CROSS-CULTURAL MANAGEMENT BY:- DAVID C. THOMAS PRESENTER: RAI (NEPAL) DEPARTMENT OF IDC 28th Oct. 2010
“Culture is the widening of the mind and of the spirit” - Jawaharlal Neharu REVIEW OF CHAPTER 6 THE MANAGER AS NEGOTIATORCommunicating and Negotiating Across CulturesWhat is cross-cultural communication?
CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION PROCESS“Communication is the act of transmitting messages, including information about the nature of the relationship, to another person who interprets these messages and gives them meaning” (Berlo, 1960). Cultural field Cultural field Sender Encoding Channel Decoding Receiver (source: J.L. Graham, 1985)
WAYS OF CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION Language Symbolic code consisting of a set of sounds with understood meanings and a set of rules for constructing messages. Importance of Language- Negotiate issues related to International business- Recognize and understanding of cultural diversity- Tools to share thoughts and ideas- Represents of a fundamental expression of social identity.
Communication pictures (Source: Himalayan White House College www.whitehouse.edu.np)
Contd. Source: World Bank Conference, (5 September 2000) www.worldbank.org/conference/php5
Communication Style Explicit Vs Implicit Communication- High context communication (HC) ~ Implicit(Japan, China, Arab)In high context cultures, the words convey only a small part of the message- Low context communication (LC) ~ Explicit(German, Swiss, Scandinavian, French, English, Italian)In low-context cultures, the message is conveyed largely by the words spoken
Direct Vs Indirect Communication DIRECT (linear) “What you see is what you get” More verbal and explicit Clarity of communication.• Directness is associated with individualist cultures, which has freedom from control.• Direct communication expresses truth INDIRECT (circular) “What you get is what you manage to see” More attention to situation Not much talk, more non-verbal• Indirectness is associated with Collectivists cultures.• In collectivist culture , politeness and desire to avoid embarrassment often take precedence over truth.
Silence & Verbal Overkill• Cultural difference exist in how silence is used in communication.• Collectivist culture value silence as way of controlling the communication interaction.e.g. Japanese negotiators Finland people
Use of Praise• Stylistic element that has a systematic relationship to culture is the use of praise and response to the praise (Triandis, 1978).
Other Language Considerations Slang & Jargon - informal language consisting of wordsand expressions Euphemisms – Less direct expression Idioms – unique ways of combining words to express aparticular thought. Proverbs & Maxims – Short sayings express that obviouslytrue
Language Pragmatics Language Accommodation – shifting one’s speechpatterns to achieve greater language similarity. Stylistic accommodation – Idea that adapting one’scommunication style to that of others. Language fluency
CONCLUSIONEffective communication is an important and obvious mean in multicultural environment. For the management of the multicultural work force, Globalization of market in International Business, Technological advancement and conflict management that occur due to the cultural differences, there should be effective negotiation which Managers can do, so as to call managers are Negotiator.
CRITICAL ISSUES1. Recent days, To be competitive in an increasingly globalized market sector, Some organizations trying to hire employees from overseas who has totally different cultural backgrounds.- What problems will emerge due to the cultural variation ?