Outline Painting History Filipino Painters Purposes Elements Different mediums Different techniques Sculpture Etymology Definition History Materials Elements Types Function Processes & technique Music Etymology Definition Function Properties Elements Different mediums Kinds
Outline Cinema Etymology Definition History Elements Different kinds Photography Etymology Definition History Modes of production Steps Example of photographs Award giving body Dance Etymology Definition History Elements Different kinds
ETYMOLOGY It came from the Latin word “humanus” which means refined, culture and human Refined - Norms, being civilize, and socialize Cultured - Adaptation to environment (social interaction, norms) Human - Having the nature of people, being a person
Definition - The expression of ourselves without using of words (painting, sculptures, dancing, mosaic, cross stitch, collage, paper and folding) - The study of man’s expression feelings, thought, intuition, values, and ideas - The study of man’s experience, goals, and aspirations - It is used to dramatize individual expressions
The humanities serve to provide the student with certain skills and values through the arts. Students learn to appreciate the importance of value that no other subject can describe those values which are directly an exact.
It gives man moment of relaxation and spiritual happiness
It serves as a channel of man’s passion
Arts reformed man
Overcomes the feelings of restlessness and loneliness
Categories of work of art considered to be great
Best selling - it is very popular in its day, or is produced by an artist who has done other very popular piece.
Ground breaking- that it does not follow regular convention or already tried artistic methods real closely. It is not, in short, just one more soap opera following an old, old formula, no matter how well done.
Inherently beautiful - means just as the art critics do require and demand that a work of art have an inner harmony, beauty, and emotional/intuitive meaning that are unified, strong and intense, and deeply moving to us. Something that appeals to your senses and emotions.
Saturation- degree of quality, purity, and strength such as scarlet and indigo. 2 to 3 colors in things.
Classification of colors a. Primary colors- colors that cannot be formed from mixtures because they are pure colors. Example: red, blue and yellow. b. Secondary colors- colors form out of combination of two primary colors. Example: Blue + Yellow = Green Red + Blue = Violet Red + Yellow = Orange
It is originated in France and was introduced in the Philippines by the Spaniards during 17th century.
The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures, that represent a continuous, though disrupted, tradition from Antiquity. Across cultures, and spanning continents and millennia, the history of painting is an ongoing river of creativity that continues into the 21st century. Until the early 20th century it relied primarily on representational, religious and classical motifs, after which time more purely abstract and conceptual approaches gained favor. Developments in Eastern painting historically parallel those in Western painting, in general, a few centuries
African art, Islamic art, Indian art, Chinese art, and Japanese art each had significant influence on Western art, and, eventually, vice-versa.
The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France, claimed by some historians to be about 32,000 years old. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth or humans often hunting. However the earliest evidence of painting has been discovered in two rock-shelters in Arnhem Land, in northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these sites there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia, that is dated 40 000 years old. There are examples of cave paintings all over the world—in France, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, India etc.
In Western cultures oil painting and watercolor painting are the best known media, with rich and complex traditions in
style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically predominated the choice of media with equally rich and complex traditions.
Juan Luna’s famous works include the “The Death of Cleopatra”, which won him a silver medal at the National Exposition of Fine Arts (1881) and “The Spolarium”, his greatest masterpiece that won him a gold medal at the National Exposition of Fine Arts held in Madrid in 1884. The “Battle of Lepanto” won him another gold medal at the Barcelona Exposition in 1888. Among his
last painting include “El Pacto de Sangre” which won first prize
in Paris and at the St. Louis Exposition, USA in 1904.
Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo's place in Philippine Art was secured in the last quarter of the nineteenth century through his large Neoclassical canvases which harvested Gold and Silver Medals in prestigious International Exhibitions. At a time when merely to have one's painting accepted and hung in the highly competitive International Exhibits was a mark of having arrived as a painter, Hidalgo's entries stood out among thousands of paintings (representing in these Exhibits the best Europe and America had to offer) to win distinction: a Gold Medal for his major work, La Barca de Aqueronte and Silver Medals for two others (Jovenes Cristianas Expuestas al Populacho and Adios del Sol). It is therefore through these two historical paintings “in the grand manner" (a seascape with figure, Adios del Sol is a departure from the traditional manner) that Hidalgo's reputation as a painter is assured in both Philippine Art history and the popular mind. He is the painter of “Assassination of
5. Impressionism - the artist depicts what stimulates the eye. What we see is important in an impressionist. When they create an art they are more concerned with the effects of lights that would get the attention of the audience.
