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Introduction To Philosophy boa Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Philosophy
  • 2. Course Outline
    • Meaning of Philosophy
    • Goals of Philosophy
    • Scope of Philosophy
    • Importance of Philosophy
    • Philosophical Methods
    • Divisions of Philosophy
    • Relation to the other Discipline
    • Nature of Religion
    • Nature of Reality
    • Nature of Value
  • 3. A. Meaning of Philosophy Back to course outline
  • 4. 1. Common Definition
      • 1. Philosophy of life-a person overall theory or outlook. Keep thinking/think and excess.
    • Rene Descartes-“cogito ergo sum” (Latin), meaning
    • “ I think Therefore I Exist”
      • 2. Business Philosophy-the way we ran/manage our own business.
      • 3. Motto/Slogan- the philosophy of the owner
    • Motto-is for personal only not intended for majority.
    • Slogan-intended for the majority.
    • Motto and Slogan- theory of a simple minded person.
    • Philosophy- synonyms to outlook/viewpoint
    Back to course outline A. Meaning of Philosophy
  • 5. 2. Etymology Etymology- or etymological definition of Philosophy -derived for Greek words etimos and logos Etimos-root, origin, cause, basis, history Logos-study Etymology-study of the history of the word Philosophy comes from the Geek Words Philia and Sofia. Sofia-wisdom Philia-love, desire for, interest in Philia and Sofia join by Pythagoras-600 B.C. Episteme-means knowledge Wisdom-defining deeply, wise, according to etymology -is an awareness of something which is basic. -knowledge of the basic principle. Knowledge-is only a million formation -simple data that comes from the outside that pass to our senses.   Back to course outline A. Meaning of Philosophy
  • 6. 3. Connotation Connotation- is an indirect explanation of a situation, event, person, circumstance, or thing by considered to be right -It implies an attempt to discover the most general and yet underlying principle of things.   Experience-the different aspect or dimension of life that we are always examining.       Back to course outline A. Meaning of Philosophy
  • 7. 3 Categories: 1. Intellectual/Mental Experience 2. Physical or Material Experience 3. Spiritual or Divine Experience Back to course outline 4. Physical, mental, spiritual experiences A. Meaning of Philosophy
  • 8. 5. Concrete Definition Concrete Definition- the exact explanation of a situation, event, person Philosophy is a systematic and comprehensive study of truth about life, about the universe, and everything including events, relationships, and experience. Back to course outline A. Meaning of Philosophy
  • 9. 6. Philosophers’ definition
    • Philosophers’ definition-arises out of wonder, out of curiosity, out of desire to learn, and to understand things.
    • -According to the Philosopher, Philosophy is a process of analysis, criticism, interpretation and speculation
    • Analysis-if we know how to synthesis and antithesis.
    • Synthesis- put idea together or event of the same characteristic.
    • Antithesis- remove from or put it out, removing ideas
    • Criticism- is a process of commenting or giving a judgment, even if its positive or negative.
    • Interpretation-demonstration of ideas.
    • Speculation-being satisfied.
    •  
    Back to course outline A. Meaning of Philosophy
  • 10. B. Goals of Philosophy Back to course outline
  • 11.
      • Philosophy tries to discover the nature of truth as well as the nature of knowledge.
    • Nature- the essence, quality, attribute of a particular situation, event, or thing.
    • Nature of Truth- factors that make a particular situation is true.
    • -product of fantasy.
    • Factors that makes something true:
    • -It must have an opposite
    • -perceivable (things which has an opposite)
    • -encourage us to believe
    • -it has always an appearance or reality.
    • -It may also be a product of fantasy.
    • Nature of Knowledge-just a product of truth, produces ability.
    Back to course outline B. Goals of Philosophy
  • 12. Knower---know ability----known Know-it is to be perceived Knower-the ability to perceive/perceiver Truth-source of knowledge Know ability-connect the know and knower. Product of knowledge Back to course outline B. Goals of Philosophy
  • 13.
      • 2. It searches for what is basic value and of importance in life.
    • Priority-that is the most important thing/ value in life.
      • 3. Philosophy examines the relationship between individuals and the society as well as humanity and nature.
