Powerpoint Presentation GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY Prof. Ferrer Destacamento Sheryl BOA IV-I Emague Arlene BOA IV-I
What is Psychology? The word psychology was derived from the two Greek words, psyche (soul) and logos (discourse). Psychology, or “ mental philosophy ,” was thus literally a study of soul. The term soul did not at first have religious implications such as it has today.
It was for some a form of motion, for some an inner flame, and for others a function of bodily processes. About centuries ago, mental philosophers began to translate psyche, as “mind” and psychology was then defined as “a study of the mind.”
This means that it concerned with factors of learning such as remembering and thinking. This definition continued to be in use until the present century. It was eventually replaced by the definition of psychology as “the science of behavior”. It is a science because it is systematic and empirical and is dependent upon measurement.
Different Schools of Psychology 1.Structuralism - headed by Wilhelm Wundt, a German, and later by E.B. Titchener, started in 1879. This is the study of conscious experience. Stimuli – sensation, ideas
2. Functionalism – headed by William James. The functionalists focused on the operations or functions of conscious activity. Examples are thinking, learning, perception to response- through actions. This also called the study of man’s adjustments to its environment.
3. Associationism – headed by Aristotle, which is concerned with the factors of Learning such as remembering and thinking. It starts with the philosophical concept that learning is the formation of bonds or connections in the nervous system.
4.Behaviorism – was originated in America in 1912 and was headed by John Watson. This is the science of behavior and not of consciousness. The behaviorists believed that there can be no response without a stimulus.
J ohn B. Watson J ohn B. Watson
5. Gestalt School – headed by Max Wertheimer in 1912. Study of human behavior an perception and with the use of both introspection and observation. The whole pattern on the total configuration.
6.Psychoanalytical School – headed by Sigmund Freud, insists on human desires and primitive impules as the central factors of behavior. He postulated the existence of unconscious mental processes which influence the individual’s behavior in various direct ways .
7. Purposivism – headed by William McDougall. He believed that objects, movements, and behavior have a definite purpose because of its hormones in life.
*Branches of Psychology* 1.General Psychology – explains the underlying principles of human behavior. The study on how and why people behave this way or that way.
2. Comparative Psychology – treats on the behavior and mental processes of the different species. Also known as animal psychology where activities of both and animal are compared and differentiated.
3.Developmental or Genetic Psychology – the study of human behavior in all aspects of growth and development. Developmental Psychology
4.Child Psychology – study of human behavior from its post- natal beginnings up to early adolescence.
5.Adoloescent Psychology – study of human behavior from puberty to later life. 6.Senescent Psychology – the scientific study of human behavior in old age.
7.Consumer Psychology – concerned with the investigation of the varied facets of marketing and buying behavior, effects of advertising, studies of mass media, and other problems arising from the relationship between buyer and seller.
8. Abnormal Psychology – study of human behavior and the etiology or cause of personal defects or man’s behavior.
9. Dynamic Psychology – referred to as personality psychology which is largely concerned with the understanding of the nondeviant individual case. 10.Psychiatry – concerned with the treatment of mental diseases.
11.Business Psychology – study of principles of psychology as applied to business and deals particularly with the behavior of consumers. 12.Legal Psychology – used in getting testimony and evidence.
13.Social Psychology – study of behavior of groups of individuals in their relationship to other groups.
14.Cognitive Psychology – concerned with the mental processes involved in acquiring and using knowledge. Cognitive Psychology
15.Clinical Psychology - is dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment and treatment of emotional and behavioral disorders.
16. Counseling Psychology - is dedicated to helping people with educational, job or career, and social adjustments.
17. Educational Psychology – deals with learning, motivation, and other subjects in the actual education process together with the practical application of psychological principles to education. More
18. Experimental and Physiological Psychology – study basic psychological processes as sensation, perception, learning, memory, cognition, motivation, and emotion.
19. Industrial-Organizational Psychology – concerned with methods of selecting, training, counseling, and supervising personnel in business and industry.
20.Community Psychology M – promoting mental health at the community level.
21.Forensic Psychology – relate to our legal system, improve the reliability of witnesses and jury decisions.
*Methods of Psychological Research*
– psychologist studies himself, records his own feelings and experiences and later interprets them.
2. Observation Method – visual and oral method of examining, and interpreting.
Uncontrolled or Informal
Controlled or Formal Observation
3.Life–History Method – make use of life–history methods. a. The Daybook Method – sometimes called as “diary of development” b. The Clinical Method – sometimes called as “ case history method” c. Bibliographical Method – analysis of people’s lives
4. Survey Method or Group Method – data are obtained through written questionnaires or interviews. 5. Experimental Psychology – used to study behavior which can be brought into the laboratory and studied under controlled conditions. 6. Statistical Methods –use quantitative and qualitative classification.
*Objectives of Psychology*
To understand human behavior.
To predict human behavior by means of observation and experiment.
To influence or alter the behavior of the individual or group in desirable ways so that the designed goals can be achieved.
*Values of Psychology*
As a science, psychology enables the individual to learn more quickly and to choose a vocation more intelligently.
It enables a person to understand that no two individuals are exactly alike.
It enables on to resolve his own problems and to develop greater personal efficiency. Thus, a person develops himself into a well- integrated and happy individual.
Psychology is applied to such field of business, education, courtroom testimonies, etc.
Heredity – the process which various characteristics transmitted to the individual the time of fertilization. During fertilization, two living germ cell (sperm and egg) unite to produce a new individual. Within each of the germ cells or gametes are genetic material consisting of chromosomes and genes.
The chromosomes (meaning colored bodies) are found within the nuclei of cells. Chromosomes are found in pairs. They carry the genes which determine hereditary characteristics. Nature - inborn or innate characteristics transmitted from parents. Nurture – environmental factors.
X chromosomes – a normal female has 2 similar- looking chromosomes in pair 23. X Chromosome
Y chromosomes – a normal male has one X chromosome in pair 23 and one that looks differently Y Chromosomes
Chromosomes – structures which carry the heredity units we receive from our parents and transmit to our offspring. These are found in the nucleus of each cell in the body. Most body cell contains 46 chromosomes. At conception, the human being receives 23n chromosomes from the father’s sperm and 23 chromosomes from the mother’s ovum.
Chemical composition of DNA:
1. adenine 3. thyonine
2. guanine 4. cytosine
Sex-linked – pair 23 determines the sex of the individual and carries genes for certain traits.
Turner’s Syndrome – fail to develop sexually at puberty, X chromosome, they are usually of normal intelligence but they show some specific cognitive defects.
– physically a male with penis and testicles but with marked feminine characteristics, his breast are enlarged and his testes are small and do not produce sperm.
3.Very aggressive – they are taller than and are reported to be unusually aggressive. Human fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube.
It is also the initiation of prenatal development. Scientists discovered the dynamics of human fertilization in the nineteenth century. Fertilization (also known as conception, fecundation and syngamy), is the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism. The process involves a sperm fusing with an ovum, which eventually leads to the development of an embryo.
It is when first of all the acrosome at the head tip produces enzymes, which cuts through the outer jelly coat of the egg. After that has happened, the sperm plasma fuses with the egg’s plasma membrane.Finally, the Head disconnects with the body, and the egg can now travel down the Fallopian tube to reach the womb, where the baby grows.
Multiple birth A multiple birth occurs when more than one fetus is carried to term in a single pregnancy. Different names for multiple births are used, depending on the number of offspring. Common multiples are two and three, known as twins and triplets .
What is inherited? Physical Traits – physical appearance Mental Traits – intelligence and special talents
Environment 1 . Internal Environment – those stimulating acting within the organism. Includes the intracellular system consisting of physical and chemical forces within the cell that influence the genetic materials of the nucleus and extracellular system consisting of the blood and the lymph and the pressures that surround the cells and influence their growth and development.
2. Prenatal Environment and External Environment – stimuli from the outside consisting of the amniotic fluid that surrounds the fetus, placenta, umbilicard cord. 3. Postnatal Environment – consists of the various complex types of stimulation that confront the child after birth.
Nervous System – the most complex and elaborate system structures in the human body. It is composed of group of interrelated and interrelating units that enable man to receive stimuli from the environment and to make the necessary and appropriate responses to stimuli. It regulates the behaviour of the whole individual to enable him to survive.
The Neuron – basic unit if the nervous system. Responsible in making body necessary responses or actions.
3 major parts of neuron : 1.Dendrites – neuron fiber carrying impulse to nerve cell body from synapse.
2. Cell body – the compact central portion of a neuron 3. Axon – carries the nerve impulse away from the cell body and into the end brush.
