 6, 2010 Fra’ Franz von Lobstein Ven. Baliff Gran Cross of Justice of Sovereig Military Order of Malta
  • 15. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 25 Presentation he book, which consists of two distinct parts and connected into the idea while skiing, faces the difficult task of approaching two traditional scientific disciplines and different structuring both inside and objective knowledge: History and computing. The purpose of the combination is a practical and operational, that, without compromising the autonomy of both disciplines and without affecting the statutes or affect the internal logic, it has the potential of one (the computer ) in the service of the (history) to dilate and increase the amplitude of the horizons of knowledge and to enhance the teaching load. At the root or the root of such a transaction, complex and daring at the same time, there is the firm conviction that differentiation of the “two cultures”, theme in the second half of last century, is destined to give way to a desired integration into a “knowledge”, both new and old, that seems not too distant horizon of troubled present. waiting, still rather bewildered and confused, a rise that seems to allude even the “The time carved in the silence of eternity”; where the image of time painstakingly carves its mark on eternity is not infinite slab can not even scratch, it, intact and absorbed the silence. And so it comes together, for us men, the mystery of the eternity-time relationship. Then: he has a sense of the generous effort of the author to call our limited understanding of mortals to confront the issue again with time-eternity, if this problem is constitutively above the intellectual possibilities of man? Certainly. Indeed it seems that the inner meaning and overall the demanding and challenging language that the villain is precisely the awareness of limits and in an effort to move even further using the tools of modern technology. And in this effort that science and History will have to work together to grow in knowledge man without authorize the mad flight of Ulysses than Pillars of Hercules of his finitude. The long and detailed reflection on history, its meaning and its purpose is nurtured and supported by valid documentation and authoritative references, but not an end in T
  • 16. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity26 itself, because once the prospect, more limited, art and health, more precisarmente, the history of pharmacy, which the author is passionate lover. Desirability by the emergence and relevance of knowing the past to better live the present and more consciously prepare for the future comes as a logical consequence, the identification of computing as a technology that today can expand remarkably, facilitate, enhance and disseminate the signs and testimonies of the past to the advantage of cultural enrichment that the propitiation of a wider horizon of knowledge for the future. And with the added benefits offered by the tool, which allows to overcome and eliminate two major problems that have until now limited operational possibilities of man: the obstacles of time and space. It is not the conquest of omnipotence, which belongs only to God but is a giant step forward in man-made gradual but relentless march towards the "great sea of being" supreme. And it is thanks to Raymond Villano intuition and made the subject of his research. C.mare di Stabia, March 4, 2010 Prof. Antonio Carosella Past District Governor of Rotary International 2100-Italy
  • 17. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 27 Preface his work springs from a particular bundle of items related to my status as a student of history, Catholic John, professional health and social citizenship in a nation engaged in its wonderful complexity yet clear. A summary of the reading does not work I believe, indeed, could mark a time when we remember the important moments and aspects of our history. At the same time, without any rhetoric, the passage of Chapter I may be an opportunity to look to the future opportunities for rediscovering the value and duty of the witness, narration and aid knowledge. A reading, then, from which emerge not only solid lintels to support the conceptual framework of memory, not to forget, but also a literary work that engages in the completion of further work highly civil beam reflection elements of peace social competition in revitalizing the sense of national cohesion, particularly need to be cultivated and distributed in current times, and care and protection of genuine roots that essentially cover the whole country. On the other hand, with deep Christian feeling, I wanted to develop coherent thoughts with the intention to collaborate to spread the kingdom of God in the world today and in a prolific metabolism of faith and reason, even humbly contribute effort open space for all peoples and for those who know God from a distance or where he is unknown or even stranger: for help, in fact, “to engage with God”, before whom every human being(1) . As an academic, finally, I detailed some methodological issues and use of sub- discipline of historical health. Raimondo Villano _________________ (1) The terms of reference are that the “court of the Gentiles”, reserved in the Temple of Jerusalem to the Gentiles who wanted to pray to the one God and that Jesus wanted to evacuate those who had turned into “a den of thieves”, and thoughts expressed by relevance Pope Benedict XVI in his address to the Roman Curia for the submission of Christmas greetings (Vatican, Sala Clementina, December 21, 2009). T
  • 18. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 29 “Timeo lectorem unius libri” San Tommaso d’Aquino
