Office Procedures And Business Ethics boaPresentation Transcript
OFFICE PROCEDURES AND BUSINESS ETHICS OS 141
PROJECT IN INTERNET AND WEB PAGE DEVELOPMENT
Joanna Marlie Del Rosario
Table of Contents
THE FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE NEEDED OF AN OFFICE WORKER
5’s in Office
HANDLING OF INCOMING AND OUTGOING TELEPHONE CALLS
The word OFFICE , from the Latin word, officium , derived from opus which refers to “ work ” or “ service ” and facere meaning to do or to make
As described by Funk and Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of the English language office refers to any of the following:
1. A particular duty, charge or trust; an employment undertaken by commission or authority; a post or position held by an official or functionary; specifically a position of trust or authority under a government; the office of the premier.
2. That which is performed, assigned, or intended to be done by a particular thing, or that which anything is fitted to perform, function , and service. 3. A place, building, or series of rooms in which some particular branch of the public service is conducted: the Patent Office; also, the persons conducting such business; specifically, the head of the department and his immediate assistants: The Executive Office serves the president.
4. A room or building in which a person transacts business or carries on his stated occupation: distinguished from shop, store, studio, etc.: lawyer’s office.
Importance of Office Work
(1) giving out understandable instructions to the members of its staff for their implementation and guidance; (2) coordinating men, materials and machines and gear then toward the attainment of company objectives;
(3) doing statistical research as dictated by the demands of the business; and
(4) providing fundamental information for continuous succession of management decisions which enable the company to stay competitively in business and reap profits commensurate with the company’s investment in terms of money, time and efforts.
The efficient functioning of office operations is the task and responsibility of office management.
Office management invariably termed also as office administration covers a wide gamut of activities involved in the organization of an office and in their effective management and supervision of its personnel, machines and operations. Properly administered, the office facilities not moreover the attainment of its objectives.
1. Improvement. Improved work methods insure better performance with a minimum waste of time, effort, money and materials.
2. Facilitation. This objective could be achieved through the use of office machines and equipments as well as physical facilities and satisfactory working conditions.
3. Control. Control which deals with the regulating and restraining of activities brings about the correlation and coordination of courses of action in accordance with plans.
Trends in Office Management
1. The rapid transfer of skill human beings to semi-automatic machinery.
2. Increasing production in business and industry has brought about an avalanche of paper work.
3. Recent years has shown a marked emphasis on personnel development. In its broadest meaning, it covers both executives and the rank-and-file employees.
4. Corollary to the above, progressive-minded executives are giving much time attention to the effective and efficient utilization of the human resources at their disposal.
5. The use of computers, electronics data processing and fax machines is now becoming common in many big offices in highly industrialized countries.
6. Many employees on their initiative are going to colleges and universities to sharpen their intellect in preparation for future advancement.
THE OFFICE MANAGER
The office manager is the coordinator of the work system. His role is to coordinate on the front and by giving assignments, to monitor work processes and to evaluate outcomes.
The Role of the Office Manager
The over-all job of an office manager is to create within the enterprise environment which will facilitate the accomplishment of company objectives. The manager plans the operations of his subordinates, select and trains them, organizes tasks relationships, directs their work, and measures actual result.
Requisites of a Good Office Manager
Briefly stated, one major qualification that an office manager should possess is his ability to understand the varied requirements of the organizational elements, including their need for communication, clerical equipment and supplies, data and able to appreciate the relationship between the various elements and the need for coordination.
Must be Personnel-Minded. As a cardinal principle in the management of an office, a manager must be personnel-minded. As a corollary, it may be said that a successful office manager should function in a manner which creates acceptance within the company for himself and for the members of the staff.
His personnel programs must be tailored to fit the objectives of the company. An effective intercommunication must be established thereby preventing any gap between the employees and the manager.
THE FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE NEEDED OF AN OFFICE WORKER
THE BASIC SKILLS
The following are the job skills that are basic to al office jobs. You must perfect these abilities so that you can perform your job effectively.
1. Ability to Communicate
Your effectiveness as a communicator depends upon your ability to read, write, speak, and listen well.
You must also learn how to listen carefully so that you can grasp instructions the first time, without having to ask that they be repeated. Active listening is an art. It requires that you concentrate on what is being said so that you absorb and retain the message.
2. The Methodical Use of Notes
Jotting down instructions, ideas, and other information will aid recall later on. A reputation for being both right and efficient is bound to increase your chance for advancement.
3. Spelling Proficiency
You need to know how to spell words correctly so that your message will not be misinterpreted.
4. Figure Know-How
Figures furnish the important data from which many letters, reports, and statements are prepared. Figures must be accurate if sound decisions are to be based on them. Your figures can’t be “almost aright.”
5. Legible Handwriting
The days of flowery penmanship are past, but you still must have good legible handwriting for clerical work. Notations have to be made and read, some figures have to be posted by hand, and forms have to be filled out in longhand.
SPECIFIC JOB SKILLS
Office employees are assigned to specialized jobs, according to their individual talents and skills. The kind of job you will be assigned will depend upon your interests, the specific skills you acquire in school, and how well you have mastered those skills.
SPECIFIC JOB SKILLS
3. Office Machine Operation
Among the most significant pointers on human relations which the PR student should bear in mind are the following:
1. Follow the Golden Rule at all times, and you will never go astray, human relations-wise.
2. Respect the human personality and accord every person a corresponding sense of importance.
3. Always remember that no one is perfect.
4. Bear in mind at all times that nothing is ever stagnant in this world; all things change.
5. Be careful in the use of words.
6. Be sincere in all your dealings.
7. Humility is a trait everyone admires.
8.The “you” approach is oftentimes effective in the attainment of one’s objectives.
9. Learn to control your temper under all circumstances.
10. Whenever you can, read books on human relations.
1.The Golden Rule
The businessman who engages in business and treats his customers as he would want to be treated generally develops a lucrative trade with an increasingly-growing clientele. The professional who serves his fellowmen in the manner he would want to be served by them soon carves a niche in their hearts.
2. Respect the Human Personality
In every human being has a soul and a feeling of importance. Regardless of education or social status, every person deserves the respect of his fellowmen.
By properly according other people the respect and by making them feel important, you would earn respect and cooperation in return, and you may succeed in getting them to do what you want them to do.