      • 4. Wisdom-main goal of Philosophy
    Back to course outline B. Goals of Philosophy
  • 14. C. Scope of Philosophy Back to course outline
  • 15.
    • nature of the universe
    • -totality of everything
    • Universe-consists of concrete and non-concrete things
    • Non-concrete-it includes emotion
    Back to course outline C. Scope of Philosophy
  • 16.
    • standard of justice and conduct of life
    • conduct-analysis of right and wrong
    • justice-process of giving what is due and receiving something that is due.
    • Standard- basis for our action for something to be done.
    • Standard of Justice-a norm applied for everybody
    • Injustice-given what is not due.
    • Morality- the recognition of right or wrong
    • Behavior-actualization of conduct manifestation of right or wrong
    • Manner- way or mode of expressing of right or wrong
    Back to course outline C. Scope of Philosophy
  • 17.
    • validity of knowledge
    • Validity-in accordance with the majority
    • Acceptable to the majority
    • concrete application of reason
    • reason-act of the mind.
    • -expression of right thinking
    • -if there is no reason, there is no application
    •  
    Back to course outline C. Scope of Philosophy
  • 18.
    • criteria of beauty
    • Beauty-conditions that brings drive, interests, desirability, attraction, appeal to our senses.
    • relationship between languages and thought
    • Language-expression of thought or product of though
    • Thought- root, causes, source of language.
    Back to course outline C. Scope of Philosophy
  • 19. Kinds of Language -Oral Language -Written Language -Sign Language -Body Language -Electronic Language- combination of sign and written language Back to course outline C. Scope of Philosophy
  • 20. D. Importance of Philosophy Back to course outline
  • 21.
    • People can clarify what they are believing
    • Rejection of Philosophy-is an act of philosophizing
    • We can be stimulated to think of ultimate question
    • Ultimate question-question appearing i the last part of out awareness
    • Philosophy promises us better understanding of ourselves
    • It helps the student to systematize and evaluate the uses of information that he or she seeks from various sources.
    •  
    Back to course outline D. Importance of Philosophy
  • 22. E. Philosophical Methods Back to course outline
  • 23. Logical and speculative reasoning -common tool of philosophy Reasoning-is a explanation of a permission or denial. Speculative-to look for more things/ideas to influence others. Logical-means being to correct Correct-must be valid and true Analysis -most outstanding tool of philosophy   Back to course outline E. Philosophical Methods
  • 24. Reflection -is the voice within us -the examination of ourselves, most serious tool of philosophy -the spiritual tool of philosophy Discernment-is listening to the spirit of god and voice of holy spirit Mediation-thinking about something i relation to god. Contemplation-putting yourself in center of universe Back to course outline E. Philosophical Methods
  • 25. F. Divisions of Philosophy Back to course outline
  • 26. 1. Systematic Philosophy
    • Classifications:
      • Pure Philosophy- is not based on observation but purely based on the mind
      • Applied Philosophy-compilation on ideas based on observation on practical aspects.
    Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 27. Category of Pure Philosophy A. Theoretical Philosophy-thoughts produced by intellectual that cannot put into practice and cannot help to develop our analysis. B. Practical Philosophy-is based on opinions on theories (that are purely based on the mind put into practice. Comes from ethic-come from Greek word Ethos which means character or behavior, conduct, attitude, manner or value. Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 28. A.1. Metaphysics
    • Metaphysics investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particular science.
    • Cosmology and ontology are traditional branches of metaphysics. It is concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world.
    • Someone who studies metaphysics would be called either a "metaphysician“ or a "metaphysicist".
    • The word derives from the Greek words μετά (metá) (meaning "beyond" or "after") and φυσικά (physiká) (meaning "physical"), "physical" referring to those works on matter by Aristotle in antiquity. The prefix meta- ("beyond") was attached to the chapters in
    Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 29.
    • Ontology
    • (from the Greek ὄν, genitive ὄντος: of being <neuter participle of εἶναι: to be > and -λογία, -logia: science , study , theory ) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence or reality in general, as well as of the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences.
    Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 30.