  • 19. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 31 Cigola the pulley of the Well the water rises to the light and there merges. trembles in a memory filled bucket, in the pure image circle laughs. lips pulled over their faces to the evanescent: deforms the past, you old, belongs to another... Ah already stride the wheel, you end restores the atrium, vision, a distance between us. Eugenio Montale
  • 20. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 33 Part One “I want to learn the timing of memory because you taught me, where are you, my future is in our past (...) lost in the wind like ashes signs of life” Ugo Ronfani
  • 21. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 35 The sense of history and the duty of memory he story is like the ground beneath our feet: we do not indicate a direction, but without it we can not walk(1) . History to avoid losing the thread of his existence and the center of balance. The production of these scientists, inventions and innovative knowledge, must be based on a collective feeling, become a shared consciousness. They are the simplest mechanisms of memory we must resort to the memory and its processing to project into the future(2) . The past, in fact, be considered as the best invention of the future. In historical studies, therefore, we see one of the cornerstones of our existence and our culture. For the Greeks (Hesiod, Pindar) Lethe, the goddess of forgetfulness, formed a pair of opposites with Mnemosyne, the goddess of memory. As if to underline that there is a profound connection between knowing how to forget and be able to remember. Lethe is, then, as remind readers of Virgil, Dante and John Milton, the name of the river of the underworld where the souls are drinking to get rid of their previous existence and can therefore return to the life of a new body (3) . You can advance the hypothesis that the myth took into account two different kinds of memory loss. The first, temporary, which removes the temporary memory of some adversity, causes a transient being, but is resolved when the memory inevitably resume its rightful place, and adds more pain to those suffering it was meant to alleviate. _________________ (1) Reference: Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Ethics. Heritage and decadence. (2) Antonella Bilotti, Deputy Director Centre for Cultural Enterprise, Culture of Enterprise Week, If the company makes history, Sole 24 Ore, 12.11.06. (3) Paolo Mieli, History and politics. Memory and forgetting. Rizzoli, June 2001, p. 23. T
  • 22. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity36 The second, final, but everything else that otherworldly, is the peace that addresses the problems of memory until they disappear in the distant past. Perhaps the goal foreshadowed by Teiresias is the second kind of oblivion, where you can divide the present from the past and transform the past into history(4) . The need-desire to return to question long periods and long distances as a function of this is a sign of our times, their deep diseases, the need to heal, or at least to stand in front of more accurate diagnosis. Gian Battista Vico taught us that in times of confusion it must find its foundation. And the historical memory is the foundation of revival. The patientia historiae, the art of those who can wait for the chaos if you do and then convert in order and sense (except in reverse, then again, inexorably, route), can not escape from the sadness historien, melancholy of a craftsman had to work again subjected to the devastating human law, where the chronological passage would run much further adventures of the spirit. Here, then, at this juncture about the great suffering, be tempting to look at things in the distance, not to escape the obligations of this, that cowardice does not touch anything, but on the contrary, to give his time a destiny more clearly and irrevocably in the great sea of history. In practice, faced with the disintegration of complex societies, as expressed by Salvatore Settis, can be questioned with more acute our present knowledge allows us to open up its sense of the classic elements of story, which never cease to say what they have to say that persists as background noise even when the current rule as incompatible (Calvin) and, having overcome its own ruin and could show his greatness mutilated more attractive to their full integrity, are both time and memory design capacity. The Colligere fragmenta ne pereant (John, ch. IV), reconstruction of fragments of the past, long and difficult, which sometimes are not enough tracks, one hand can enhance the awareness of having inherited a well-deserved privilege by our fathers and the other hand, picking up the threads of this same noble heritage, can project into the future today, due to a rapid development of society, science and technology, rather than a succession of this is, in fact, almost a present (5) . “With the denial”, writes Prosperi, the historical conflict has a professional: discover that what has been hidden by the dust of time is the little pleasure they work for scholars of the past. Bring to life what is dead and gone, eventually winning the fight to tear his victims is what makes the town feel his liminal position between dead and living as a heroic mission rather than a peaceful exercise of erudition. _________________ (4) Paolo Mieli, History and politics. Memory and forgetting. Rizzoli, June 2001, p. 29. (5) Raimondo Villano, Reflections on the implications of contemporary historiography pharmaceutical - Acts and Memories of the Italian Academy of the History of Pharmacy, AISF Instruments Category, Year XXII No 1 April 2005. pp. 12-14.