3. No One Is Perfect
None among us is perfect. Everyone, it is said is superior in some respects, but inferior in other respects. This is important for us to remember at all times that dealing with other people.
4. All Things Change
By giving due allowance for the possible changes that may take place around us, we pave the way towards better human relations amongst ourselves.
You may meet someone today who is a non-entity, socially speaking. Treat him well and cordially nevertheless; years from now, he may be a prominent person, and his attitude towards you at that time may mean a world of difference in your relations with him then.
5. The Use of Words
At the root of most human relations problems is the improper use of words. Particularly in a country where the nationals communicate with one another in a borrowed language, the chances for misunderstanding because of the wrong use of words are abundant.
The sincere person is welcome everywhere. Sincerity in attitude, in words, and in deed, is a virtue prized anywhere. It is also the secret behind the success of many a prominent man.
PR success usually requires topnotch leadership, and the outstanding leader is often times one who is humble, modest, and unassuming.
8. The “You” Approach
The use of the “you” approach is premised on the theory that every individual is interested in himself. Every person is concerned with his own welfare.
Therefore, in dealing with others, it is recommended that matters be presented from their point of view, so as to elicit maximum cooperation.
9. Control of One’s Temper
This is one of those things which are easier said than done. “Learn to control your temper” is easy to say, but to implement it is usually a problem, particularly in the case of persons who are by nature sensitive and easily offended.
10. Human Relations Books
These books have been found very helpful by million of men and women all over the world. They contain priceless advice for the sincere and ambitious PR practitioner. The college student may not be required to read books like these, but his voluntary perusal of them would certainly increase his knowledge of how to get along better with others.
5’s in Office
The 5S's are:
Phase 1 - Seiri
Sorting: Going through all the tools, materials, etc., in the plant and work area and keeping only essential items. Everything else is stored or discarded.
Phase 2 - Seiton
Straighten or Set in Order: Focuses on efficiency. When we translate this to "Straighten or Set in Order", it sounds like more sorting or sweeping, but the intent is to arrange the tools, equipment and parts in a manner that promotes work flow.
Phase 3 - Seisō
Sweeping or Shining or Cleanliness: Systematic Cleaning or the need to keep the workplace clean as well as neat. At the end of each shift, the work area is cleaned up and everything is restored to its place. This makes it easy to know what goes where and have confidence that everything is where it should be.
Phase 4 - Seiketsu Standardizing: Standardized work practices or operating in a consistent and standardized fashion. Everyone knows exactly what his or her responsibilities are to keep above 3S's.
Phase 5 - Shitsuke Sustaining the discipline: Refers to maintaining and reviewing standards. Once the previous 4S's have been established, they become the new way to operate. Maintain the focus on this new way of operating, and do not allow a gradual decline back to the old ways of operating. However, when an issue arises such as a suggested improvement, a new way of working, a new tool or a new output requirement, then a review of the first 4S's is appropriate.
Phase 5 - Shitsuke
Sustaining the discipline: Refers to maintaining and reviewing standards. Once the previous 4S's have been established, they become the new way to operate. Maintain the focus on this new way of operating, and do not allow a gradual decline back to the old ways of operating.
HANDLING OF INCOMING AND OUTGOING TELEPHONE CALLS
HOW TO ACHIEVE A GOOD VOICE
The quality of your voice is dependent upon its rate, pitch, timbre or resonance, and volume. Other essentials, in good voice production are proper enunciation, articulation, and pronunciation.
1. RATE OF SPEED
This refers to the fastness of slowness of speed in talking.
Your objective should be a normal rate of speech – not too slow and not too fast.
2. PITCH OR TONE
This refers to the highness or lowness of your voice.
The pitch of your voice is determined largely by how you breathe. Thus your voice may be described as being high or low according to its pitch.
Pitch tends to rise when a person is under stress or emotional strain, which causes the rate of breathing to increase.
3. TIMBRE OR RESONANCE
Resonance is produced by vibration. You need to use your mouth, throat, and chest in voice production.
The degree of loudness and softness of your voice.
If you speak so softly, the listeners may strain their ear to hear you.
If you speak so loudly, you may assault or irritate your listeners.
Neither extreme is desirable, nor is a deadly sameness of volume.
5. ENUNCIATION AND PRONUNCIATION
Enunciation is the process of articulation or the combining of sounds into syllable. “A” is clearly sounded as “A” “T” is clearly sounded as “T” and so on.
The combining of syllable into words is called pronunciation.
The deliver each separate sound clearly requires the proper use of your tongue, teeth, lips, and jaw.
Your enunciation may be faultless and your articulation clear, but you will make a poor impression on your hearers if you pronounce words incorrectly.
Learn to understand and follow the diacritical marks in your dictionary.
Listen and learn the correct pronunciation.
refers to the right choice of words.
SEVEN STEPS IN HANDLING INCOMING CALLS
1. Answer telephone calls promptly on the first or second ring.
2. Always have the writing tool, like pad and ballpen, ready when answering a business telephone.
3. Identify yourself courteously .
4. Screen the caller tactfully .
5. Offer to help the caller .
6. Terminate the call courteously .
7. Do not forget to accomplish the message slip and forward it to the person concerned for appropriate action.
WAYS OF IDENTIFYING YOURSELF WHEN ANSWERING THE TELEPHONE
1. Name of the company and greet the caller.
“ NCBA, Good afternoon”
2. Name of the company and offer to help.
“ NCBA, may I help you?”
“ Office of Atty. Miralles, Good Afternoon!”
“ Clinic of Dr. Hipolito, may I help you?”
3. If the call has been referred to you by the telephone operator, say:
“ Sales Department, Miss de Vera speaking.”
“ Accounting Department, may I help you?”
HOW TO SCREEN THE CALLER
INFORMATION THAT THE SECRETARY
SHOULD FIND OUT ABOUT THE CALLER
1. Complete name of the caller
2. Position of the caller
3. Company represented by the caller
4. Telephone number of the caller (for returning the call)
5. Person the caller wants (get the complete name)
6. Purpose of the call (message of the caller)
IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER WHEN SCREENING CALLERS
1.A secretary new on a job should first find out what people the boss doesn’t want to talk. The secretary should remember the persons the boss will or will not talk with.