*Types of Neurons*
Afferent or Sensory Neuron
– carry messages towards the central nervous system from the receptors such as the eyes, ears and other sense organs.
2.Efferent or Motor Neurons – these carry messages from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands. 3.Connecting or Association Neurons – these are ‘middle-men’ between neurons. They are between the sensory and motor neurons. Most of them are found within the central nervous system.
Glia Cell or Neuroglia – other cells in the central nervous system. It is smaller than neurons. Their function is to provide support to the neurons.
Synapse – the only way that a neuron can communicate with other neurons. It is a microscopic gap, about eighteen-millionths of an inch wide, between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron.
Nerve Impulse – is a wave of electro-chemical disturbance propagated along a nerve fiber.
Two Main Divisions:
Central Nervous System
– composed of the brain and the spinal cord.
A. Brain – is that portion of the nervous system that is encased in the cranial bones.
It composed of soft nerve tissues covered by three membranes together known as meninges.
Three Major Sub–Divisions of the Brain 1. Hindbrain – within the hindbrain are the medulla oblogata, cerebellum, and pons varoli.
Medulla oblongata – the lowest portion of the brain. It connects the spinal cord. It contains center that regulate heart beat, blood pressure, and breathing and it controls the activities of the internal organs.
Cerebellum – is situated at the back of and above the medulla. It controls body balance.
Pons Varoli – contains nerves fibers that connect both hemispheres of the cerebellum with each other as well as with nerve fibers that transmit neutral impulses upward and downward within the nervous system.
2. Midbrain – contains nerve tracks that connect the cerebrum with the brain stem and the spinal cord. It also contains neurons that are important for visual and auditory functions.
3. Forebrain – the highest part of the brain, is divided into three main parts: the thalamus, the limbic system, and the cerebrum.
Thalamus – is the brain’s major relay station connecting the lower the lower structures of the brain and the spinal cord with cerebrum. - In the thalamus lie the cell bodies of important connecting neurons for the various senses.
Limbic System – includes such areas as the amygdala, the hippocampus, the septum and portions of the hypothalamus and thalamus is a complex organization of neutral structures and pathways carrying messages between the lower and higher parts of the brain. It receives sensory messages from the visceral organs and helps control activities.
Amygdala – which is connected with the hippocampus seems to be the main area involved with emotions. It is fundamental for self- preservation. Hippocampus – involved with memory, especially the formation of long-term memory.
Hippocampus and Amygdala
Cerebrum – the largest part of the brain. It is divided into two halves called the cerebral hemispheres. These hemispheres contain the center for sensory integration and for voluntary motor activities. - They also play important roles in governing memory and intelligence.
Peripheral Nervous System
- Composed of nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to the periphery of the body.
- This nerves, called the peripheral nerves are found outside the central nervous system. They connect to the skin, muscles, and glands.
The peripheral nervous system.
Afferent nerves - the nerves carrying sensory input to the central nervous system Efferent nerves – the one’s carrying motor output away from the nervous system.
B. Spinal Cord The spinal cord is composed mainly of nerve connections running between the brain and the various parts of the body. It is long, tapering tube which occupy the hollow interior of the vertebral column, through the opening of which the spinal nerves enter and emerge from the cord. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
*Two sub- Division of the Central Nervous System*
Somatic Nervous System
– form by the efferent nerves leading to the skeleton muscles. Somatic motor nerves control most of what we called behavior.
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
– regulates the automatic actions of the viscera necessary to keep the body in operation and to reproduce the species. It is the mainly responsible for the activation of the smooth muscles , the glands, and in part, the heart muscles.
Endocrine Glands Hormones – glands which are compose of cells that specialize in secreting highly complex chemical substance. Duct glands – glands that pour out their secretion trough tubes. Ex. milk glands, salivary glands, gastric glands on the walls of the stomach and the liver.
The major endocrine glands: ( Male left, female right) 1 Pineal gland 2 Pituitary gland 3 Thyroid gland 4 Thymus 5 Adrenal gland 6 Pancreas 7 Ovary 8 Testes Endocrine System
Ductless glands - glands secrete hormones directly into bloodstream. 1. Pituitary Glands It is found below the brain stem and is only a little larger than a pea. It is sometimes called the master glands because its secretes hormones that act on particular endocrine and stimulates their growth and activity.
For example, it sends hormones to the thyroid, adrenals, gonads in order to stimulates them to produce their own hormones. The pituitary gland has two lobes, an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe. The anterior lobe secretes several hormones, one of these are growth hormones which promotes and control normal increase in size of the body.
2. The Thyroid Glands It is located in the neck produce the hormone thyroxin which influences the rate of the body metabolism especially oxidative or respiratory processes in all cells of the body.
3.Parathyroid Glands - The parathyroid glands are located on the thyroid. They secrete parathormone, a hormone necessary to control the balance of various minerals in the blood stream especially calcium. It is essential to the maintenance of proper level of calcium in the blood and for the control of calcium metabolism in the cells.
4.The Thymus - Located in the upper chest of humans and some other animals, there is two- lobed gland, the thymus.
5. The Adrenals Located on the upper end of each kidney. Each adrenal has two parts: the medulla(inner part), which secretes adrenalin also known as epinephrine and nor-adrenalin or nor-epinephrine, the cortex or outer part which considered as an amazing endocrine factory since it produces very many different hormones.
- This gland continues to grow in size from infancy to puberty but after puberty, it slowly shrinks and is almost none existent in all age. The thymus gland therefore inhibits sexual development during childhood, but ceases to function after. - Sometimes called gland of childhood.
* Adrenalin - referred to as the emergency hormone because it enables the individual to cope with emergency situations. 6. Islets of Langerhans This are a group of cells located in the pancreas. They secrete insulin which is needed in the regulation of blood sugar by the cells. Its primary function is to control the metabolism of glucose.
This photograph shows a mouse pancreatic islet, an often spherical group of hormone-producing cells . Insulin is labelled here in green, glucagon in red, and the nuclei in blue. Islets of Langerhans
7. The Gonads This refer to the ovaries in the female and testes in the male which produce sex hormones. The ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone. The testes produce the male sex hormone testosterone. These hormones influence the appearance of the secondary sex characteristics, the maturation of the reproductive organs, and the sex drive.
Male Reproductive Organ
Female Reproductive Organ
Growth and Development Growth – refers to quantitative changes-increase in size and structure. An individual grows physically as well as mentally. Development – refers to qualitative changes-habits and attitudes.
Growth and Development
Maturation and Learning
Maturation – unfolding of traits
Learning – development that comes from exercise and effort
Principles of Maturation
Learning depends upon the biological basis being present as well as the opportunity to practice.
Chronological age and maturational age although related are not synonymous.
Although overall maturational development is forward and continuous, the parent should expect to see plateus and regression in the child’s development.
The more biologically mature a child is, the easier for him to learn a given task.
The child usually gives signals indicating maturational readiness for a given task.
The child’s maturational development progresses from general to specific behavior.
Training given after the maturation readiness may be less efficient.
During the period of pregnancy, the organism passes through three stages of development:
Germinal stage – starts from conception and ends after the end of second week.
Embryonic Stage – begins when the zygote implants itself in the uterine wall.
Fetal stage – developing infants becomes known as fetus.
Factors Affecting Prenatal Development
Stages of Human development 1-2 months – Tonic – neck reflex position. Rolls partly to side at one to two months 3 months – On the verge of rolling position 4 months – Turns to prone from supine position. Symetrical position head in mid- position but tonic- neck reflex position is still seen briefly.
5months – Turns back to supine from prone position. 6-7months – Rolls from stomach to stomach. 8months – Alternates from prone to sitting top prone position; crawls 9 months – Pulls himself to standing position by holding on to trail. 10-11months – Sits with good control; cruises while holding on to trail; creeps 12 months – Walks evenly if only be hand is held.
Cognitive Development - involves changes on how children understand and think about their world as they grow older. Piaget’s Theory – relationships between stimuli and observable responses. a. we cannot understand learning without understanding thinking b. that children think differently from adults .
Stages in Piaget's theory of cognitive-development
He made four stages contains qualitative behavior:
Sensorimotor stage – extends from birth to about 2 years. Its main theme is discovering relationships between sensations and motor behavior.
Preoperational stage – extends from about 2 to 7 years of age. Its dominant theme is discovering operations, which are plans, strategies, and rules for solving problems and for classifying information.
Concrete preoperational stage – extends from about ages 7 to 11. Its main theme is extending mental operations from concrete objects to purely symbolic terms.
Formal operation stage - extends from about 13 years of age on into adulthood. Its main theme is the ability to consider many possible solutions to a problem and the ability to systematically test those possibilities.