    • Cosmology
    • (from Greek κοσμολογία - κόσμος, kosmos , &quot;universe&quot;; and -λογία, -logia , &quot;study&quot;) is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanity's place in it. Though the word cosmology is recent (first used in 1730 in Christian Wolff's Cosmologia Generalis ), study of the universe has a long history involving science, philosophy, esotericism, and religion.
    Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 31. A.2. Epistemology Epistemology (from Greek ἐπιστήμη - episteme -, &quot;knowledge, science&quot; + λόγος , &quot;logos&quot;) or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge. It addresses the questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge acquired? What do people know? How do we know what we know? Why do we know what we know? Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 32. A.3. Theodicy The term theodicy comes from the Greek θεός ( theós , &quot;god&quot;) and δίκη ( díkē , &quot;justice&quot;), meaning literally &quot;the justice of God,&quot; although a more appropriate phrase may be &quot;to justify God&quot; or &quot;the justification of God&quot;. The term was coined in 1710 by the German philosopher Gottfried Leibniz in a work entitled Essais de Théodicée sur la bonté de Dieu, la liberté de l'homme et l'origine du mal (&quot;Theodicic Essays on the Benevolence of God, the Free will of man, and the Origin of Evil&quot;). Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 33. B. Practical Philosophy     The division of philosophy into a practical and a theoretical discipline has its origin in Aristotle's moral philosophy and natural philosophy categories. In Sweden and Finland courses in theoretical and practical philosophy are taught separately, and are separate degrees. Other countries may use a similar scheme--some Scottish universities, for example, divide philosophy into logic, metaphysics, and ethics--but in most universities around the world philosophy is taught as a single subject. Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 34. B.1. Logic Logic, from the Greek λογική (logiké) is defined as &quot;The formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning&quot;. Logic is the art of conforming one's thoughts to the Law of Identity. In one respect, thoughts have to conform to the Law of Identity, as does everything else. This has to do with the nature of thoughts. Ideas have a different nature than memories, which are different from emotions. In this respect, all thoughts conform to the Law of Identity. Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 35. B.2. Aesthetic Aesthetics (also spelled æsthetics or esthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as &quot;critical reflection on art, culture and nature.&quot; Aesthetics is a sub discipline of axiology, a branch of philosophy, and is closely associated with the philosophy of art. Aesthetics studies new ways of seeing and of perceiving the world Aesthetics is the study of art. It includes what art consists of, as well as the purpose behind it. Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 36. B.3. Semantics Semantics is the study of meaning. The word &quot;semantics&quot; itself denotes a range of ideas, from the popular to the highly technical. It is often used in ordinary language to denote a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation. The word is derived from the Greek word σημαντικός ( semantikos ), &quot;significant&quot;, from σημαίνω ( semaino ), &quot;to signify, to indicate&quot; and that from σήμα ( sema ), &quot;sign, mark, token&quot;. In linguistics, it is the study of interpretation of signs or symbols as used by agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts. Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 37. B.4. Ethics Ethics (also known as moral philosophy) is a branch of philosophy which seeks to address questions about morality, such as what the fundamental semantic, ontological, and epistemic nature of ethics or morality is (meta-ethics), how moral values should be determined (normative ethics), how a moral outcome can be achieved in specific situations (applied ethics), how moral capacity or moral agency develops and what its nature is (moral psychology), and what moral values people actually abide by (descriptive ethics). Ethics is the branch of study dealing with what is the proper course of action for man. It answers the question, &quot;What do I do?&quot; It is the study of right and wrong in human endeavors. At a more fundamental level, it is the method by which we categorize our values and pursue them. Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 38. 2. History of Philosophy
    • Oriental Philosophy
      • Chinese Philosophy
      • Indian Philosophy
    • Occidental Philosophy
      • Ancient Philosophy
      • Medieval Philosophy
      • Modern Philosophy
      • Contemporary Philosophy
    Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 39.