2. It would be helpful and would create goodwill if the secretary could learn to recognize voices.
3. If the secretary doesn’t recognize the voice, the caller should be asked tactfully who he is and what he wants. The “who’s calling” approach is a poor way to start a conversation. It is better to ask: “May I ask who is calling?” or “May I tell Mrs. de Vera who is calling?”
4. The caller’s affiliation and what he wants to talk about are necessary information for the secretary to know whether to connect the call, handle the business without involving the employer, or transfer the call.
5. Get the caller’s name as early as in the conversation as you can courteously do so. Knowing the caller’s name enables you to use it during the remainder of the conversation.
SOME PROBABLE HELP THAT YOU CAN OFFER TO THE CALLER
Take the message.
Advise the caller to call back.
Get the telephone number and offer to return the call. Always keep promises about making return calls. A forgotten return call may mean a lost of customer.
Refer to caller to someone who can help.
HOW TO TERMINATE THE CALL COURTEOUSLY
When it is apparent that the caller has almost finished the conversation, the secretary should follow the following procedures when termination a call.
Summarize any information that has been give. One might say, for example:
“ The meeting, then, will be at 8 o’clock in the morning on May 11 at the Conference Hall”
By summarizing, the secretary makes sure that the information given has been taken down accurately.
Ask the caller if there is anything more he would say.
Thank the caller for calling say: “Thanks for calling, Mr. Ramos!”
The courteous secretary waits for the caller to hang up first before replacing the receiver.
HOW TO HANDLE OUTGOING BUSINESS CALLS
JOB TIPS IN HANDLING OUTGOING TELEPHONE CALLS
1 . Learn how to use the telephone directory
a. SUBSCRIBERS LIST (white pages)
Contains the name, address, and telephone numbers of each subscriber, arranged alphabetically by the name of the subscriber.
b. COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL SUBSCRIBER (yellow pages)
List the name, address and phone numbers of every business subscriber grouped under product and service headings. It also contains an index that can help you determine the heading under a specific type of product or service. The yellow pages are full of information.
2. Learn to recognize different kinds of tones :
a. Dial tone : A continuous “hmm” indicates you may start to dial.
b. Ringing tone : A “burr” indicates the number is being rung.
c. Busy tone : A short “beep” repeated regularly indicates the number being called is engaged.
3. Keep a list of frequently called numbers
such as :
b. Building supervisor
c. Express office
d. Messenger office
e. Post office
g. residence of employees and offices
h. Telegraph offices
i. Repair services
4. Keep a list of emergency numbers :
a. Fire d. Poison Control Center
b. Police e. Metrocom
c. Hospital f. Civil Defense Operation Center
5. Keep a list of personal numbers for your executive such as:
a. Bank f. Garage/car repair shop
b. Dentist g. Service (dry cleaner, etc.)
c. Doctor h. Stores to trade with
d. Family (residence & bus.) i. Travel agency
e. Friends (frequently called)
6 . Keep a list of your company’s telephone numbers including various departments, branches, and sister companies .
7. Plan what you’re going to say and how you will say them to avoid making call backs .
8. When you make a call, wait for six or seven rings before hanging up .
JOBS TIPS TO INCREASE YOUR EFFICIENCY ON THE TELEPHONE
1. If it is necessary for you to be away from your telephone, arrange to have someone else to answer it.
2. Avoid personal calls during office hours.
3. Use the telephone instrument properly. It is courteous to speak directly into the mouthpiece, holding it about half an inch from the lips. It is never necessary to shout.
4. When you must interrupt a conversation to answer telephone or speak to another person, excuse yourself and state the reason.
5. If it is necessary to leave the telephone, during a conversation explain the reason for leaving, stat e the approximate time you will be gone, and give the caller a preference as to whether he wished to wait or have you call back later.
6. When someone is waiting on the telephone, “look in” every minute or so. When the call is finally completed, say “thank you” for waiting.
7. The courtesy of face-to-face conversation where the smile plays such an important part can be expressed over the telephone only through the cheerful tone and a careful choice of words.
9. Do not continue a conversation with someone in the office after you have lifted the telephone.
10. Do not place the transmitter against your chest while speaking to someone in the office. The caller can still hear you. Sometimes covering the transmitter with your hand is also inadequate to shut aside comments.
11. If a telephone call to your employer seems to be of a personal nature and you are in his office, leave the room quietly while he converse.
12. Never monitor telephone conversation unless you are authorized to do so.
13.When making a number of calls on a line serving several people, try to space your call so that others may have a chance to use the telephone.
14. Remove all foreign objects from the mouth when talking. Think of the mouthpiece as a mold in which correct from must be given to every sound.
15. Remember the ABC of telephone manners
A – always B – e C – Courteous
TYPES OF LONG DISTANCE CALLS
1. STATION-TO-STATION CALL
Call station-to-station if you wish to talk with anyone who answers. Rates are lower than person-to-person. Changing begins when the called telephone answers.
2. PERSON-TO-PERSON CALL
Call person-to-person when you wish to talk to a particular person or tension phone. Tell the operator you wish to make a “person-to-person call.” Rates are higher than station-to-station. Charging starts when a conversation begins with the person you want to talk to.
3. CONFERENCE CALL
You can talk with several persons in different places at the same time . This is used by business firm with several branches around the nation or around the world.
4. COLLECT CALL
You can call “ collect” if the person of firm you are calling agrees to pay the charge . You should inform the operator it is a “collect” call upon filing. Timing starts when the conversation begins.
Records are the memory of any business organization.
A record maybe any material thing which serves to perpetuate or preserve knowledge of acts, events, facts, or ideas.
WHAT IS AN IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTIC OF RECORDS?
An important characteristic of “RECORDS” is that they usually consists of material that can be classified and arranged in a methodical manner for preservation and ready reference.
WHY MUST RECORDS BE MANAGED
1. To regulate the great volume and variety of documents and papers currently received and created in transacting business.
2. To accommodate and control natural increase in volume and variety due to growth of population, new function, and related activities.
3. To provide methods to ensure prompt attention, rapid movements, guide finding, safe storage, and proper disposal of documents and papers.
4. To control and reduce cost of paperwork.
WHAT IS FILING?
Filing is the process of classifying and arranging of records in a systematic way so they will not only be safely stored but also quickly retrieved or located when needed.
IMPORTANCE OF MANAGING FILES
1. In filing, the emphasis is more upon the “finding” rather than the “storing” aspect.
2. Since the written information is being retained or filed for future possible use, the so-called “finding” aspect is essential in paperwork management.