Foundations of Social Behavior Laid in Childhood
Acceptance of Authority
Types of Discipline
in Early Childhood
The Authoritarian Discipline
The Democratic Discipline
The Permissive Discipline
Sensation – mechanisms of receiving information
Perception – the received information and past experiences
In order fro sensation to occur, there are two factors which are necessary:
There must be a stimulus
There must be receptors that are sensitive to the stimulus
Stimulus – any from of energy capable of exiting the nervous system like light waves, sound waves, and the chemical energy that causes the sensation taste and smell. Receptor – is a specialized nerve ending capable of responding to energy. Senses – mechanisms which convert stimulus energy into neutral energy.
*Five Human Senses* 1.VISION The organ for vision is the eye. It is stimulated by light waves that strike the retina where the photo-sensitive cells- the rod and the cones- are located. The rods and cones are the receptor for vision.
Parts of Human Eye
Globe - shaped and has a diameter of approximately one inch.
Composed of three coats:
Sclera - the outer layer, a tough opaque layer of connective tissue used to protect the inner structures of the eye. Helps maintain the shape of the eyeball, in front, this layer becomes the cornea which is thin and transparent.
Choroid Coat - the middle layer, a pigmented layer. It contains some of the blood vessels that supply the eye with blood. It also absorbs imperfectly focused light rays. In the front part of the eye, it becomes modified to from the iris and the cilliary blood. Pupil – the central opening of the iris
Iris – a circular arrangement of muscles that contract and expand to change the size of the pupil depending upon the intensity of illumination called light or dark adaptation. The color of the eye is due to the pigment in the iris Accommodation – the process when the lens become thinner to bring faraway objects into focus and thickens to focus on nearly objects.
Defects of Vision
– a special form of farsightedness which occurs with advancing age. The presbyopic person cannot focus clearly on near objects.
Farsightedness or Hyperopia
– is caused by a shortened eyeball, making the distance from the lens to the retina too short. The lens will focus at a point behind the retina. A farsighted person is able to see far objects clearly but not near ones.
Nearsightedness or Myopia – near objects are not seen clearly but lens is unable to thin enough to bring far objects into clear focus.
– a structural defect of the eye generally caused by an irregularity in the shape of the cornea.
– Poor color vision can be cause by an inherited lack of one or another of the three types of cones.
It is the most vital channel of interaction with the environment.
The stimuli fro hearing are soundwaves.
Three dimensions describing the sound stimulus are :
Structure of the ear. The ear is divided into three parts: The outer ear - it is the visible part of the ear, composed of the pinna, the auditory canal, and the tympanic membrane commonly called eardrum.
The middle ear – an air- filled chamber that is connected to the pharynx by the eustachian tube.
This connection of the middle ear to the pharynx serves to equalize the pressure on the two sides of the eardrum. The middle ear structure is composed of tree small bones or ossicles: the mallleus (hammer), the incus (anvil), and the stapes (stirrup). These bones are hanging into the system of levers, so that the movement of the eardrum is transmitted to a membrane called the oval window.
The inner ear – can find a cochlea which is a fluid- filled bony structure shaped like a snail shell. It is the organ of hearing. There are three canals in the cochlea–the cochlear canal, the tympanic canal, and the vestibular canal.
Conduction Deafness – deafness due to inability to transmit vibrations through the external and middle ear.
Nerve Deafness – this kind of deafness results from damage to the nerves themselves or to the delicate parts of the cochlea.
3. SMELL - The receptors for smell are found at the olfactory epithelium located at the very top of the nasal passages. -They are sensitive only to gases and to volatile substances that have been dissolved in the air.
Parts of Human Nose
4. TASTE Much of the sensation depends on other factors-on warmth, coldness, the mild irritation caused by certain spices, and above all, on smell. When our nostrils are stuffed because of colds. Food seems almost tasteless. The tastebuds are the receptors for taste. They respond to four qualities of taste: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter.
Parts of Human Tongue
5. THE SKIN SENSES The skin has four separate senses: pain, pressure, cold, and warmth. The receptors fro the skin senses are nerve endings which come in four general forms: free nerve endings, globular bulbs, egg- shaped corpuscles, and “baskets” surrounding root hairs.
Parts of Human Skin
KINESTHESIS This is the sense of bodily movements. Its receptors are nerve endings found in muscles, tendons, and linings of joints. EQUILIBRIUM This is also called as the Static Sense. Two kinds of receptors give information about movements of the head and permit a sense of balance of the body.
These are in the semicircular canals and the vestibular canal. Both are located in the inner ear next to cochlea. THE ORGANIC SENSE This give s the result of the sensitivity of the visceral and other internal organs oft he body. Among the visceral organs are the stomach, intestines, sex structure, throat, hear and lungs.
PERCEPTION Chaplin defines perception as the process of knowing objects and objective events by means of senses. This sensory input consists of nerve impulses. They carry a sort of raw, undigested information about the environment. The individual must convert it into a meaningful information. Perception, then, is the organization of sensory input into meaningful experiences.
PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY The perception of an object and all of its properties as constant and unchanging in spite of the continuously changing sensations of these properties outline the scope of object constancies. Our perceptual organization remains relatively stable even though some aspects of the pattern within the optical array undergo great changes.
ORGANIZATION IN PERCEPTION
Figure and ground – when we perceive an object, usually one part tends to stand out while the rest seems to remain in the background. The part which stands out is called the figure and the rest of the stimulus pattern is called the ground.
Figure and Ground
Grouping – we are concerned more with the figure than with the ground.
* The principles of similarity – stimuli which are similar tend to be perceived as forming a group.
* The principle of proximity – there is a tendency to perceive stimuli which are near one another as belonging together.
*The principle of closure – when fragmentary stimuli form enough of a familiar figure, we tend to perceive the whole figure, ignoring the missing part of parts.
*The principles of continuity – stimuli which from a continuous pattern are perceived as a whole, the pattern they make generally appears as a figure apart from the ground.
ATTENTION AND PERCEPTION Perception is selective. The direction of perception toward selected objects is called attention. A number of stimulus conditions help determine the direction of attention
DEPTH PERCEPTION This is the ability to see three- dimensional space and accurately judge distances. A study of perception would be incomplete without considering perceiving the third dimension- distance and depth.
Perception - Depth Perception
PERSONAL FACTORS IN PERCEPTION
Frames of reference
ERRORS IN PERCEPTION
Illusion – a perception which is common but usually considered mistaken. This is an error which depends on stimulus conditions and occur in normal individuals.
Hallucinations – are false perceptions that occur under abnormal conditions.
1.Illusions based on relative size.
2. Illusions based on intersecting lines.
3. Ponzo illusion.
Intelligence is used to attempts to evaluate and measure actual or potential ability to perform selected tasks by complex learning and thinking. In the popular usage, the concept refers to variations in the ability to learn, to get along in the society, and to behave according to contemporary social expectations.
The Binet Tests
The first efforts to measure intelligence were made by Alfred Binet, a French physician. About the year 1890, he became interested in studying judgment, attention, and reasoning.
Kinds of Intelligence Tests
The Standford – Binet Tests and the Measurement of Intelligence
The Wecheler’s Tests
Interpretation of Intelligence Test Result IQ (Intelligence Quotient) = MA (Mental Age)___ X 100 CA (Chronological Age) Where: MA = derived score from the pupil’s mental development CA = present age
Uses of Intelligence Tests Intelligence is not a single, unitary ability, but a composite of several functions. Typical intelligence tests designed for use in our culture with school age children or adults discoverabilities to deal with numerical and other abstract symbols aside from measuring verbal abilities.
Most intelligence tests can therefore be regarded as measures of scholastic aptitude. Meaning of an IQ IQ is a single score which indicates the individual’s general intellectual level. Several investigations reveal that the IQ is not fixed and is amenable to modification by environmental interventions.
INTELLIGENCE LEVELS Level ` IQ Range Severe Mental Retardation or Custodial ....................Below 25 Moderate Mental Retardation or Trainable....................25 – 50 Mild Mental Retardation or Educable............................50 – 70 Borderline Defective...................................................70 – 80 Low Average......................................................... ....80 - 90 Normal Average.......................................................90 – 110 High Average.........................................................110 – 120 Superior.................................................................120 – 130 Very Superior.........................................................130 – 140 Genius..............................................................40 or greater
Refers to the ability such as being able to :
motivate oneself and to persist in facing frustrations;
control impulse and delay gratification;
regulate one’s mood and keep stress from swamping the ability to think, to communicate well; and
emphaty and to hope.
Components of Emotional Quotient
Self – awareness – knows his feelings and based on these emotions can make decisions.