Example: Soleil Levant (Impression, sunrise) by Claude Monet in 1872
7. Pointillism - a style of painting in which the artists use small distinct dots of color forming a figure and it has an item of “luminosity” and create the impression of a wide selection of other colors and blending.
8. Futurism - an art movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. Machine and motions is the main subject of this technique which try to show movement and speed. Rejected the traditional perspectives and attempted to glorify a new life.
Example: The City Rises by Umberto Boccioni (1910)
The sculpture prowess of the Philippines occurred during Spanish regime. The sculpture started when people begun to worship statues “anino.” People began to do something on clays, loams then it evolves through technology. It is often use to form religious item like catholic saints. It is known to be the oldest art form.
It varied and is illustrative of how sculpture has changed extensively over the ages. The art of sculpture continues as a vital art form worldwide. From pre-historic and ancient civilizations to the contemporary, from the utilitarian and religious to Modernist abstraction, and conceptual manifestations of both form and content, a continuous stream of creativity & an extremely modest show of compassion. Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, and until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were usually an expression of religion or politics.
Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the Ancient Mediterranean, India and China, as well as many in South America and Africa. Moses's rejection of the Golden Calf was perhaps a decisive event in the history of sculpture.
Aniconism remained restricted to the Jewish, Zoroastrian and some other religions, before expanding to Early Buddhism and Early Christianity, neither of which initially accepted at least large sculptures. In both Christianity and Buddhism these early views were later reversed, and sculpture became very significant, especially in Buddhism. Christian Eastern Orthodoxy has never accepted monumental sculpture, and Islam has consistently rejected all figurative sculpture. Many forms of Protestantism also do not approve of religious sculpture.
There has been much iconoclasm of sculpture from religious motives, from the Early Christians, the Beeldenstorm of the Protestant Reformation to the recent destruction of the Buddhas of Bamyan by the Taliban. Nonetheless, the Buddha remains a popular subject for sculptural art, and sculptors all over the world celebrate the Buddha in their work.
Free-standing sculpture, sculpture that is surrounded on all sides, except the base, by space. It is also known as sculpture "in the round", and is meant to be viewed from any angle.
Sound sculpture - Sound sculpture (related to sound art and sound installation) is an intermedia and time based art form in which sculpture or any kind of art object produces sound, or the reverse (in the sense that sound is manipulated in such a way as to create a sculptural as opposed to temporal form or mass).
Light sculpture - is an intermedia and time based art form
in which sculpture or any kind of art object produces light,
or the reverse (in the sense that light is manipulated in such
a way as to create a sculptural as opposed to temporal form
Sculpture functions as an integral part of many ceremonies and events. Often unnoticed, it gives us a visual reference for our emotional experiences throughout the passages of life. Tombstones, for example, are a form of sculpture commemorating death, a universal event.
Processes and Techniques
Processes in sculpting vary, and always depend on the materials used. There is cast sculpture, where a material, such as bronze, begins as a clay form that is cast in a mould to produce a given shape; there is also carved sculpture, such as wood or stone.
Two distinct methods have emerged; an additive process,
where material is added again and again to build up the form,
for example with clay, and the subtractive process, where
the artist removes or subtracts materials to create the form,
Sculpture may be free standing (sometimes referred to as sculpture in the round even if it is a square shape), often on a pedestal or base where you can walk around it, or relief, where raised forms project from a background or surface. There is low relief, where the figure emerges at a level closer to the surface; and high relief, where the figure may almost be completely detached from the surface or ground. Types of representation and composition in relief are defined by their need for the ground plane on which the forms are superimposed or from which they emerge. Relief can be carved in wood or stone; molded in clay or wax; cast in metal, plaster or resin.
Mezzo soprano - medium register of voice for female
Example: Betty Allen (america) and Lea Salonga
Alto - lowest register of voice for female
Example: Claire dela Fuente and Isay Alvarez
Tenor - highest register of voice for male
Example: Luciano Pavarotti was (this century's most famous tenor) Carreras, Pavorotti, Placido Domingo, and Eric Caruso
Baritone - medium register of voice for male
Example: Nonoy Zuñiga
Bass - lowest register of voice for male
Example: Tim Riley (performed in Gold City Quartet)
Solo - singing without accompaniment Duet - a group of two singers or a composition of two voices Acappella- is an all-male Contemporary Christian vocal group founded in 1982 by Keith Lancaster, who has variously played the role of singer, songwriter and producer throughout the group's history. Chorus or choir - a musical ensemble of singers. Choir/chorus - a body of singers who perform together. Often applied to groups affiliated with a church. Quartet - a method of instrumentation (or a medium), used to perform a musical composition, and consisting of four parts.