3. The safekeeping of records is important, but being able to find them promptly, when needed, is more important.
4. Remember needed paper when lost or misplaced can delay the work of a dozen employees or even the entire office.
5. Management is not only interested in the files as such, but more in the information which can be obtained from them.
6. Establishing and managing an effective system and arranging the records that an office must maintain, and placing them at their proper locations, will help promote operational efficiency in the office.
OBJECTIVES IN FILING
PURPOSES OF FILING
1. To make records available when they are needed whether for reference or evidence.
2. To keep all related materials together so that the history of the dealings of one office with other offices or individuals will be available in one place.
3. To provide a permanent and safe place for records of business information and transactions during the time the records are not in use.
HOW ARE RECORDS BEING FILED?
1. By the name of individual or organization
2. By the subject matter they contain
3. By the location or geographical area a record may cover
4. By the number assigned to a record
5. By the date
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF FILING SYSTEM:
1. ALPHABETIC NAME FILE (by name of individual or organization)
Records that are referred to by name of an individual organization be arranged by name in strict alphabetic sequence or successive continuity.
2. ALPHABETIC SUBJECT TITLE (by subject)
Records which are referred to by the subject matter they contain should be arranged alphabetically by subject title or caption.
All records on a particular subject should be kept together in as much as each related fits somewhere to complete a story.
Records which are referred to by geographic location should be alphabetically arranged by location name which may be by country, region, province, city/municipality, barrio, or barangay.
4. NUMERICAL FILE (by the number assigned to record)
Record which are identified by numbers assigned to them and are referred to by their respective number should be arranged in numerical sequence.
A numerical file is often used for records pertaining to bank checks, invoices, insurance policies, presidential decrees, tax declaration and the like.
5. CHRONOLOGICAL FILE (by the date of records)
Records to which primary reference is made by date of the record should be filed chronologically (in the order of time) by year, month, or day as reference indicates.
The chronological filing system simply arranges material according to its time sequence, that is, month or weeks are its main division with days for its subdivisions .
Some correspondence, bills, and pending accounts payable can be handled on a chronological plan.
The advantage of this plan are:
1. It is very simple.
2. Filing is easy.
3. It is convenient reminder of unfinished work.
TYPES OF OFFICE RECORDS TO BE FILED
1. ADMINISTRATIVE FILES – a file material related to overall policy mission of organization, direction of the office, including management improvement programs, formal rules and regulations, guides, maintenance of service, supplies and other administrative matter which have no direct bearing on the operation of the office.
2. PERSONAL FILES – any paper containing the service appointment and the other records related to the individual employees.
3. LEGAL FILES – consist of administrative case of personnel land cases, civil cases, investigation records and the like.
4. SUPPLY FILES – consist of records of supplies, equipment, purchases, contracts, etc.
5. FISCAL FILES – materials on budget preparation, submission of allotments, and control of funds.
TOOLS IN FILES OPERATION
1. Folders and fasteners
2. Charge-out cards
3. Requisition slip
4. Tickler file or follow-up file
5. Sorting table and rocks
7. Filing cabinets and shelves
SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE FILING SYSTEM
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD FILING SYSTEM
A filing system can only be good on if it is tailor-made to fit the condition or situations prevailing in a particular organization.
Filing system is good if it can meet the three points success formula of efficiency, economy, and simplicity.
Filing system is good if it can meet the three points
Filing system is good if it fills the needs of the operating personnel and serves them satisfactorily.
REQUISITIES OF A GOOD FILING SYSTEM ARE:
1. It serves the needs of the office
2. It has the simplest identification of file contents
3. It use minimum indexes and codes.
4. It has maximum safeguard against filing errors
5. It is not dependent on the memory of the clerk.
GUIDES IN SELEECTING APPROPRIATE FILING SYSTEM
A certain amount of creativeness is necessary in adapting a filing system to the situation at hand. There are many different types of filing procedures ranging from manual to mechanical to electrical. The following guidelines are suggested in choosing a filing system:
1. Know the types of records and files created and maintained by the office.
2. Know how the records are requested from the files.
3. Know why, how, and where the materials to be filed originates.
4. Know the procedure steps from post of origin to files.
STEPS IN FILING HOW TO PREPARE THE MATERIAL TO BE FILED
Incoming correspondence onced received should be time and date stamped and given to proper person for action.
Inspecting the material to make sure it has been released for filing.
Look for a special mark as release signal like the word FILE plus the initials of the person releasing it.
the name by which correspondence or record is most likely to be requested from files.
Determine the most likely the heading under the paper to be filed.
The possibilities are:
name of on the letterhead
name in the signature
name or subject included in the paper
file or reference number
There are rules for alphabetic indexing that should be followed.
Cross-referencing is used when it is difficult to know which of two or more name is important
Cross-referencing is accomplished by filing the original under one name and cross reference sheet under the other
For cross-referencing, you may use cross-reference sheets, or plain sheets of paper, or a paper with distinctive color.
You may consider cross-referencing under the following situations:
a. When some word other than the first in a company of situation name clearly identifies the organization. For example, University of San Carlos would be filed as written but should be cross-referenced to San Carlos University.
b. When it is difficult to decide which part of an individual’s name is the surname. In the case of Manolo Herbert you might index the name as normally written and use a cross-reference under a transposition of the name.
c. When an organization is better known by initials than by its complete name, material should be filed under the complete name and then cross-reference to the explanation, like:
NATIONAL COLLEGE (of) BUSINESS AND ARTS
See: National College of Business and Arts
d. When a record is likely to be called for most often by subject, should be filed under the subject caption but cross-referenced to individual or company name.
e. When a difficult name is indexed, you may use a cross-reference.
f. When a married woman is indexed, you may use the maiden name as the original file but cross-referenced it under the married or legal name.
Underline or encircle the caption to be used on storing.
This is marking the file to indicate how they have been indexed
Coding highlights the indexing caption and thus speeds up filing
For alphabetic coding , the indexing caption may be check marked, encircled, or underlined on the record being coded.
For numeric coding follow these three steps:
1. Selecting the name under which a paper is to be filed
2. Referring to the card index to determine the number to be assigned.
3. Marking the number in the upper margin of the paper
For subject coding follow these steps:
1. Write the subject in the margin of each record.
2. Re-sort in each category for more exact sequence.
3. Assemble all the materials in proper sequence.
4. FILING or STORING
This is the final step in manual filing which is placing the papers in appropriate containers, usually file folders.