  • 23. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 37 Just a restoration of an even minimal evidence of the past to give the thrill of an unexpected encounter with the authentic voice of the dead(6) ”. Is essential, however, that “the adrenaline, the excitement, however noble, do not infiltrate in the ink of the writer of historic events (7) ”. Is in fact one of the cardinal principles of historical research: analyzing the phenomena in relation to their causes and effects they produce. Free from polemics and apologetics posthumous anachronistic, then, history has the task of representing the man and his actions from the various constraints that he suffers. But “this is the first rule for writing history: no one dares say the fake and then you do not dare not tell the truth, there is a suspicion that the pen writes in favor or against (8) ”. For the historian, moreover, is also crucial to have the modesty to be derived from the consciousness of confrontation with recurring problems in the history of humanity _________________ (6) Paolo Mieli, History and politics. Memory and forgetting. Rizzoli, June 2001, p. 67. (7) Brandmüller Walter Bishop, President of the Pontifical Committee of Historical Sciences, in: Galileo and the Church in light of the history of thought -2006 page 221. (8) Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903), Apostolic Letter “Saepenumero considerantes”, Roma San Pietro, 18 August 1883, the sixth year of the Pontificate.
  • 24. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity38 and with which we are faced with the full awareness of their fragility and limited jurisdiction(9) . Go, then, given the difference between a journalist and a historian can be explained in clear terms: the first deals with the living, the second (unless it makes this a story or a story almost like the chronicle) takes care of the dead(10) . The historian, also, “says things that happened, the power of what could happen (...), the poem has to do with general truths, the history with specific events (11) ”. The historian, then, when dealing with the history of this has the onerous task of understanding the “careless” and “superficial” as that runs in front of their eyes can be seen only confusion (12) . A key phenomenon that little bay, however, is that not all reality is “historical”, while for “historic” means that is sufficiently documented and certified (13) . One joint is crucial to overcome a history of the idea of reading as pure entertainment, the perception that it can be a tool for education and civil growth. It should also not consider history as a fable or believe to be the books of historians who, in turn, should not dictate a line but simply explain the facts honestly with the results of their research: a history of quality and, therefore, full of dignity and moral values rather than the intricacies of double and twisted triple truth (14) . Examining in greater depth on major issues concerning the role of the historian, the basic question appears to be making history today if it still makes sense and what it might be, is a question, in fact, that has a density and a significant exceeding the special concerns of a discipline and its scholars to expand in the very challenging reflections on civic life in our present(15) . Although it appears bold about the answer, I believe that history can be attributed to another very important task, he is worth trying to make a contribution at a time when people are very confused and standardized: conduct the “praxis”, the effort of moving the story from the narrow scope of specialized studies to place it in contact with all the difficulties that face. In fact, setting “serene temples” of wisdom to the study of diachronic observation of human wrecks, appears with evidence fully justified the surprise of how little of Simmel on “human pain is pierced in their philosophy”. _________________ (9) John Rawls, “Lessons of history of political philosophy”, Feltrinelli, Milan 2009. (10) Sergio Luzzato, Professor of Modern History in Turin. (11) Aristotle, Poetry. (12) Abs. reworked by Hugh Tamballi, Suicide of communism - Il Sole 24 Ore Sunday, May 31, 2009, No 48, p.. 37. (13) Gianfranco Ravasi. (14) Carlo Ossola, Cantinori, heretics and fascism, Sole 24 Ore, Sunday, July 31, 2005. (15) Luigi Mascilli Migliorini, The tricks of memory. Il Mattino, Culture, 12.01.09