Managing moods – knows how to control emotions.
Motivation – refers to the ability to remain optimistic and persistent in spite of setbacks and rejections.
Empathy – involves sensing what others feel even without being told.
Social skill – being good at handling conflict and emotional upset in a relationship.
Learning – is a mental activity by means of which knowledge and skills, habitats, attitude and ideals are acquired, retained, and utilized resulting in the progressive adaptation and modification of behavior. It cannot be effective unless maturation or readiness exists.
How Learning Takes Place
Classical Conditioning – organisms learn to respond a new stimulus in the same or similar way it responds to the old unconditioned stimulus.
Instrumental Conditioning – also known as operant conditioning, involves a selection from many responses of the one that habitually will be given in stimulus.
Insight Learning – process of solving problem through perceiving the relationship essential to its solution.
Reinforcement – any stimulus event that will maintain or increase the strength of a response.
Types of Learning
Rational Learning – the outcome sought is knowledge.
Motor Learning – the outcome sought is skill which maybe described as the adaptation of movement to stimuli resulting in speed and precision of performance.
Associational Learning – the outcome sought is the acquisition and retention of facts and information.
Appreciational Learning – the outcome sought is appreciation or aesthetic movement.
Primary Laws of Learning
Laws of Readiness – this law states that other things being equal, when the individual is ready to act, to do so is satisfying, and not to do so is annoying.
Laws of Exercise – made up of two parts: the law of use and the law of disuse.
The law of use asserts that, others things being equal, the more frequently modifiable connection between situation and response is used, the stronger is that connection. The law of disuse asserts that, other things being equal, when a modifiable connection between situation and response is not used over a period of time, the strength of that connection is weakened.
The Law of Effect – states that connections which are pleasant tend to be avoided or weakened.
Secondary Laws of Learning
Law of Mind- set – refers to the mental condition of the individual when the reaction is made to a situation.
Multiple Response – means that in a situation where some elements are new, the learner will respond in one way, and if such respond does not prove satisfactory, he will try one response after another until the appropriate response is attained, that is trial – and – error learning.
Partial Activity – the learner may select the important elements from a situation instead of responding, in an unselected way or random.
Analogy – indicated that when a situation involves a stimulus for which the learner has no native or acquired response, he may react by interpreting the situation in the light of similar experiences.
Associative Shift – when stimuli occur together frequently, the response elicited by one will tend to become attached to the other as well.
Other Laws of Learning
The Law of Apperception – refers to the application of past experiences of the pupil in forming a new connection or integrating his past experiences with the new situation.
The Law of Association – process of relating two or more experiences.
The Law of Use and Disuse
– explains that the use of connection strengthens the response; the stronger the connection, the more prompt, easy, and certain the response will be.
The Law of Frequency and Recency – states that the more frequently the connection is exercised, the stronger the connection will be.
The Law of Intensity – the more intense or vivid the exercise, the stronger the connection will be.
The Law of Primacy – states that the first learned act will be better remembered than acts learned later.
The Law of Forgetting – forgetting is typically rapid during the time shortly after learning and less rapid during subsequent periods.
Retention and Transfer Retention – refers to the extent to which material originally learned still persists Transfer – occurs when whatever is learned in one situation is used in anew different situation.
Memory and Forgetting Memory – a term to label the way facts are impressed, retained and later recalled. Forgetting – failure to retain what was learned.
Theories of Forgetting
Passive Decay Thought Disuse
Absence of Adequate Stimulation
Obliteration of the memory trace
Factors Affecting Learning
Opportunities for learning
Health of the learner
Thinking – refers to the mental manipulation and combination of images that use symbols as “inner representations” of objects and events. Thinking includes such mental activities as association of ideas, memory, perception, judgment (logic), reasoning, creativity, problem- solving and even dreaming.
An American psychologist, Clifford Morgan, states that thinking consists of symbolic mediation: Mediation – means that thinking fills in the gap between a stimulus situation and the response of the person to it
Symbolic –means that thinking is done with processes within us that symbols – representations – of our previous experience with the world. Memory – a term used to label the way facts and past experiences are impressed, retained and later recalled. It is the power of remembering past objects and states of consciousness .
Memorizing – is a kind of learning which focuses largely around verbal material. It includes rote memorizing, learning how to study with greater efficiency, how to recall what has been learned, and how to recognize persons and places.
Conceptual Thinking – the thinking people engage in, in which concepts are the mediating processes. Verbal Thinking – involves words as well as the concepts for which the word stand.
Stages in Problem- solving
Preparation – the person works out what the problem really is and collects the facts and materials that seem relevant to the problem. He tries to solve the problem but may not be able to, even after hours or days working on it.
Incubation – after some failure in solving the problem, the thinker temporarily gives up; but at the same time, he is doing and learning things, some of which may provide a solution to the problem.
Illumination – a sudden and complete new idea for a solution is an insight in which the “Aha! I have it,” is the reaction of the thinker.
Evaluation – here, the thinker tests the idea to determine if it really works. If not, he is back at the beginning. Sometimes, the idea is right but needs some revision or requires the solution of other minor problems.
Factors Affecting Problem –solving
Intelligence – the ability to solve problems is one of the ingredient of intelligence.
Motivation – it gives directness to thoughts that seems relevant to the solution of the problem
Set – the way people are used to do things (habit) produces a readiness (set) to go about a new problem in a particular way.
Functional fixedness – this is a tendency to think of objects in the way they usually function.
In explaining the behavior of people, we start our description with reference to some kind of active driving force: the individual seeks, the individual wants, the individual fears. In addition, we specify an object or condition toward which that force is directed; he seeks wealth, he wants peace, he fears illness.
In order to understand the behavior of the individual and to know why he behaves the way he does, we have to look into his motive, and its goal because there will be no goal if there is no motive.
Motivation The term motivation is derive from the word, “motive” which means the inner state that energizes, activates or moves and that which directs behavior towards our goals. Other terms used to describe motivation are “drive,” “needs,” or “desire.”
Motivation starts when a person perceives a need that must be satisfied. This perception occurs when some form of stimulus attracts a person’s attention to the need. When the person perceives the need, he is motivated to act in order to satisfy.
Drive Drive is psychological condition which impels the organism to become active. It is unlearned, and is engaged in for immediate satisfaction. The gaining of satisfaction reduces or eliminates tensions caused by the drive or urge. Human drives function as inner active forces which affect the individual’s thinking, feeling, and behavior.
Motive Hilgard (1990) defines a motive as “something that incites the organisms to action or that sustains and gives direction to action once the organism has been aroused.” It can be regarded as characterizing those internal conditions or forces that tend to impel an individual toward the attainment of certain goals.
Goal This refers to a substance, object or situation capable of satisfying a need and toward which motivated behavior is directed. Need A need is defined as “a lack of something required for the survival, health or well-being of the individual.” Drives, needs and motives are often used interchangeably.
Origin of Motives Motives originate either from a biological or a psychological source or from an environmental influence . A motive may arise from a biological need such as the need for food or water which will drive an individual to seek food when hungry or drink when thirsty.
Motives may also be caused by environmental influence. A predominant view is that human motivation comes from either a small number of basic urges or even one basic urge and that all aspire for family prestige, social status, and security.
Classification of Motives A. Physiological Motives or Survival Motives Physiological motives are those directly related. To normal body functions such as the need for air, food, water, excretion of wastes, rest, protection from the extremes of heat and cold, sleep, and avoidance of pain.
This condition is believed to be caused by rhythmic contractions of the empty stomach. The strength of the hunger drive can be measured by discovering how much resistance a human drive or an animal will endure or overcome in order to reach food that will alleviate the hunger state.
A dryness of the membranes of the mouth results from deficiency of eater in the tissues and a decrease in the secretions of the salivary glands.
Recovery from Fatigue
There is strong desire for rest when one is tired. Hence, the urge to sleep can be very powerful.
Maintenance of Temperature Normalcy
A human being is a warm-blooded animal with the body temperature maintained at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit.
Maintaining Proper Elimination
The process of elimination of waste matter is taken care of by the body through the proper functioning of specialized organs as they are activated by adequate internal stimuli.
Avoidance of Pain
The need to avoid tissue damage is essential for the survival of any organism.
Psychological Motives or Social Motives
The psychological need, sometimes classified as social motives, is that which arises as a result of interaction with other people.
The so-called motives substantially depend on social groups and concern social dominance, comformity to societal norms (fads, fashions, customs, and mores), and obedience to authority. The common psychological or social motives that lead us to affiliate and interact with others are the need for security, social approval, affection, sex, and dependence.