II. Instrumental medium - with the use of musical instruments.
1. Strings - They consist of the violin, viola, cello, and double bass. They all have the same basic shape, but are very different in size. They each have four strings, are made of wood, and are played by drawing a bow across the strings or plucking the strings with the fingers.
Brass - instruments are the loudest members of the orchestra. They include French horn, trumpet, trombone, and tuba. Brass instruments are long tubes of metal which the player blows into through a mouth-piece at one end. The player makes a buzzing sound with his or her lips, and the sound comes out the other end which is wider, like a bell.
Woodwinds - instruments are most commonly made of wood or metal, and are played by blowing air across an opening at one end or through a "reed", and by covering and uncovering holes along the instrument with fingers or levers, keys, and pads. The members of this family are flute and piccolo, oboe and English horn, clarinet and bass clarinet, and bassoon and contra-bassoon.
Percussion - instruments are the rhythm section of the orchestra. They make sounds when they are struck, scraped, or rattled with hands or special sticks. Some percussion instruments have a definite highness or lowness, a quality called pitch, and some do not have a definite pitch. Xylophone, timpani, chimes, vibraphone, and Celesta are examples of pitched percussion instruments, while bass drum, snare drum, triangle, cymbals, and tambourine are non-pitched percussion instruments.
Dance has certainly been an important part of ceremony, rituals, celebrations and entertainment since before the birth of the earliest human civilizations. Archeology delivers traces of dance from prehistoric times such as the 9,000 year old Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka paintings in India and Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures from circa 3300 BC.Dance does not leave behind clearly identifiable physical artifacts such as stone tools, hunting implements or cave paintings. It is not possible to say when dance became part of human culture.
One of the earliest structured uses of dances may have been in the performance and in the telling of myths. It was also
sometimes used to show feelings for one of the opposite gender.
It is also linked to the origin of "love making." Before
the production of written languages, dance was one of
8. Theme - it is actually the main content of the dance. It tells us what the dance is trying to convey
Choreographer - Choreographers are generally university trained and are typically employed for particular projects or, more rarely may work on contract as the resident choreographer for a specific dance company. Joy Cancho, Geleen Eugenio, Leonides D. Arpon, Gerald Casel, and Max Luna III Filipino
The word "photography" comes from the Greek (phos) "light" + (graphis) "stylus", "paintbrush" or (graphê) "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light." Traditionally, the products of photography have been called negatives and photographs, commonly shortened to photos.
It is the art or process of producing images through the use of a light sensitive chemical or film.
A photography is an actual likeness, that production of
which may not actually involve artists creativity. One only
has to press a button on a camera to produce this actual likeness.
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Chinese philosopher Mo Ti described a pinhole camera in the 5th century B.C.E.
Photography as a usable process goes back to the 1820s with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photograph was an image produced in 1825 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce. However, because his photographs took so long to expose, he sought to find a new process. Working in conjunction with Louis Daguerre, they experimented with silver compounds based on a Johann Heinrich Schultz discovery in 1724 that a silver and chalk mixture darkens when exposed to light.
Niépce died in 1833, but Daguerre continued the work, eventually culminating with the development of the daguerreotype in 1837. Daguerre took the first ever photo of a person in 1839 when, while taking a daguerreotype of a Paris street, a pedestrian stopped for a shoe shine, long enough to be captured by the long exposure
Eventually, France agreed to pay Daguerre a pension for his formula, in exchange for his promise to announce his discovery to the world as the gift of France, which he did in 1839.
Meanwhile, Hercules Florence had already created a very similar process in 1832, naming it Photographie, and William Fox Talbot had earlier discovered another means to fix a silver process image but had kept it secret. After reading about Daguerre's invention, Talbot refined his process so that portraits were made readily available to the masses. By 1840, Talbot had invented the calotype process, which creates negative images. John Herschel made many contributions to the new methods. He invented the cyanotype process, now familiar as the "blueprint". He was the first to use the terms "photography", "negative" and "positive".