  • 25. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 39 The content of this communication, cultural historian, therefore, need to look deep into the identity of who carries within itself the heavy concept of memory, not forgetting to consider that “the past is indestructible, partly because the historical events are the texture of our lives(16) ”. The rest has already been emphasized (17) as urgent an act of consciousness capable of sceverare values and models to draw from the present to make history not only of atrocity a cemetery or land of elation, but a yeast dignity for the future(18) . Is quite clear, in fact, what good studies have unquestionable social value. We have no illusions, however, can capture the essence of things as they really are gone, and even fewer of them to know once and for all. Droysen long warned that the historical research are not the former things that become clear as they are no longer, but it becomes clear that for them, in the here and now, has not yet entered(19) ”. We propose to “enlarge and enrich the world of our ideas with the knowledge documented continuity of moral evolution of humanity, for the moment it touches us, living today, to pick it up and continue, for our part, meaning the link(20) ”. _________________ (16) Eric J. Hobsbawn, “The Short Century 1914-1991”. (17) by masters such, as, Ernesto Sestan. (18) Carlo Ossola, ibid. (19) J.C. Droysen, Summary of history, edited by D. Cantinori, Florence 1943, p.13. (20) Ibid.
  • 26. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity40 Ideas about the past, moreover, are by no means definitive. They are modified according to the priorities of the moment. Whenever in the contemporary scene and new priorities emerge in our lives, the lens of the historic moves and goes to explore dark areas, highlighting factors that have always existed but that historians had earlier deleted from the collective memory of distraction or lightness (21) . From the obscurity of the past resonate new voices who want to be heard (22) . This continually reinvents the past. In this sense, all history, as Benedetto Croce said, is contemporary. These changes in perception that make it an absolutely fascinating intellectual adventure. Oscar Wilde said that “we owe history is to rewrite”. Meanwhile, let the many new flowering shoots in history. The story is never finished, nor intended as a final verdict. It is a process that never ends. Historians must never abandon the pursuit in the interest of an ideology, religion, race, nation(23) . The story also does not issue verdicts purely authoritarian. Indeed, it is not “executioners, not a court issuing judgments of acquittal or conviction. (...) The story is the attempt to understand how and why men have lived, and to do this you need to dive in the era in which the events occurred that we study and understand how and why men have lived without giving moral judgments, even putting it in connection with the period of which we are dealing (24) ”. Historical knowledge is constantly developing and never can be final: it reveals in a single expression is something of the subject, expressed as a portrait-even if not exhausted, while the personality of the character portrayed and the the author(25) . The truth always has a historical knowledge is partial and gradually conquered by a succession of research and the development of historiography. The story is always different and unpredictable, although historians may find courses and resorts(26) . Considering, then, the thought of Albert Einstein who claimed that the imagination has more knowledge, it is possible that the student with imagination has the capacity to deal with circumstances seemingly improbable and remote from the common prejudices and come to find out again, provided it gives confirmation to the documents. The work of the historian, however, is a company in bankruptcy that is pursued with enthusiasm because it’s the thrill of exploration, because it trace the past is exciting because it involves great intellectual challenges. _________________ (21) Arthur Schlesinger Jr, The story, an antidote to stupidity - (Last article) New York, 2007, Translation: Marta Matteini for Sole 24 Ore. (22) Ibid. (23) Ibid. (24) Claudio Magris cites Giovanni Miccoli (Professor of History of Christianity in Trieste) in “History of Consciousness”, Francis Mannoni by: The Morning, Culture, January 16, 2007. (25) Image of the historic Henri-Irénée Marrou. (26) Giovanbattista Vico.