    • Oriental Philosophy
    Chinese philosophy has spread around the world in forms such as the New Confucianism and New Age ideas. Many in the academic community of the West remain skeptical, and only a few assimilate Chinese philosophy into their own research, whether scientific or philosophical. However, it still carries profound influence amongst the people of East Asia, and even Southeast Asia. Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy a. Chinese Philosophy
  • 40. b. Indian Philosophy The term Indian philosophy (Sanskrit: Darshanas), may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought that originated in the Indian subcontinent, including Hindu philosophy, Buddhist philosophy, and Jain philosophy. Having the same or rather intertwined origins, all of these philosophies have a common underlying theme of Dharma, and similarly attempt to explain the attainment of emancipation. They have been formalized and promulgated chiefly between 1,000 BC to a few centuries A.D, with residual commentaries and reformations continuing up to as late as the 20th century by Aurobindo and ISKCON among others, who provided stylized interpretations. Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
    • Oriental Philosophy
  • 41.
    • Occidental Philosophy
      • Ancient Philosophy
      • Ancient philosophy is the philosophy of the Graeco-Roman world from the sixth century [circa 585] B.C. to the fourth century A.D. It is usually divided into three periods: the pre-Socratic period, the periods of Plato and Aristotle, and the post-Aristotelian (or Hellenistic) period. Sometimes a fourth period is added that includes the Christian and Neo-Platonist philosophers. The most important of the ancient philosophers (in terms of subsequent influence) are Plato and Aristotle.
    • In this period the crucial features of the philosophical method were established: a critical approach to received or established views, and the appeal to reason and argumentation.
    Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 42.
    • Occidental Ph i losophy
    The themes of ancient philosophy are: understanding the fundamental causes and principles of the universe; explaining it in an economical and uniform way; the epistemological problem of reconciling the diversity and change of the natural universe, with the possibility of obtaining fixed and certain knowledge about it; questions about things which cannot be perceived by the senses, such as numbers, elements, universals, and gods; the analysis of patterns of reasoning and argument; the nature of the good life and the importance of understanding and knowledge in order to pursue it; the explication of the concept of justice, and its relation to various political systems. Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
  • 43. b. Medieval Philosophy
    • Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Western Europe and the Middle East during what is now known as the medieval era or the Middle Ages, roughly extending from the fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance. Medieval philosophy is defined partly by the rediscovery and further development of classical Greek and Hellenistic philosophy, and partly by the need to address theological problems and to integrate sacred doctrine (in Islam, Judaism and Christianity) with secular learning.
    • Some problems discussed throughout this period are the relation of faith to reason, the existence and unity of God, the object of theology and metaphysics, the problems of knowledge, of universals, and of individuation.
    Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
    • Occidental Philosophy
  • 44. c. Modern Philosophy
    • Modern philosophy begins with the revival of skepticism and the rise of modern physical science. Philosophy in this period centers on the relation between experience and reality, the ultimate origin of knowledge, the nature of the mind and its relation to the body, the implications of the new natural sciences for free will and God, and the emergence of a secular basis for moral and political philosophy.
    • Canonical figures include Hobbes, Descartes, Locke, Spinoza, Leibniz, Berkeley, Rousseau, Hume, and Kant. Chronologically, this era spans the 17th and 18th centuries, and is generally considered to end with Kant's systematic attempt to reconcile Newtonian physics with traditional metaphysical topics.
    Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
    • Occidental Philosophy
  • 45. d. Contemporary Philosophy Within the last century, philosophy has increasingly become an activity practiced within the university, and accordingly it has grown more specialized and more distinct from the natural sciences. Much of philosophy in this period concerns itself with explaining the relation between the theories of the natural sciences and the ideas of the humanities or common sense. In the Anglophone world, analytic philosophy became the dominant school. In the first half of the century, it was a cohesive school, more or less identical to logical positivism, united by the notion that philosophical problems could and should be solved by attention to logic and language. In the latter half of the twentieth century, analytic philosophy diffused into a wide variety of disparate philosophical views, only loosely united by historical lines of influence and a self-identified commitment to clarity and rigor. Back to course outline F. Divisions of Philosophy
    • Occidental Philosophy
  • 46. G. Relation to the other Discipline Back to course outline
  • 47. 1. Philosophy and Science   Science-studies the natural phenomena and all the phenomena of the society. -Study outward and more on demonstrations and experimentation -cannot study itself. -has attained a definite and tested knowledge of many matters. -resolve disagreement Philosophy of Science-study of science itself. -study of something inward. Back to course outline G. Relations to the other Discipline
  • 48.