The papers are placed in the proper folders in the filing cabinets.
Follow these procedures:
1. Punch holes into the paper to be filed
2. To insert material, lift the folder out of the file drawer in order to make sure you have the correct folder.
3. Insert the paper evenly.
4. See to it that the material you are inserting is in correct sequence in the folder.
5. Avoid overcrowding the folder. Overcrowding extends records beyond the top edge of the folder, causing torn edges; it also pulls the back of the folder down and hides the caption.
6. Use the creases across the bottom of the front flap of the folder to accommodate increasing bulk. By expanding the folder, you can stock papers as much as three-quarters of an inch high without bulging. When the maximum capacity is reached, it is time to use a second folder.
SOME USEFUL REMINDERS WHEN FILING
1. Paper clips, rubber band, and other such attachments should be removed from papers before they are filed.
ARRANGING DRAWER SPACE
1. Provide enough space in each file drawer of active records to permit easy access and pulling out of folders.
2. Guides and folders should not be pulled out the files by their tabs. The tabs are not handles and will soon be worn out if so used for pulling out folder.
3. Adjust the “follow block” when file drawer begin to sag. Proper positioning of the drawer compressor helps to keep folder upright in a drawer.
1. Indicate the names of the publication and the date of the issue from which they were taken.
2. Small clipping should be mounted on plain paper.
3. Clipping larger than the ordinary size of bond paper may be folded as needed to fit the folder.
FILING BULKY MATERIAL
1. Bulky material should be filed separately in appropriate storage lockers or suitable shelves, either numeric alphabetic.
2. Items may need to be cross-referenced to related correspondence files.
3. They should be neatly arrange, clearly marked, and kept clean and dusted.
RETRIEVING OR FINDING MATERIAL
1. If papers have been properly prepared in filings and if they have been carefully placed in the correct file folders and in the right drawers, finding them when they are needed would be a simple and easy matter.
2. However, all records removed from the files be recorded, especially if the files are used by many different people.
3. Chargeout procedure should be carefully followed.
1. A chargeout system tells you where a record can be located after it has been taken from the files.
2. There are two types of chargeout records:
A. One to account for complete folders removed from a file
B. Another to account for papers taken from a folders
The function is the same to ensure that the records that were removed will be returned.
3. Chargeout record must contain the following information:
A. name of the borrower
B. a description of the material borrowed
C. date borrowed
4. A folder chargeout may be either be an out-folder or an out-guide.
5. The OUT-FOLDER is a folder with a tab marked OUT and ruled spaces on the front for recording chargeout information. It replaces a removed folder. Incoming items are filed in it until the regular folder is returned.
6. The OUT-GUIDE has a pocket into which a copy of the requisition slip made out by the borrower may be inserted. When out guides are used, incoming items are accumulated in a For File Folder until the regular folder is returned.
1. To control requests for files, use a special form called the REQUISITION SLIP .
2. Prepare the slip in triplicate to save time and control safe return of files.
3. These slips become the chargeout record.
4. The original is put into the pocket of the OUT GUIDE.
5. Copy 2 goes into a follow-up file box where it is filed by date.
6. Copy 3 goes clipped to the items that were taken from the files to identify them to remind the user of the due date.
HOW TO SEARCH FOR MISSING FILES
The following clues help to uncover many misfiled papers.
1. ON SOMEONE’S DESK?
Look first through your own desk when tracking a misplaced record. Then the executive’s desk. Still not there? Look in the “FOR FILING” folder.
2. THE FOLDER BEFORE OR THE ONE BEHIND THE RIGHT FOLDER?
Look into the folder immediately ahead of or immediately behind the folder in which the paper belongs. This type of filing error usually occur.
3. BETWEEN OR UNDER FOLDER?
Look between the folders on either side of the folder in which the missing paper should be. Not there? Then look under the folders. Single papers and even folders have been known to slip gradually under the other folders when the guides are not attached by a rod.
4. TRANSPOSITION OF NAMES
Some names such as Danilo Manuel, are easily transposed. A letter to Danilo Manuel Enterprises may turn up in the Danilo folder.
5. SIMILAR NAMES?
Look under similarly spelled names. The Joana paper may be in Jones, Johns, Joens, or even folder.
Look under the cross-references. Original may sometimes filed with cross reference folder.
7. PAPER CLIPS
Paper clips have a way of picking up neighboring papers. This is one of the reasons you are advised from the start not to use paper clips.
8. ASK YOUR BOSS
If all the solutions were made and still you can’t find the record, ask your boss. He might have taken it and brought home without informing you.
TRANSFER AND RETENTION
Transferring files is the process of removing old and inactive items from files. However, transferred materials are not automatically destroyed. You may do the transferring of files during free times when the boss is away.
TWO GENERAL TRANSFER METHODS
1. PERPETUAL TRANSFER
moves records to the inactive area as they become inactive.
2. PERIODIC TRANSFER
files are moved at stated intervals, once or twice a year.
REMEMBER : See to it that you get the approval of your boss before you transfer any record.
SOME “DO’S AND DON’TS OF FILING”
1. Do staple papers neatly together in upper left hand corners. If you must fasten you can use a fastener folder.
2. Do file papers in an orderly fashion in folder.
3. Do use individually tabbed folders with typed labels for ready reference.
4. Do type all labels on folders. They are so easily read.
5. Do lift the folder out to insert papers in proper place. You will be accurate and your file will be neat. Be a good housekeeper.
6. Do file them in date order, keeping the latest date on top.
7. Do split the papers up according to date, customer, or subject so that no folder contains more than the capacity it is designed for (generally ½” to 1”)
8. Do file material in one folder, placing a cross-reference sheet in folder for any other subject or customer include in the material. This will save many minutes in locating materials when the boss is in a hurry.
9. Do keep all files in proper alphabetical sequence.
10. Do file in back of guide. After all “guide” is what the name implies a guide indication the proper place to locate a folder.
11. Do pre-arrange or sort your papers in exact order according to your file index. Then start to file.
12. Do keep your filing “rough sorted” from A to Z if you can’t take care of it immediately. You will be able to locate papers so must faster.