  • 27. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 41 The historical fact, are prisoners of their experience: the stock of knowledge is fraught with bias due to each character and the period in which we live. Not possess absolute truths or final. The business of the historian is bound to fail, then, the quest for absolute objectivity is unattainable(27) . Ultimately, however, must be recognized that a comparison of different interpretations surrounding the true knowledge. On the other hand should not be omitted that, after so long history of events, some historians have attempted to make history of phenomena, so to speak, more evanescent: emotions, perceptions, false news, up to in recent decades to be particularly attracted by the history of memory, by the way, that is, where historical memory is consolidated, stratified created. How it was selected, which has obeyed the selection rules. Many were so, studies dedicated to public use of history and memory, the construction of the various memories. It should, however, consider that the research questions that are behind the path of memories is quite a task for the historian not only legitimate but even a duty. Ultimately, however, must be recognized that a comparison of different interpretations comes true knowledge. Inquire further on the major issues concerning the method of the historian, in fact, comes to mind when Nietzsche claims that there are “no facts but only interpretations”. _________________ (27) Arthur Schlesinger Jr, Ibid.
  • 28. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity42 And our time seems to confirm this theory or prophecy about the interpretations are so many and conflicting with each other. Historians, however, seek, or should seek the truth and sometimes they find it. Of course, these are human truths, falsifiable, thus potentially revocable. But if history was falsified, our relationship with the past and also with the world falls apart. To say that implies a true relationship with the false and the fake (the story that is used to invent, as Manzoni remarked ironically) is to state a truism. But the neo- skeptics tend to forget the false grounds that all is fiction while their old and new tend to forget the fake, in controversy with both categories, for example, Carlo Ginzburg(28) tries to demonstrate(29) that the false from the truth that is born from false and vice versa. There is, then, the category of probability: An important issue is, in fact, if the historian can fill the gaps of knowledge with the connective tissue of the imagination, using his experience to distinguish the plausible from the purely fantastic . It is a curious experiment. Furthermore, the truth is obvious or hidden? And if it is hidden, depends on our inability to indiviuazione and an original understanding or deliberate intention to conceal? And how can we unravel? “The truth is almost always hidden, even when it is obvious(30) ”. Is sometimes concealed, sometimes we can not see it: one does not exclude the other. To bring to light there are many tools. One of them is the strange(31) : the ability to see things from a distance, as if they knew the(32) . The truth also has moral value since the facts can also be misused and become a false lie. But there can be protective of who tells lies, using discernment, easy to say, difficult to implement. Moreover, besides being surrounded by liars often appears that mundus vult decipi, means the world to be deceived! The historic, yet, to judge events or matters that engage him emotionally or even where you share? Historians such as Thucydides, Guicciardini, Marc Bloch has shown that it is possible as long as you replace the “judge” (or judicial moralistic connotations) with the “known”. There is, finally, to consider the relationship of the modern era of triumph, in every sense of the virtual with the truth: the society in which we live, in fact, use technologies that enhance the power of the virtual, but the truth may also arise from the virtual, if ignored, can sometimes give an idea of restricting the truth. Our memory is increasingly uncertain in the comparison between past and present since the time separation, obvious in itself, can turn into irrelevance, or even in aversion. _________________ (28) Well known Italian historian originally from Turin, but living in Los Angeles whose works have been translated into twenty languages, loves the history of the great scenes reconstructions of facts and events limited in time and space, sometimes also considered “minimum”. (29) Ginzburg Carlo, The wire and traces, P.. 340, 2006. (30) Poe, The Purloined Letter. (31) Ginzburg Carlo, ibidem. (32) A great master of this way of looking at the world is Montaigne.