Love and affection are very powerful motives. This is the drive to have contact with, or be near some object or person that provides comfort and warmth.
Need for Security and Safety
The urge for security is one of the most powerful socializing forces.
The sex drive is classified as a social motive since it involves another person. It is limited in its expression by social pressure; that is, society sets the pattern for acceptable modes of sexual gratification.
The Need for Affiliation
This is the desire to connect or associate oneself with others
This is the desire to be in the company or in the presence of another people.
Dependency (or succorance)
Closely related to affiliation drive and probably a sub classification of it, dependency drive is the need to seek aid, protection, and sympathy from another, the need to depend on others, the need to have someone to look up to and depend on for help.
The desire for group approval is one of the strongest urges of man.
Ego-Integrative Motives or Personal Motives
These are motives built around the “self.” They have to do with the individual’s need for self-respect, self-esteem, the desire for prestige and status in the eyes of others, or the desire for power.
The personal motives or ego-integrative motives are:
The drive for prestige and the drive for status are related to the drive for recognition.
Prestige need – refers to the desire to feel better than other persons with whom one compares himself.
It is a desire to attain a personality of a greater status. Status Drive – refers to the need to have a high rank in society, to be respected by people we know and not to be considered inferior, to be highly regarded by them.
The Power Drive (or dominance)
This is the need to control and influence others, to seek or compel the obedience of others, to determine their fate.
This is the drive to accomplish something in order to have a feeling of having done something worthwhile or important.
This is the drive for independence; the need to resist the influence of others, the need to feel that one had power over his actions, and has an area of prime responsibility.
This is the desire of one to defend oneself from blame, criticism, ridicule, and censure. It is the desire to preserve one’s good name; the need to avoid failure, shame, and humiliation.
Theories of Motivation Motivation theories are products of man’s thinking. man formulates theories of motivation while trying to explain the behavior of his fellowman, particularly the reason behind people’s actions.
Theory of Sequential Development The organization of basic needs described by Abraham H. Maslow, a social anthropologist, is helpful in understanding the variety of needs of an individual. Arranged from the lowest to the highest levels, they are:
Physiological needs (hunger, oxygen, thirst);
Safety and security needs (stability, security, order);
Belongingness and love needs (affection, affiliation, identification);
Esteem and prestige needs (recognition, self-respect, honor);
Cognitive needs (need to know and understand curiosity, understand the mysterious, unknown);
Esthetic needs (need for beauty, order, symmetry, system and structure); and
Self-actualization needs (or need for self-fulfillment, need to develop one’s potentialities to the fullest, need to become what one is capable of becoming).
Sigmund Freud, a Jew, is known as the Father of Psychoanalysis.
the ID, the EGO, and the SUPEREGO. ID – is the amoral part of the personality. It is primitive and unconscious. It is the savage, animalistic nature of man such as the sex drive and the urge to destroy.
EGO – consists of ways of behaving and thinking that are socially acceptable. It is sometimes called the “self.” It delays the satisfaction of the id and channels the libido into socially approved outlets. This is partly unconscious because it is in communication with the id.
The ego functions as the executive with veto powers of all that the id attempts to energize in seeking fulfilment of its desires. SUPEREGO The superego corresponds to what is commonly referred to as conscience. It is the moral part of personality.
It also restrains the activity of the ego. Its main concern is to decide whether something is right or wrong so that it can act in accordance with morel standards authorized by the agents of society.
Principles Governing Human Behavior
The Pleasure Principle
Being in a pleasant state of existence (euphoria) is a basic principle of Freud.
Man not only seeks pleasures but is likewise bound by limits of reality which tell him that on certain occasions he must postpone an immediate pleasure in favour of more important futures.
The way to avoid this painful force is to reduce the tension or to remove it, or to become so strong that the pressure becomes relatively weak and tolerable.
Polarity or Duality Principle
Everything in life is manifested in two dissimilar qualities: right-wrong, good-bad, up-down, man-woman, life-death, ect.
Man is a habit-forming animal. He is inclined to repeat that which is successful.
Both these theories were advanced by Alfred Adler, an early disciple of Freud but who later reject the theory of psychoanalysis. Actually, there are seven principles of human behavior which present accurately the salient features of Adler’s work.
These are the principles of: (1) inferiority, (2) superiority, (3)style of life, (4) creative self, (5) conscious self, (6) fictional goals, and (7) social interest.
Adler believes that man is born into the world feeling incomplete and unfulfilled, with a deep sense of inferiority. Most humanity wants to go beyond where it is, but once having attained a desired goal, one has only a temporary feeling of satisfaction and success.
Man, according to Adler, wishes to be superior and his superiority wishes grow out of feelings of being inadequate or inferior. There is only one drive, and that is the desire for superiority.
Superiority does not mean power over men, but that each human being is striving to be superior within himself and not necessarily in competition with other men. Superiority, therefore, means “Superiority over oneself.” It is the prime mover in life, the dynamism that describes why man does the things he does.
Need Theory This theory was advanced by Henry Muray, an American who constructed a projected test known as Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) to measure human psychological needs.
He was able to identify 20 needs which he believes are present in almost every individual although they may vary in strength and intensity. Some of these needs are the need for achievement, affiliation, aggression, autonomy, dependence, dominance, exhibition, avoidance, succorance, etc.
Theory of Functional Autonomy of Motives This theory was advanced by Gordon Allport who states that the motives, continue to function automatically, despite the absence of further reinforcement of physiological conditions originally responsible for them.
Although we commonly think of ourselves as being generally reasonable and rational, actually only a relatively small part of our behavior results from rational activity- the end product, that is, of the deliberately and conscious process of reasoning.
We live in a culture that places a high value on reasoning and thinking; hence, we are inclined to think of ourselves as primarily rational individuals and consequently overlook the nonrational factors in our behavior and the decisions we make.
Psychologists prefer to speak of ‘ emotional factors, ” “ emotional processes, ” or “ emotional behavior ” rather than of “ emotion. ” Emotion is a very difficult word to translate into behavioural terms.
The term emotion comes the Latin verb movare which means to stir up, agitate, upset, or move. Smith (1973) defines emotion as a descriptive term referring to variations in level of arousal, affective sate or mood expressive movements, and attitudes.
It has also defined as a feeling which is accompanied by characteristic behavioural or psychological events. It also involves a change in the blood chemistry of the body. It is a complex process involving minute physiological, neural, and glandular changes in the entire human being and not just a part of him.
Aspects of Emotio ns
Physiological changes accompanying emotional reaction. The outward manifestations of these reactions are the pupil of the eye contracts or dilates in response to unpleasant stimuli; the face becomes flushed or turns pale, depending on the stimulus; the face, hand or body trembles.
Among the physiological changes caused by emotions, the most easily noticeable are the changes in our circulatory system. Another physiological change during an emotional experience is noted in the respiratory system. Gasping for breath and sighing are the external manifestations of these changes.
Third physiological change is manifested by the secretion of duct or ductless glands during strong emotions. An example of a duct gland stimulated by emotional response is the sweat glands. All of these are due to the stimulation of the nervous system especially the sympathetic autonomic nervous system.
Emotional behavior refers to the overt behavior such as the facial and vocal expressions which are clearly manifested.
Facial expressions - a smile is considered as a universal language
Vocal Expressions- language of laughter nearly always indicates joy among normal individuals. Vocal expressions are detected by means of cues. Loudness, pitch or change of pitch may serve as a cue to the emotion being expressed.
Emotional experiences are personal, subjective, and varied. No two individuals will experience the same feelings in response to the same stimulus
Theories of Emotion
James-Lange theory of emotion
This theory was proposed in two different places – one in America, the other in Denmark. William James, the famous American philosopher and psychologist, proposed a theory of emotion which was rather different from the ordinary or common sense concept of how an emotion is felt.
The common sense view involves three steps: first, the person perceives the situation that evokes the emotion; second, he becomes aware of the emotion; then, he react emotion. This view states that a person experiences the emotion first before he reacts to it. He proposed the following steps in an emotional experience.
First, we perceive the situation; second, we react, our hearts pound, and we find ourselves running away. Carl G. Lange, like James, thought that emotion is not due to the perceived, physiological changes that occur, the emotion follows. Later theories state that emotions involve both physiological and cognitive associations
Hypothalamic Theory Of Emotions
Studies on emotion point out the fact that the hypothalamus is the control center of the neural activity involved emotion.
Activation theory of Emotions
This theory states that emotion is a heightened state of activity of the nervous system, particularly the cerebral cortex. Heightened activity refers tot he increased rate of discharge of neural impulse.
Limbic System and Emotion
According to this theory formulated by E. Gelhorn, we have a visceral brain that comprises the limbic system composed of a variety of neural centers lying in the old area of the cortex and the hypothalamus.