13. Do charge out papers removed and place the “OUT” card in the file. Think of the arguments this will save.
14. Do type labels in capital letters so they may be easily read and keep one on every drawer. Even you might forget which is which if you are busy.
15. Do close each drawer as you finish with it. Open file drawer may cause a serious accident.
1. Don’t use pins, paper clips or rubber bands on file papers.
2. Don’t file papers loose in a drawer.
3. Don’t write captions on folders by hand. Perhaps you can read your writing but can the other person read your handwriting? You can write caption if your hand writing is very readable.
4. Don’t jam papers down into folders. You can’t be sure they are in the correct place and anyway, think how messy they will look.
5. Don’t allow papers to be all mixed as to dates within a folder.
6. Don’t allow your folders to become cluttered and overcrowded.
7. Don’t allow your folders to become so full that they buldge, or the back sags down out of sight.
8. Don’t allow your files to become confusing when letters contain two or more subjects or customers.
9. Don’t flounder around spending precious moments looking for a folder which had been filed under another name.
10. Don’t pull a folder out of place alphabetically just because it may be large.
11.Don’t file in front of guides.
12. Don’t start to file with papers in haphazard arrangement.
13. Don’t let your new filing pile up. Update your files.
14. Don’t leave your new filing in a disorganized file.
15. Don’t lend papers and then depend upon your memory to tell you who took them. Keep a record of borrowed file folder.
16. Don’t allow the labels on your file drawers to be handwritten dirty or torn off.
17. Don’t pull out more than one file drawer at a time.
FOUR CATEGORIES OF RETENTION SCHEDULES
RECORDS KEPT PERMANNETLY : Two broad classes of business record are generally retained permanently: those that provide evidence of corporate and individual rights and those with historical implications . Such records are generally irreplaceable and are considered essential to the existence of the business. Photocopy duplicated of them should be stored in several locations as a precaution against destruction. Old documents may require special restorative or preservative methods to protect them against deterioration.
Some records that should be kept permanently are:
1. Capital stock and bond ledgers and registers
2. Partnership papers
3. Stockholder and director minutes
4. Deeds and other title papers and mortgages
5. General ledgers, journals, and cashbooks
6. Records of cost and inventory value of plant equipment and fixtures
7. Tax backup records
8. Audit reports
9. Records relating to bills and accounts payable
10. Paid drafts, checks, and cash receipts
11. Correspondence about stop-payment orders and duplicate checks.
12. Payrolls paychecks, and other evidences or payments of services
13. Employee applications.
RECORDS KEPT SIX OR SEVEN YEARS . Records in this category facilitates routine business operations and are replaceable only at considerable cost and delay. They should be transferred when inactive to secure storage. They include the following:
1. List of security holders present at meetings.
2. Records of interest coupons, paid and unpaid.
3. Contracts, leases, and agreements (seven years after expiration)
4. Accounts receivable ledgers
5. Schedules of fire and other insurance and papers substantiating claims
6. Deposit book and record stubs
7. Inventories of materials with adjustment records
8. Sales records
9. Collection records
10. Record of uncollectable accounts
RECORDS KEPT FOR THREE OR FOUR YEARS . Many business papers are temporarily useful and replaceable at slight cost. They may be safely destroyed after three or four years. The following illustrate this category:
1. Proxies of holder of voting securities
2. Employee fidelity bond records
3. Insurance records changes and cancellations of policies
4. Records about employee salary adjustments and assignments
The right job for a capable secretarial graduate is always available.
Looking for the right job for you requires: (P’s)
1. planning 4. packaging the application and bio-data
2. preparation 5. presentation during the interview
3. persistence 6. performance
When you plan to look for the right job, your objective should be:
To match your capabilities with the needs of a specific job.
WHEN HUNTING GOR THE RIGHT JOB CONSIDER THE FOLLOWNG FACTORS:
1. That job should make your years preparation seem worthwhile.
2. That you are qualified for that job.
3. That you will be proud and happy to accept that job.
4. That job will give you an awareness of being needed.
5. That job will give an opportunity for professional growth.
6. That job will give you a feeling of financial satisfaction.
STEPS IN JOB HUNTING
1. Understand your potentials and your goals
2. Know the different job sources
3. Know the company and the requirements
4. Prepare yourself bio-data and application letter
5. Prepare yourself for the interview
STANDARD REQUIREMENTS FOR EMPLOYMENT
1. NBI Clearance
2. Police Clearance
3. T.A.N – Tax Account Number
4. S.S.S No. – Social Security System Number
5. Fiscal’s Clearance ( optional )
6. Transcript of records/Diploma ( Xerox Copy but be ready with
7. I.D PHOTO size 2” x 2” or depending upon the size requirement
8. Clearance from previous employer
9. X-RAY Result or medical exam result
10. Letter of recommendation from personal reference
11. Character Reference
12.Others which may be required by the company
SOURCES OF JOB PROSPECTS
1. Friends, Acquaintances, and Relatives
2. College Placement Office or School’s Employment Assistance Office
3. Employment Agencies
4. Newspaper Advertisements
5. Civil Service Announcements
6. Direct application ( signboard and billboard )
HOW TO COMMUNICATE WITH A PROSPECTIVE EMPLOYER AS AN APPLICANT
1. Make a personal appearance
2. Place a telephone call
3. Answer a newspaper ad
4. Write a letter of application asking for an appointment and enclosing a data sheet
DIFFERENT TITLES USED FOR DATA SHEET
Personal Data Sheet
HOW TO PREPARE THE PERSONAL DATA SHEET
CONTENT AND LAYOUT OF DATA SHEET
A good data sheet helps you make a good impression about yourself.
A poorly prepared, messy-looking data sheet can severely reduce your chances of getting a position even though you appear desirable in every way.
Data sheet should be kept simple and contained in one page if possible.
Your data sheet must be typed , preferably on a good-quality bond paper.
Duplicated copies are acceptable if they are well done.
Data Sheet must be neat, clean, and presentable .
Careless erasures and misspelled words are inexcusable.
Keep a copy of your data sheet on file should original be lost.
Margins should be proportionately equal.
Information should be well-arranged and presentable to the reader.
ORGANIZATION OF DATA SHEET
Organize the elements of your data sheet in an orderly and meaningful way
Attractively arranged data sheet have occasionally caught the interest of companies.
When you organize your data sheet always highlight your strong points in an honest, straight-forward fashion.