  • 29. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 43 The value of contextuality to be understood as fully as possible the diachronic historical and cultural cross-fertilization. For a people (or a profession, social group or an individual) has a very smooth but also not perceived distance between past and This arises because in this condition of being a direct child. The humanistic lesson of history is that of continuity and enhancement of the deepest intellectual traditions. We should never forget the inner dimension that can be created with the reading. With culture in general. Talk about a classic does not mean repeat what existed in the past but pose to better understand what is different from ourselves(33) . “The art and history are among the most valuable tools for investigation of human nature(34) ” Why take a classic study? Not for nostalgia nor illusion of continuity but because engaging with a culture that is both foundational and antagonist of our present, we can first historicize their knowledge and the other to show how the classics, even if outdated in their responses remain necessary to formulate new questions. A common thinking and an alliance no longer be deferred, especially for a country like Italy who is serving a double fault: a lack of science and the dispersal of its classical heritage. _________________ (33) Salvatore Settis. (34) Ernst Cassiner.
  • 30. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity44 However, the requirements lead to dialogue with the disciplines whose ties are as deep as neglected classic. While market imperatives seek to marginalize the humanities knowledge and scientific knowledge are not immediately applicable, beyond the two cultures means to return knowledge needed space where they can mature research and critical thinking(35) . We believe, as Epimenides, that history is prophecy of the past(36) . The humanist proposes the osmosis of thought, institutions and achievements of every culture, past and contemporary. The Humanism is thus a crucible. in serious crisis, and yet fruitful that the whole of humanity is going through - with the risk of replacing the ethical values and the historical individual profit, the division needs aggressive and lazy authorities to order - we must rethink the Humanism. We must propose to question the Humanism and ask those responsible for civilian government of every nation, and especially those who recognize its roots in humanism, to stimulate or introduce the humanistic research everywhere and in every way possible, starting from the school. But now, before you lose all sense of the universality of the human person and before it fades the perception of the spirit and its needs. Who is left blindly lead by the logic of individual utilities does not see that the market needs to develop a new and progredient structure of society formed with the concrete ethical values, history and culture. The company will, therefore, the mirror of humanity we train, not a reality that destroys the identity that does not know the individual and ignores the needs and rights. The conquest of a new humanism that has the binding force of the great spiritual movements, which know no borders. A common reality means many things, but in any event begins with live, grow and be educated together. The humanities is a prestigious school of knowledge(37) . And there is no doubt that being born a century neoclassical strongly root for the fact that out of the morass left by the weak mind and weak management, the current crisis in classical values and ethics policy requires to be mentioned. An exercise in cultural training and foundational elements of Western culture is to understand our everyday life. Characteristic of the study is the analysis of historical sources and documents produced over the centuries. There is, then, a history obtained by questioning the graves, contemplating the monuments, ruins and finding, again, as o’ m oron, the blind Homer, who can hear whispered the story again from the stones to tell it. The features of the original monuments are irretrievably lost, abandoned since they were served a thousand different purposes. But they now seem to have lost any potential, but could be sufficient to consider the economic importance arising from cultural tourism to the opposite conclusion. _________________ (35) International Conference Scientia Rerum, Bologna, 29-30 September 2005. (36) Italian Institute for Philosophical Studies, Call for Humanities Research, June 10, 1993. (37) La Pergola Antonio, President of the Cultural Commission of the European Parliament, “La polis Europe”, June 22, 1993 speech at the launch of the European Parliament of Appeals for Philosophy and Humanities Research.
  • 31. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 45 The culture is an investment structure for the country, it is no stranger to the economy because it affected the quality of life and pride of ownership, becomes crucial for the economic production tout court(38) . _________________ (38) Salvatore Settis.
  • 32. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity 125 “Oratio brevis cogitatio longa” Marco Tullio Cicerone
  • 33. Raimondo Villano – Time carved in the silence of eternity126
  • 34. “““TTThhheee tttiiimmmeee iiisss aaa fffiiiccctttiiiooonnnaaalll mmmooobbbiiillleee eeettteeerrrnnniiitttyyy””” PPPlllaaatttooo CDD 177 VIL tim 2011 LCC BH 81-208

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