He discovered sodium thiosulphate solution to be a solvent of silver halides in 1819, and informed Talbot and Daguerre of his discovery in 1839 that it could be used to "fix" pictures and make them permanent. He made the first glass negative in late 1839.
In March 1851, Frederick Scott Archer published his findings in "The Chemist" on the wet plate collodion process. This became the most widely used process between 1852 and the late 1880s when the dry plate was introduced. There are three subsets to the Collodion process; the Ambrotype (positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (positive image on metal) and the negative which was printed on Albumen or Salt paper.
Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made in through the nineteenth century. In 1884, George Eastman developed the technology of film to replace photographic plates, leading to the technology used by film cameras today.
In 1908 Gabriel Lippmann won the Nobel Laureate in Physics
for his method of reproducing colors photographically based
on the phenomenon of interference, also known as the
An amateur photographer is one who practices photography as a hobby and not for profit. The quality of some amateur work is comparable or superior to that of many professionals and may be highly specialized or eclectic in its choice of subjects. Amateur photography is often pre-eminent in photographic subjects which have little prospect of commercial use or reward.
Commercial photography is probably best defined
as any photography for which the photographer is paid
for images rather than works of art. In this light money
could be paid for the subject of the photograph or the
• Advertising photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images, such as pack shots, are generally done with an advertising agency, design firm or with an in-house corporate design team.
Fashion and glamour photography: This type of photography usually incorporates models. Fashion photography emphasizes the clothes or product, glamour emphasizes the model. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and in men's magazines. Models in glamour photography may be nude, but this is not always the case.
Crime Scene Photography: This type of photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such as robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details.
Still life photography: it depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made.
Choosing the subject- requires the wise judgment and artistic sense of the photographer.
Mechanical one- a light sensitized film contained in a darken box is exposed to the light from the object being photographed.
Chemical one- after the film has been exposed, it is treated with a series of chemical solutions to develop the film and produce a permanent negative. A photographic paint is produced from the negative.
It was the time of Shakespeare when drama became modern of play. The play came from Shakespeare story. It was Thomas Edison who made cinema possible through his invention called optic lights which gives rise to motion pictures. We cannot imagine life without cinema because through this we appreciate the past.
Elements of Cinema
1. Music - a movie is being remembered by its music and it is usually came out during the climax of the story
2. Characters - those who act to portray the role of the story
Action - a movie with a lot of exciting effects like car chases and gun fights, involving stuntmen. They usually involve 'goodies' and 'baddies', so war and crime are common subjects. Action films usually need very little effort to watch, since the plot is normally simple
Example: Die hard, Saving Private Ryan, Quantum of Solace, Rambo, Isang Bala ka lang, Batas ng lansangan, and Anak ni Baby Ama.
Comedy - are funny movies about people being silly or doing unusual things that make the audience laugh.
Horror - films use fear to excite the audience. Music, lighting and sets (man-made places in film studios where the film is made) are all designed to add to the feeling.
Example: The Ring, The grudge, Shutter, Ouija Board, Halimaw sa Banga, and Feng shui
4. Drama - are serious and often about people falling in love or people who have to make a big decision in their life. They tell stories about relationships between people. They usually follow a basic plot where one or two main characters (each actor plays a character) have to 'overcome' (get past) an obstacle (the thing stopping them) to get what they want.
8. Thrillers/Suspense - are usually about a mystery, strange event, or crime that needs to be solved. The audience is kept guessing until the final minutes, when there are usually 'twists' in the plot (surprises).
Example: Da Vinci code, Angels and Demons, Sigaw, and Patayin sa Sindak si Barbara
Romance - are usually love stories about 2 people from different worlds, who must overcome obstacles to be together. It is always light-hearted, but may include some emotion.
Example: Titanic, Twilight, Slumdog Millionaire, One More Chance, The Promise, and I Will Always Love You
Buddy - movies involve 2 heroes, one must save the other,
both must overcome obstacles. Buddy movies often
involve comedy, but there is also some emotion, because
Acrylic - synthetic material made from acrylic acid Art critics - people who are expert in a work of art Artistic Merit - quality of the work of art that people can attach to that work of art Fresco - painting done in watercolor on a wall or ceiling before the plaster is dry Human Being - highest form of creation Last song syndrome - mental motion that associated with Literary Merit - it is actually applied to the general fiction characteristics against law. It is not precise but it depends on judgment of the people. Pastel - crayon of powdered pigment bound with a gum solution Tempera - method of painting using an emulsion, example of pigment with egg yolk and water