You may highlight your extra-curricular activities or your work experience related to the job you are applying at present.
Always remember that in organizing your data sheet you must sell your value to a company. To do so, you must appeal to the company’s interest in what you have to offer.
List your work experience chronologically, beginning with the last job held and ending with the earliest.
Give dates, along with company address and a brief description o the work you did.
You may also indicate any promotion or recognition you received as a result of success in a job.
Your progress and demonstrated ability mean more to an interview as well as to the company.
Present your educational background with the mist recent training listed first.
Indicate the name and address of each school attended, consecutive years of attendance, dates of graduation, and degrees or diplomas received.
Include typewriting, shorthand, and transcription rates.
Statement of honors or recognition received or class standing is also appropriate.
Indicate all special training in computer or other related skills and seminars attended.
Indicate your special interest and extra curricular activities.
If you participated in sports or musical activities or belong to social organizations, include them in your data sheet because they speak well for you as a person who gets along with others.
Specify the skills you have like:
Typing – indicate your NWAM
Stenography – indicate your highest rate in taking dictation
Office machine operation – indicate exactly what office machines you can operate competently.
Give at least three reliable references.
Every employers prefer that you did list reference on your data sheet.
Choose references related to your work experiences.
Your professors or college instruction in your field of secretarial training are a good choice.
However, not all our references should be instructors.
Never use relative’s names in your references list.
Include all least one reference who can attest to your moral values.
Always give the complete information about your reference which include the name, position, company name address, telephone number, and other related information.
THE APPLICATION LETTER
An effective application letter should tell the prospective employer why an application would want to join is organization and it should not duplicate the information stated in the resume.
PURPOSE OF AN APPLICATION LETTER
The primary purpose of an application letter is to obtain an interview.
To accomplish the above objective, the letter and the data sheet must function as a sales letter. You will sell your qualification to the prospective buyer – the employer.
You application letter and data sheet must achieve the AIDA principle of sales:
A – Attract attention of the prospective employer.
I – arouse his interest about your skills and abilities.
D – Develop his desire to see you personally because you are
the person he is seeking to fill the job vacancy
A – Move him into action to call you for an interview.
APPEARANCE OF AN APPLICATION LETTER
Make sure that when the employer opens your letter of application it would be create a favorable first impression.
Use plain-good quality paper
The letter should reflect your neatness, your sense of design and composition, and your typing ability.
Proofread your letter carefully and type accurately with no smudges and erasures is preferable.
OUTLINE OF AN EFFECTIVE APPLICATION LETTER:
First paragraph – Should be businesslike in manner:
Example: Mrs. Cruz informed me that you are in need of a clerk-typist. I am interested to apply for that position.
Second paragraph – State what the qualifications are as described to you.
Example: I was also informed that you need someone who can type at least 40 words per minute; has a little knowledge in bookkeeping and one who has a pleasing personality.
Third paragraph - Sell yourself. Assure the prospective employer that you possess all the qualifications they are looking for. Give the highlights of your qualifications particularly those related to the job you are applying for.
Fourth paragraph – State all the related accomplishments you have. Enclose a BIO-DATA for further information about the qualifications.
Fifth paragraph - Request for an appointment and specify where and how they can get in touch with you.
HOW TO FILL IN AN APPLICATION FORM
An application form is to be filled in either before the interview or after it.
In filing in an application form, the employer is trying to find out:
ability to follow directions
completeness and legibility of your penmanship
1. Your handwriting must be readable.
2. Any figures that you write should be clear.
3. It will be a point against you if the interviewer will have difficulty reading your handwriting.
ACCURACY AND CAREFULNESS
1. Recheck all information you have written.
2. Do not leave any blanks.
3. If the information asked for does not apply to you, draw a line through that space or mark it “NOT APPLICABLE” or “DOES NOT APPLY”.
4. Be careful with spelling. Misspelled words create a poor impression and also indicate carelessness or lack of basic skill in spelling proficiency.
5. Follow directions correctly. If the directions say to print, for example, do so; if they call for the last name first, don’t put your first name first.
6. Avoid erasures; this will show your carelessness.
7. Avoid asking for another extra form just because you made a mistake in filing in form. You will only be creating a bad first impression of being careless.
The purpose of the job interview is for the company to find out who among the applicants is qualified for the job.
SPECIAL INTERVIEW TIMETABLE
THREE DAYS BEFORE:
Go over your resume aloud and have somebody play interviewer and grill you on your experience and skills.
Dress for success. Prepare at least two dresses. Doing this now gives you plenty of time to take care of problems like stains, broken zippers, lost buttons, or loose hems.
TWO DAYS BEFORE:
Get gorgeous. Take care of any lengthy beauty rituals - a manicure, pedicure, or facial for instance.
THE DAY BEFORE:
Confirm your appointment
Ask for direction
Put together an “Interview Kit” (bio-date, a pocketbook, eraser, coins, notebook and pen, Xerox copy of transcript of record, etc.)
Take care of last-minute tasks in advance.
Be good to yourself
THE DAY BEFORE DON’T:
Cut your bangs
Perm your hair
THE BIG DAY:
Make sure you eat
Accept that you will be somewhat edgy but don’t take too much caffeine.
YOU’VE ARRIVE – let the receptionist know who you are and who is expecting you.
Find a seat, but don’t settle into that lovely chair; try to read.
When you hear your name, take a deep breath, get up, and smile
THE HOURS AFTERWARD:
THE INTERVIEW’S OVER – get up, shake hands with your interviewer and turn to go out the door, relieved but also worried.
Have something to look forward to. According to your budget and your time schedule, you could go to lunch to dinner with a friend, go to a movie, etc. Take time to relax.
Avoid the instant-replay syndrome. The interview is over, so don’t torture yourself. Always hope for the best.
THE NEXT DAY:
WARNING: Keep things in perspective. If you get the job, well and good. If not, do not indulge yourself in self-pity. Remember that just because you do not get one job does not mean that another or even better opportunity might not to be coming. The right job for you will come as you willingly look for it.
GETTING READY FOR THE INTERVIEW
1. Find out the exact place and time of the interview.
2. If the place is not familiar, a day before the scheduled interview, visit the place.
3. Plan to arrive 10 to 15 minutes ahead of schedule. Find out the interviewer’s full name and know how to pronounce it.
4. Prepare your interview kit which contains all the requirements for employment.
5. Be prepared to take skill tests, such as typing speed and accuracy tests, typing production, as well as dictation and transcription test.