This theory holds that while the cortex is engaged in intellectual interpretation of verbal and related symbols, the limbic system makes interpretations in terms of emotions or feelings that go with the emotional experience. Visceral Brain – refers to interpretations of feeling arising from the internal organs of the body.
Basic Emotional Responses Among the more common emotional responses are fear, rage, and love. These have referred to as the basic emotions, since other emotions emerge or develop from them. At birth, the emotion of general excitement is easily discernible.
The development of emotional response follows a general-to-specified pattern. Later as the child grows older, specific responses become manifest. By the age of twenty-four months, the repertoire of emotions is nearly complete. From the general emotion of anger, a more specific emotional response like jealousy or hostility develops.
By the time the child is about eighteen months, he/she is able to express jealousy. These emotional responses are affected directly by such factors as learning and motivation. When a child is born, he is born with the capacity to love, but as an emotional response is the product of learning and maturation.
Fear A very common emotional response to environmental stimuli is fear. The child encounters many and varied situations eliciting fear, and as he grows older, he learns through experience and learn to avoid occasions of fear. Fear has been used in brainwashing and other forms of torture.
Learning and experience add to our repertoire of fears and anxiety. The tensions of daily living tend to produce fears in us, some real, some imagined. Many of our fears tend to disrupt our personality. Other manifestations of fear are distress, grief, and worry. Even sympathy carries with it some elements of fear.
Fears are learned, but they can also be controlled and eradicated. Experiments and studies on fear show that fears can be removed by a process of extinction.
Anger We often express our anger before we have thought about it. It is strong emotion that can even be disastrous. The child shows his anger when his motives are blocked; the adult does the same thing, although his anger may be a milder form because he has learned to control it.
Annoyance, disgust, disappointment, wrath, scorn, hatred, and frustration are among the manifestations of anger. Like fear, anger can be controlled, and it is said that the more educated the individual is, the more or greater control he has over his anger. The person who has not learned to control his anger response has many reactions he may regret later.
Anger can also become a habit with some individuals, and we refer to such a person as hot-tempered, cross, or irritable. While there are occasions for righteous indignation, the person should think first before giving vent to his anger.
Love The pleasant experiences of joy, elation, laughter, excitement, thrill, affection, and happiness have their roots in the emotional response of love. The development of love stems from the early experiences of the individual from birth.
If the child is reared with love and affection, he learns to love others. The reactions to love are learned from early childhood. They are usually patterned after affectionable responses that the individual sees or experiences.
Love between sexes is governed by social and cultural values operating within the environment of the individual. Physiologically, the maturing of the sex glands during adolescence determines the emotional interest the boy manifests in a girl and vice versa. Any emotional behaviours are stimulated and motivated by love.
Thoughtfulness, graciousness, and refinement in manners, kindness, gentleness, tenderness, affections, care, pride, elation, delight, and pleasure are among the positive reactions emanating from love.
Emotional responses vary in intensity; how we respond to stimuli depends on the circumstances and the environment. It is a fact that we can vary our responses depending on how much we have learned to control or educate our emotions, so to speak
Control of Emotions
Very often, we have been accused of acting childishly or failing to control our emotions. We judge people as being emotionally mature or immature by the way they react to situations. We expect older people to attain emotional maturity as they grow in years. How, then, does one control his emotions?
Gilmer believes that in our effort to control our emotions, we learn to suppress or modify our overt responses. For example, we avoid gritting our teeth, clenching our fist, scowling, or frowning when we are angry. We scold children when they show such sign of anger.
We dislike people who are temperamental. We discourage shouting or boisterous laughing and we teach children to control their laughter. From childhood, we teach children to follow conventions, especially those that refer to behavior. People ’ s actions are governed by social sanctions and taboos.
Since most situations trigger emotional responses, we try to avoid or change the situation which would give rise to an undesirable response. For example, when we know that a certain situation will make someone angry, we try to avoid or change the situation.
We also learn from experience that a certain situation may provoke extreme anger, so we try to remove ourselves from such occasions to prevent the undesirable response. The educated individual learns to distinguish between an intelligent answer and an emotional one.
In a debate, for instance, emotional arguments do not score as high as intelligent ones. The educated individual studies a situation carefully before responding to it emotionally.
Some people are more emotional and temperamental than others.
. Such people expend a lot of useless energy because they are highstrung and impatient about things. Their hostility toward others is more manifested than those of emotional stable individuals. They are impulsive and tend to make rash decisions.
They are less sociable and tend to become frustrated over the reactions of other people. these people are often touchy and easily offended. They are defensive in their reactions, and often have a cynical attitude towards others.
Obviously, this description of temperamental persons will show that such individuals have very poor control of their emotional behavior. Fortunately, the behavior that is opposite to the one described above is attainable. Emotional control can be attained through patient and persistent-effort to overcome the bad habit.
Suppressing the emotions has both beneficial and negative affects. Suppressing our anger especially while engaged in an argument may be good, but suppressing anger on all occasions can be disastrous.
The psychologists and psychoanalysts hold that repressed feelings are not lost. They merely sink into the subconscious. A person who suppresses all his emotions will not find joy and excitement from life. There are some people who are afraid to release their emotions. In so doing, they get detached from other and often keep to themselves.
On the other hand, some people may get so involved in their jobs that they feel frustrated when some emotional situations disrupt their entrenchment in their jobs. A healthy balance between emotional release and suppression may sometimes prevent a person from certain undesirable actions as in the case of a spinster who remains single all her life, because she does not want to risk being unhappy in married life.
Emotional control incur calculated risks, but the emotionally healthy individual should learn to live with such limitations.
Teaching emotional control
In teaching children their emotions, two things should be emphasized. First, that they must learn to face reality, and secondly, that emotional problems need time for their solution.
When a child feels frustrated, making him cry out his frustrations may help prevent future tantrums, but he may feel he is abandoned in his problems. On the other hand, when the mother takes her baby in her arms and tries to calm her down, the child feels secure and he will be receptive to explanations later on.
Gradually, the child will learn that rules and regulations enforced kindly and consistently can help him deal with his emotional problems. Emotional control also calls for awareness of reality. The person who loses a parent should realize that there are some things we cannot prevent.
It is all right for him to grieve over the loss, but he cannot go on brooding. He has to adjust to the new situation. This will need time, of course, but emotional control cannot be achieved over night. Emotional control may involve choice between alternatives that may not altogether be satisfactory.
In some cases, it may involve a choice of the less evil. One should learn than in life, we cannot always have success. We have to learn to face failures, and we realize we may, that sometimes, failure can be the stepping stone to success.
Expecting emotional situations
As we grow older, we learn to develop emotional responses that are sanctioned by society. For proper emotional adjustment, we experience these expected emotional situations.
For example, we go to a basketball game expecting our team to win but we are aware of the fact that our team may lose, so we are prepared for both situations. Culturally, there are emotional reactions expected of girls and of boys. For instance, girls may express their emotions by crying, but boys may not.
Both boys and girls have to learn emotional expressions expected of them. Part of emotional control involves a general awareness of the types emotional problems one has to encounter and what emotional reactions are expected to the individual meeting the problem.
Definition of Personality Personality literally means ”to sound through” which is derived from the Latin words - “per sonare.” It was first used as a term to described the sounds that a masked actor projects. It is the sound and the character that he portrays which is term as his personality.
Gordon Allport (1990) defines personality as “a pattern of habits, attitudes and traits that determine an individual’s characteristic, behavior and traits.” He further describes personality as “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological system that determine his characteristics behavior and thoughts.”
Components of Personality
Habits are reactions so often repeated as to become fixed characteristics or tendencies. Good habits result from choice and are acquired though effort.
Attitudes are certain ways of viewing things gained from the environment, changed by the working of the mind,
Mental traits include or ability to control the mind. Floyd Allport lists the following mental abilities:
Memory and learning ability
Soundness of judgment
Emotional traits give an individual the capacity to face different situation in life, and still maintain his composure. He is said to have a stable personality.
Social traits give an individual the ability to get along with others- to be sociable and friendly.
Moral and religious traits are the standards for a person’s actions and behavior. His moral traits are manifested by this conduct. His religious traits guide his actions according to his beliefs.
*The Measurement of Personality*
Personality Questionnaire (Morgan, 1986). In spite of the divergent approaches to personality, most personality test are either in the form of questionnaire or projective techniques.
Are you happy when you get involved in some project that calls for immediate and rapid activity?
Yes* | Maybe | No || Score:
Do you become restless when working at something and little action is occurring?
Yes* | Maybe | No || Score:
When climbing stairs do you usually take them two at a time?
