Non-woven and WovenNon-woven FabricsNon-woven is one of the application of fiber construction. Non-woven is produced directly without anyintermediate step of yarn production. The fibers are either bonded or interlocked by means of mechanicalor thermal action or by using an adhesive or solvent. The mechanical action or thermal action is alsoknown as dry process. Whereas, the adhesive or solvent are also means by wet process. The orientation ofnon-woven fiber is oriented randomly or preferentially in one or more directions. The non-woven fiber isthe simplest stages of construction, as they are flat, porous sheets that are made directly from separatefibers or from molten plastic or plastic film. In addition, they are not made by weaving or knitting and donot require converting the fibers to yarn.The average pore size is depending on the density of fiber as well as the average of fiber diameter.Usually, the non-woven fabrics are mostly used in tissue engineering scaffolds. There are four types ofnon-woven manufacturing, which include resorbable nonwovens, microsphere nonwovens, aerodynamicnonwoven production and needle loom. Non-woven materials are nowadays mainly produced from man-made fibers. Two synthetic polymers dominate the market: polypropyleneand polyesters (mainly PET).
Characteristics of Non-Woven FabricAbsorbableLiquid repellentResilientStretchableSoft.Good strength of fabricFire or flame retardantWashableApplications of nonwoven fabricDisposable diapersSterile wraps, caps, gowns, masks and draping used in the medical fieldLaundry aids (fabric dryer-sheets)Apparel interliningCarpeting and upholstery fabrics, padding and backingWall coveringsAutomotive headliners and upholsteryInsulationRoofing productsCivil engineering fabrics/geotextiles
Manufacturing ProcessNonwovens are manufactured by putting small fibres together in the form of a sheet or web which issimilar to paper on a paper machine, and then binding them either mechanically as in the case of felt, byinterlocking them with serrated needles such that the inter-fibre friction results in a stronger fabric, withan adhesive, or thermally by applying binder in the form of powder, paste, or polymermelt and meltingthe binder onto the web by increasing temperature. However, the process of manufacturing are dependson two different types of nonwoven fiber.Staple non-wovens Spin the fiber Cut to a few centimeters length and put into bales. Disperse the bales on a conveyor belt
Spunlaid non-wovens Spin the fibers Disperse in a web by deflectors
Woven FabricsIs classified by its textile configuration where the primary structural yarns are oriented at 90 o to eachother. The machine direction is called warp direction, whereas the cross direction is called filling or weftdirection. When we talk about its orthogonal relationships between warp and filling, they display longelongation and high breaking strength in both directions.There are three types of woven construction: plain weaves twill weaves satin weavesThe woven graft can be designed as follows:
Characteristics of woven fabric low elasticity soft absorbable resilient High density variation washable Resistant to shrinking dry quickly Strong and durableApplicationsGenerally suitable uses for fashion uses such as jackets, trousers, canvas, pants and dresses due to itsproperties that have good dimensional stability and higher tenacity
Manufacturing Process Warp and Weft The warp is woven first, then the weft is woven through its fibers creating a solid piece of fabric. Yarn Preparation Size the yarn. he finished warp, wound on a wooden beam, then loomed by feeding it stand- by-stand through the reeds and heddles. Shedding Select fibers to be raised. Picking The shuttle moves across the loom and back. Filling yarn is wound onto a quill, then Sometimes occurs at a rate of 150 and 160 released from a hole in the shuttle picks per minute. The machine performs multiple times Battening holding down the filling yarn against the completed warp of the fabric, which must be maintained even as looms operate at top speed