6. Be very particular with your grooming and personal appearance.
7. Cosmetics should be used conservatively.
8. Wear clothes in good taste and should be appropriate for office wear. Remember you are looking for a position and not going to a party.
9. Accessories should also be in good taste and in harmony with your basic wardrobe.
10. Scents and perfumes should be used sparingly and pleasing to the nose.
11. Shoes and bags should be in matching color and in formal style.
12. Above all, don’t become unduly worried. Relax, prepare, and be self-confident and well-poised at all times.
DURING THE INTERVIEW
1. It is normal to be a bit nervous and apprehensive in an interview. Try to dry a damp brow or a clammy hand just before meeting your interviewer.
2. Take a deep breath or two before you enter the interviewer’s room. It will help you calm down.
3. Avoid doing things with your hand that might make a tremor or your stat of anxiety becomes obvious.
4. Smile and greet the interviewer by name as you enter his or her office.
5. If the interviewer offers a hand shake, use a firm grip.
6. Wait until you are offered a chair before you sit down.
7. Avoid mannerisms which will irritate the interviewer.
8. Be alert, smart, courteous and have a lot of common sense.
9. Be sincere in your manner of taking.
10. Be natural in your behavior.
1. Your ability to answer quickly and intelligently is of great importance in your employability.
2. If you are asked in English, answer in English. If you are asked in Pilipino, answer in Pilipino.
3. If your answers are confused and contradictory, you cannot create a good impression.
4. Always have a pleasant tone of voice in answering questions.
5. Project a cheerful disposition by a smile and happy facial expression.
6. Conduct yourself as if you are determined to get the job you are discussing.
7. Always apply for a specific job. If there is no opening, the way you present your credentials may lead the interviewer to suggest another related type of activity, perhaps even better than the position that you were seeking.
8. If the company has a training program, express your interest in joining it.
9. If given the chance, you may ask specific questions about the company, but avoid irrelevant questions.
10. If you get the impression that the interview is not going well and that you have already been rejected, don’t let your disappointment show, if you remain calm, confident, and determined, you have probably made a good impression, and there is a chance that the interviewer may reconsider your employability.
THE END OF THE INTERVIEW
1. Most interviewers last between 20 to 30 minutes.
2. Be alert to sign form the interviewer that the session is almost at an end.
3 . If you want the job , sump up your interest, tell the interviewer you are interested, and stop.
4. If you are offered the position and are absolutely sure it is the one you want, accept with a definite Yes.
5. If you do not want to accept without further thought, ask for time to decide. Be courteous and tactful in asking for time to think it over, and try to set a definite date when you can provide an answer.
6. Thank the interviewer for the time consideration.
7. In leaving the office , show as much confidence as you did in arriving. You may say: “If you have further questions, or if there is anything you want me to do, I hope you will get in touch with me.” Then say “Thank you” and leave quietly. Close the door gently .
ABOUT THE SALARY
1. Some interviewers do not choose to tell you what the position pays, unless you are already being considered for employment.
2. In case you will be asked how much you want, the correct procedures is that you are willing to accept a beginning salary according to the company policy, especially if you are a fresh graduate.
NEGATIVE FACTORS TO BE AVOIDED DURING JOB INTERVIEW
1. Poor personal appearance.
2. Errors and erasures in filling up the application blank
3. Overaggressive personality
4. Inability to express oneself clearly
5. Lack of courtesy
7. No sense of humor
8. Tardiness in arriving
9. Lack of confidence and poise
10. Unwilling to stat at the bottom
11. Wants job only for short time
12. Overemphasis on money
13. Revealing personal problems
14. No evidence of interest or lack enthusiasm
15. Indefinite response to questions
17. Being untruthful
18. Blaming and condemning previous employers
20. No interest in company just want to have the job experience
DO’S DURING THE INTERVIEW
1. Check your dress and grooming
2. Be on time.
3. Take with you your Bio-Data and complete Interview Kit.
4. Learn the interviewer’s name.
5. Wait for the interviewer to ask you to sit down.
6. Sit erect. Place your things on your lap and not on top of the interviewer’s table.
7. Let the interviewer make the first move to ask question.
8. Speak positively, clearly, and with confidence.
9. Be natural and sincere in answering questions.
10. Be prepare to answer the questions about yourself and accomplishments.
11. Have some idea when asked about the salary.
12. Leave promptly when the interviewer has ended and that the interviewer.
13. Close the door gently.
14. Than all those who helped you in the company (the secretary, the guard, the receptionist, etc.)
15. Pray and hope for the best.
DONT’S DURING THE INTERVIEW
1. Don’t use distracting gestures and movements.
2. Don’t be late for the interview.
3. Don’t interrupt.
4. Don’t argue.
5. Don’t ask too many questions especially about salary.
6. Don’t say negative things about your previous employer.
7. Don’t tell jokes.
8. Don’t brag.
9. Don’t smoke or chewgum.
10. Don’t bring so many bulky things with you.
11. Don’t leave anything on the interviewer’s desk.
12. Don’t tell a lie.
HOW TO FOLLOP-UP AN EMPLOYMENT APPLICATION
Things to remember:
1. Remember the date when you apply, when you took the exam and the interview, and also the name of the person who conducted the interview.
2. Do not be too persistent. If the company representative tells you they will be the one to call up, just wait, don’t call.
3. If you fell you did not make it, try again in other companies. You will soon be able to find the right company who needs your services.
TWO GREATEST DECISIONS YOU WILL MAKE IN YOUR LIFE WHICH NEEDS CAREFUL PLANNING AND INTELLIGENT DECISION 1. Choice of life-partner 2. Choice of work
REMINDER WHEN JOB HUNTING
1. When applying for a job, do the best that you can.
2. Prepare yourself to the fullest. Expect for good and positive things to happen in your job hunting. You will learn a lot, so enjoy it.
3. If your attempt to apply for a job is unsuccessful, think positively. Don’t be discouraged. Tell yourself that a better job with a higher pay is waiting for you in another company so TRY and TRY again until you are able to find and be hired to the right job.
4. Good Luck and HAPPY JOB HUNTING!
Presenters: Katherine Mae C. Gatuz Marlie Del Rosario BOA IV-1