Yes* | Maybe | No || Score:
Are you inclined to be slow and deliberate in your actions?
Yes | Maybe | No* || Score:
Do you usually finish your meals before other people even though there is no reason to hurry?
Yes* | Maybe | No || Score:
Projective Tests. This tests determine the inner personality and the motives, aspirations, and thoughts of the individual. He is presented with stimuli that are more or less ambiguous and for which there are no obvious or socially predetermined responses.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is another projective device which is commonly used. The subject is presented sequentially with a series of photographs or drawings and is asked to say who the individuals are each picture, what is going on, and what the outcome will be.
Thematic Apperception Test TAT
Another type of semi-structured projective test is the Incomplete Sentence Test, often called the Sentence Completion Test (SCT) . The subject is asked to write a number of sentences, each of which begins with one of a prepared series of “stems” or phrases
Sentence Completion Test If only I could_____________________ People I know____________________ I can always _____________________ I think guys______________________ What makes me sad is ____________ I think girls______________________ My father _______________________ Where I live_____________________ My mother was the type____________ My health is____________________
Rosenzweig’s Picture - Frustration Study is a good example of the ingenuity that goes into the construction of some projective test. The subject is presented with 24-cartoon-like pictures involving two central characters, one of whom is involved in frustrating or annoying situation.
At present, the personality can also be described by its form and color preference.
Just choose the pattern which appeals most to you and this test will tell you what you are like.
Carefree Playful Cheerful You love a free and spontaneous life. And you attempt to enjoy it to the fullest, in accordance with the motto: "You only live once." You are very curious and open about everything new; you thrive on change. Nothing is worse than when you feel tied down. You experience your environment as being versatile and always good for a surprise
Independent Unconventional Unfettered You demand a free and unattached life for yourself that allows you to determine your own course. You have an artistic bent in your work or leisure activities. Your urge for freedom sometimes causes you to do exactly the opposite of what expected of you. Your lifestyle is highly individualistic. You would never blindly imitate what is "in"; on the contrary, you seek to live according to your own ideas and convictions, even if this means swimming against the tide.
Introspective Sensitive Reflective You come to grips more frequently and thoroughly with yourself and your environment than do most people. You detest superficiality; you'd rather be alone than have to suffer through small talk. But your relationships with your friends are very strong, which gives you the inner tranquility and harmony that you require. You do not mind being alone for extended periods of time; you rarely become bored.
Down to earth Well-Balanced Harmonious You value a natural style and love that which is uncomplicated. People admire you because you have both feet planted firmly on the ground and they can depend on you. You give those who are close to you security and space. You are perceived as being warm and human. You reject everything that is garish and trite. You tend to be skeptical toward the whims of fashion trends. For you, clothing has to be practical and unobtrusively elegant.
Professional Pragmatic Self Assured You take charge of your life, and place less faith in your luck and more in your own deeds. You solve problems in a practical, uncomplicated manner. You take a realistic view of the things in your daily life and tackle them without wavering. You are given a great deal of responsibility at work, because people know that you can be depended upon. Your pronounced strength of will projects your self-assurance to others. You are never fully satisfied until you have accomplished your ideas.
Peaceful Discreet Non Aggressive You are easy-going yet discreet. You make friends effortlessly, yet enjoy your privacy and independence. You like to get away from it all and be alone from time to time to contemplate the meaning of life and enjoy yourself. You need space, so you escape to beautiful hideaways, but you are not a loner. You are at peace with yourself and the world, and you appreciate life and what this world has to offer
Analytical Trustworthy Self Assured Your momentary sensitivity represents that which is of high quality and durable. Consequently, you like to surround yourself with little "gems," which you discover wherever they are overlooked by others. Thus, culture plays a special role in your life. You have found your own personal style, which is elegant and exclusive, free from the whims of fashion. Your ideal, upon which you base your life, is cultured pleasure. You value a certain level of culture on the part of the people with whom you associate.
Romantic Dreamy Emotional You are a very sensitive person. You refuse to view things only from a sober, rational standpoint. What your feelings tell you is just as important to you. In fact, you feel it is important to have dreams in life, too. You reject people who scorn romanticism and are guided only by rationality. You refuse to let anything confine the rich variety of your moods and emotions
Dynamic Active Extroverted You are quite willing to accept certain risks and to make a strong commitment in exchange for interesting and varied work. Routine, in contrast, tends to have a paralyzing effect on you. What you like most is to be able to play an active role in events. In doing so, your initiative is highly pronounced.
*Theories of Personality* A.Theory of Body Types (William Sheldon). This theory relates personality with bodily constitution, health, and vigor.
Endomorphic Components. This means prominence of intestine and visceral organs, and fats are proportion to height. Individuals under this type are classified temperamentally as viscerotonic.
Mesomorphic Components. These refer to bones and muscles. This individual is strong, tough, and athletic. He is well built and proportionate.
Ectomorphic Component. The individual tends to be long, thin, and poorly developed. Hi is generally weak physically
B. Theory Based on Body Build and Strength (Ernest Kretschmer). An individual may be classified under any of the following types.
Asthenic Type of individuals are those who are thin, tall, and emaciated. They look very sickly and weak. They want to be alone maybe because of frailty.
Pyknic Type is the opposite of asthenic. Such type of individuals can be called “ human ball ” because of their short statute and round solid body.
Athletic Type is between the asthenic and the pyknic types who are extremes in body build. The individual is strong and robust, and has the stamina for real hard work. He has a good body build which is wiry.
Dysplastic Type are those persons who cannot be classified among the three types above.
C. Psychological Type Theory.
Introverted Individual. This type of person tends to withdraw into himself in times of emotional stress or conflicts.
Extroverted Individual. An extrovert tends to be very sociable, well-dressed, and outgoing. His decisions and actions are determined primarily by objective relationships.
D.Theory Based on Body Chemistry, Endocrine Balance and Temperaments.
A Sanguine person is warm-hearted and pleasant. He looks alive and is very optimistic.
The phlegmatic type is listless, slow, unexcitable and calm, attributed to the phlegm.
A melancholic person is one who suffers from depression and sadness because of having too much black bile. He is very pessimistic.
The choleric person is easily angered or temperamental as influenced by his yellow bile. He is serious, easily provoked, and aggressive when he fails.
E. Theory of Personality Based on Birth Order The advocates of this theory, amidst controversy, stress that growing personality trait is attributed to family rank. They say that whatever kind of personality you possess is in one way or another influenced by the rank you occupy in the family.
First Born. They can keep secrets than the other siblings. They are conscientious, task-oriented, and responsible, high achievers.
Middle born. They talk the last. The middle of three girls tend to be the most difficult because of an attempt to get parental attention especially from the father.
Later Born. They are very creative, charming and playful, very popular, and often are spoiled.
Only Child. The only child is very dependent but may enjoy a high sense of self-esteem and optimism, reflecting the unchecked attention of two adults who praise him as he grows.
F. Psychoanalytic Theory. As mentioned earlier, Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, believed that personality has three structures: the Id, the ego , and the superego. The id can be thought of as a sort of storehouse of biologically based motives and instinctive reactions for satisfying.
G. Superiority and Compensation Theory. Alfred Adler, an early disciple of Freud, rejected Freud’s theory emphasizing the biological drives, sex in particular. He emphasize the drive for superiority or power. It is to Adler that we owe the concept of the inferiority complex. Because of this feeling, we try to overcome our weaknesses.
H. Trait Theory. Gordon Allport developed this theory assuming a multiplicity of needs that are never quite the same from one individual to the next. One is the concept of the uniqueness of personality. Each person with his unique background of childhood experiences, develops a set of traits that are unique to him.
Frustration Frustrations are experiences which are part of our everyday lives. They occur when goal achievement is blocked. A wide range of obstacles both environmental and internal can lead to frustration.
Conflict Conflict may produce frustration. Conflict is defined as “the simultaneous occurrence of two mutually antagonistic or impulses.” If a boy, for example, wants to watch the TV the night before his examinations but wishes to top the exams, cannot achieve satisfaction of his desires, he is experiencing a conflict.
Repression is an unconscious process wherein shameful thoughts, painful experiences, or distasteful tasks are pushed down into the subconscious state of mind. As modern psychologist suggest, repression is simply a refusal to think about something we find the thoughts unpleasant (Morgan, 1986).
2.Suppression is the deliberate, conscious control of unpleasant experiences, and undesirable thoughts or impulses. This serves the same purpose as repression but involves the conscious intent of the individual. 3. Projection is the process of shifting the responsibility for an act or thought from oneself to an outside agency or to another person.