      • Differences:
    • Philosophy-make a disagreement
    • -comparable to different fields of studies
    • -because of philosophy, we are motivated to think more. It demonstrate than there is the existence of god.
    • -It is inquiring the existence of everything
      • Similarities:
    • -They both answer questions
    • -both share a significant role
    • -they both seek to discover the truth
    • -both of them satisfy our curiosity
    • -both of them provoke further questions
    Back to course outline G. Relations to the other Discipline
  • 49. 2. Philosophy and Religion
    • Relationship:
    • -because of religion there is philosophy
    • -philosophical questions are based on religion
    • -more on emotion
    • Religious questions
    • A philosopher of religion does not ask &quot;What is God?&quot;, for such is a complex question in that it assumes the existence of God and that God has a knowable nature. Instead, a philosopher of religion asks whether there are sound reasons to think that God does or does not exist.
    Back to course outline G. Relations to the other Discipline
  • 50. Still, there are other questions studied in the philosophy of religion. For example: What, if anything, would give us good reason to believe that a miracle has occurred? What is the relationship between faith and reason? What is the relationship between morality and religion? What is the status of religious language? Does petitionary prayer (sometimes still called impetratory prayer ) make sense? Are salvo-lobotomies (lobotomies performed to keep believers from sinning) moral actions? Back to course outline G. Relations to the other Discipline
  • 51.
    • Existence of God
    • Arguments for and against the existence of God have been proposed by scientists, philosophers, theologians, and others. In philosophical terminology, &quot;existence-of-God&quot; arguments concern schools of thought on the epistemology of the ontology of God.
    • A wide variety of arguments exist which can be categorized as metaphysical, logical, empirical, or subjective. Although rarely studied scientifically given the generally held belief of religion and science as non-overlapping magisterial, the question of the existence of God is subject to lively debate both in philosophy— the philosophy of religion being almost entirely devoted to the question — and in popular culture.
    Back to course outline G. Relations to the other Discipline
  • 52.
      • Concern of Religion
    • The one-word answer for &quot;What is hidden at first, but then revealed by loose cognition?&quot; is &quot;determinism&quot; or &quot;Fatedness&quot;, not &quot;unity&quot; or &quot;consciousness&quot;. The word &quot;determinism&quot; lends itself better to having these ideas attached, than the word &quot;unity&quot; or &quot;love&quot; or &quot;consciousness&quot; or &quot;enlightenment&quot;. Enlightenment amounts to determinism, more than enlightenment is unity or consciousness.
    Back to course outline G. Relations to the other Discipline
  • 53. H. Nature of Religion Back to course outline
  • 54. 1. Definition A religion is an organized approach to human spirituality which usually encompasses a set of narratives, symbols, beliefs and practices, often with a supernatural or transcendent quality, that give meaning to the practitioner's experiences of life through reference to a higher power, God or gods, or ultimate truth. It may be expressed through prayer, ritual, meditation, music and art, among other things. It may focus on specific supernatural, metaphysical, and moral claims about reality (the cosmos and human nature) which may yield a set of religious laws, ethics, and a particular lifestyle. Religion also encompasses ancestral or cultural traditions, writings, history, and mythology, as well as personal faith and religious experience. Back to course outline H. Nature of Religion
  • 55.
    • Etymology
    • It comes form the latin word re which means “back, again” and ligare which means “to bind”
    • The word religion is derived from Latin &quot;religio&quot; (what attaches or retains, moral bond, anxiety of self-consciousness, scruple) used by the Romans, before Jesus Christ, to indicate the worship of the demons.
    • The origin of &quot;religion&quot; is debated since antiquity. Cicero said it comes from &quot;relegere&quot; (to read again, to re-examine carefully, to gather) in the
    • meaning &quot;to carefully consider the things related to the worship of gods&quot;.
    Back to course outline H. Nature of Religion
  • 56.
    • Denotation
      • Religion is a moral virtue indication relation and duties of god.
    • Common (e.g. Judaism, Christianity, Islam)
    • Judaism- “promotion of humanity” is their way of philosophy
    • Taakh-secret book of Judaism
    • Toah-first part of Taakh
    • Christianity-have a different miracles, love is their philosophy
    • tanakh= +old testament=new testament/bible
    • Buddhism-equality-the summary of religion of Buddhism
    • The summary of their practical book which is “tripitaka”-secret book of Buddhism
    Back to course outline H. Nature of Religion
  • 57. Sidhartha Gautama-“budda” which means the enlightened one Brahmanisn and Hinduism-materialistic religion Castle system-s rich person can only deal to another rich one. Islam- Islamic religion-they are feeling humiliated Mohammed-“the last prophet” according to the Muslims Qur’an (Koran) secret book of Islam, essence of Qur’an is brotherhood. Back to course outline H. Nature of Religion
  • 58. 2. Origin Like the definition of religion, the construction of religious history is a task fraught with ideological implications. Early studies of religions were often written to imply that the author's own religion was the most accurate. Even in a secular history, to imply that religion &quot;progresses&quot; towards better understanding of reality makes a value judgment about past religions; likewise, to consider religion an essentially social construction with no transcendent meaning denies the claims of every religious authority. Back to course outline H. Nature of Religion
  • 59. I. Nature of Reality Back to course outline
  • 60. There is a saying that “truth is stranger than fiction” and this certainly applies to the nature of reality, because in the light of increasing evidence, what we have accepted to be the ‘truth’ about our everyday reality is much more like the ‘fiction’ of our everyday reality. Our most basic understanding of ‘reality’ is that we are born, we live, and we die. But for many of us this is not enough; we instinctively ‘feel’ that there is more to life than just producing the next generation of humanity and trying to do our best in our allotted ‘three score years and ten’. Back to course outline I. Nature of Reality
  • 61. Science and religion have been at loggerheads for hundreds of years in their attempts to prove their worldview as the correct one. Despite each gaining the upper hand from time to time, they both divide reality into two, the ‘physical’ and the ‘spiritual’. In truth, neither of them has provided a satisfactory explanation of the human experience, nor have they been able to unite to form a single, all-encompassing worldview. Back to course outline I. Nature of Reality
  • 62. It is therefore obvious that there is something drastically wrong with the prevailing scientific and religious worldviews; with the common understanding of the so-called ‘physical’ and ‘spiritual’ worlds and the general explanations provided by either science or religion. The quest to find answers for our modern times has been taken up by the ‘new science’ of quantum physics. Discoveries of the last 100 years have taken physicists investigating the quantum world to new understandings that are truly astounding. Back to course outline I. Nature of Reality
  • 63. J. Nature of Value Back to course outline
  • 64. 1. Schematic Circle of Value There are three usual positions advocated ethical values could be: Objective: depending only on the object of inquiry, and hence independent of what we think, hope or expect to find Subjective: Depending on the subject doing the inquiring Intersubjective: Depending on agreement between subjects   Back to course outline J. Nature of Value
  • 65. Axiology (from Greek ἀξίᾱ, axiā , &quot;value, worth&quot;; and -λογία, -logia ) is the study of quality or value. It is often taken to include ethics and aesthetics — philosophical fields that depend crucially on notions of value — and sometimes it is held to lay the groundwork for these fields, and thus to be similar to value theory and meta-ethics. The term was first used in the early 20th century by Paul Lapie, in 1902, and E. von Hartmann, in 1908. Back to course outline J. Nature of Value 2. Axiology, Ethics, Aesthetics
  • 66. Ethics Ethics (also known as moral philosophy) is a branch of philosophy which seeks to address questions about morality, such as what the fundamental semantic, ontological, and epistemic nature of ethics or morality is (meta-ethics), how moral values should be determined (normative ethics), how a moral outcome can be achieved in specific situations (applied ethics), and how moral capacity or moral agency develops and what its nature is (moral psychology). Back to course outline J. Nature of Value
  • 67. Aesthetics Aesthetics (also spelled æsthetics or esthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as &quot;critical reflection on art, culture and nature.&quot; Aesthetics is a subdiscipline of axiology, a branch of philosophy, and is closely associated with the philosophy of art. Aesthetics studies new ways of seeing and of perceiving the world. Back to course outline J. Nature of Value
  • 68. -END- Presenters: Ariza Muriel Bautista Jean Bombuhay BOA IV-1