3.Displacement is a special form of projection. This is the shifting of a response or reaction from its original object to another which is less dangerous. 4.Reaction formation is the unconscious attempt to reverse the original behavior by a substituted activity. This takes place where the original behavior or impulse is heavily laden with guilt feelings.
5.Rationalization is a device whereby the individual provides plausible reasons for his behavior, rather than the actual reasons which are too painful to acknowledge. 6.Fantasy is a mental mechanism whereby a person substitutes imaginary satisfactions for real satisfactions.
7. Identification is used to cope with frustration by identifying with someone else. An individual makes himself feel like, or act like, another person. 8.Regression is defined as a return to more primitive modes of behavior. This is a childish behavior following frustration.
9. Compensation is usually defined as the exaggeration of a desirable trait to reduce feeling of inferiority caused by an undesirable trait. 10. Sublimation is an inner defense mechanism by which more primitive and socially less acceptable forms of motive gratification are replaced and are then further developed by socially more acceptable forms.
Psychological Disorders or Abnormal Psychology Abnormality is defined in many ways. Behavior may be labelled abnormal when it is unusual, causes stress to others, and makes difficult for a person to adjust to his or her environment. One of the definitions of the word abnormal is “not average, typical, or usual.”
The Neurotic Personality Neurotic is a term traditionally applied to a class of behavior that has been described as deviating from conventional ways of responding. Psychoneuroses (neurouses) are conditions. Freud used to describe mental disorders arising from anxiety whose symptoms interfere with normal functioning but do not block it entirely.
DSM – III – These mental disorders do not represent a break from reality, and while these disorders interfere with normal functioning, do not call for hospitalization. DSM – IV – in its classification of mental disorders was developed for use in clinical, educational, and research settings.
A few familiar psychiatric terms used by the DSM-III-R
The Anxiety Disorders - these were once described as neurosis. It manifests itself principally in diffused and consciously experienced feeling of anxiety and apprehension for which there seems to be no specific basis in reality.
The Conversion Disorders
- The patient, facing some difficulty which he cannot accept, develops a physical ailment which in one way or another protects him in his situation.
The Dissociative Disorders. Dynamically, this reaction is identical with conversion, except that the patient ’ s flight is into unawareness rather than into sickness.
Amnesia - the individual forgets temporarily all those experiences which are associated with the kind of self which he wishes to forget.
Fugue – the loss of identity continues for a long period of time.
The Phobic Disorders. A phobia is an irrational dread of an object, person, act, or situation.
List of Phobias Acrophobia – fear of high places Agoraphobia – fear of open places Algophobia – fear of pain Claustrophobia – fear of closed places Hematophobia – fear of the sight of blood Hydrophobia – fear of water Monophobia – fear of being alone Mysophobia – fear of contamination
Necrophobia – fear of corpses or cadaver Nyctophobia – fear of darkness Pharmacophobia – fear of medicines Photophobia – fear of strong light Thanatophobia – fear of death Toxophobia – fear of being poisoned Zoophobia – fear of animals
The Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders. The symptoms that make up this reaction are organized around a core of obsessions and compulsions.
An Obsession may be simply defined as a useless or irrational thought which persistently forces itself into the consciousness of the individual.
Compulsions are useless or irrational acts which the person feels compelled to carry out, and are also manifested occasionally in normally adjusted persons.
The depressive Disorders. There is difficulty in sleeping and the patient complains of restlessness, lack of concentration, and tension.
The outstanding manifestation of this type of neurotic reaction is an all-dominating preoccupation with the bodily processes. The patient expresses the suspicion that he suffers from all kinds of diseases, offers odd explanations for his bodily processes, and complains of specific and unspecific aches and pains.
How to Avoid Psychological Disorders
Avoid constantly complaining about life. Remember that no one is exempt from daily irks or irritations, anywhere we are, at home or at work.
Avoid self-pity. Try to take yourself less seriously.
Avoid looking for motives in people. stop speculating about hidden meaning behind what people say or do.
Avoid too high standards.
Avoid continually analyzing yourself and your thought.
Avoid improper diet and try to get adequate sleep each night.
*Sociopathic Personality Disturbance*
Antisocial Reaction . Persons in this category have little feeling for others or for the rights of others. They display no sense of responsibility and are incapable of loyalty. Generally speaking, they are without conscience and to use one of the older terms, they might be called “ morally insane. ”
Exhibitionism involves exposing one ’ s sexual organs to the view of others. Fetishism occurs when sexual excitement is produced by the sight, touch, or smell of an article of clothing or some part of the body not usually associated with sexual activity.
Excessive dependency on drugs is an important category of behavior disorders. In both cases, the person has a need for the drugs, such as heroin, are strongly addictive; after a few doses or a period of days on the drug, the person is “ hooked. ”
Psychotic Personality Psychoses are much more serious than psychoneuroses. There is usually a marked psychological deterioration. The common symptoms are hallucination and delusions. A psychotic may, for example, taste ground glass or poison in his food.
Organic Psychoses Attributed to malnutrition, alcohol, drugs, syphilis, senility, disturbance of metabolism, abnormal functioning of the endocrine system causing injury or damage to the central nervous system.
Senile psychoses. They are innate lack of durability of the nerve cells in the brain, toxic, and hereditary influences, chronic dietary deficiency especially in vitamins and minerals elements.
Psychoses Due to Disturbance of Circulation . The most prevalent of these disturbances is cerebral arteriosclerosis or hardening of the arteries.
Psychoses Due to Trauma. Brain injury may be attributed to a blow on the head, surgery or electric shock, and brain injury suffered at birth.
Psychoses Due to Infection. Syphilitic infection (paresis) causes damage or destruction to the tissues of the brain and nervous system which is attributed to the spirochetal micro-organism treponema pallidum.
Psychoses due to intoxication.
The distinguishing symptoms of this disorder are confabulation which is the filing in the gaps of memory with irrelevant or disconnected material, disintegration of personality, deterioration of mental and physical abilities, and collapse of moral and ethical standards of behavior.
Psychoses due to new growth, nutrition, and endocrine imbalance.
There is still a doubt as to the actual reason for the spontaneous appearance of new growths in the brain.
Psychoses due to unknown origin. These may be due to unknown origin or hereditary causes.
Huntington ’ s Chorea. This is believed to be due to hereditary factors.
These are mental disorders which are not associated with organic pathology but are the results of poor adjustment and sever conflicts.
Affective Reactions. The outstanding characteristic of this disorder is the extreme ups and downs of moods.
Paranoiac Reactions or Paranoia . This is a psychotic reaction in which there is a good contact with reality except in the area of a well-systematized delusion. There is little or no intellectual deterioration.
Schizophrenic Reactions . Schizophrenia literally means a “ splitting of the mind. ” It occurs in youth often in individuals ranging from teenhood up to the middle years of life.
- is characterized by general mental retardation.
b. Hebephrenic Schizophrenia is notable for silliness and general incongruity of actions. He acts like a child and giggles at anything. c. Catatonic Schizophrenia involves peculiar posture, waxy flexibility, and negativism.
d. Paranoid Schizophrenia . Like the victim of paranoiac reactions, the paranoid schizophrenic has delusions of grandeur or persecution. 4.Involutional Reactions . Involutional psychosis begins later in life. this is a time of crisis for both men and women.
For some women, menopause is a sign that life is coming to an end and their sexual attractiveness is fading. *Treatment or Therapy* Medical therapy – uses laboratory or psychosurgery like lobotomy, insulin, shock therapy and drugs.
Psychotherapy – is any procedure designed to alleviate behavior disorders (mental illness, adjustment problems) by psychological means.
Two major categories of psychotherapy:
Insight therapy – which focuses on the individual as the whole; the aim is to help the person gain insight into his or her problems and life.
S pecific therapies – is much concerned with the specific symptoms.
Psychoanalysis – this is a method of treatment by psychological means developed by Sigmund Freud.
Dream Interpretation – is the second method used to uncover repressed feelings.
Humanistic Therapy – this method puts emphasis on self-acceptance. Gestalt Therapy – emphasizes self-awareness. It borrows ideas from both psychoanalytic and humanistic theories. Explains that our actions are often influenced by emotions and thoughts of which we are unaware.
Cognitive Therapies – believe that behavior is guided mental events such as attitudes, expectations, and appraisals. Rational Emotive therapy – RET is widely practiced with people who suffer from anxiety. Behavior Therapies – are based on the assumption that maladaptive behavior is learned through the same process by which other behaviours are learned.
Modelling therapy – this theory states that we learn new behavior by watching others and modelling their behavior. Group therapy – emphasize communication and relationships. This type of therapy generally involves one therapist and a group of clients.