Session-3

Motivation
Suchitra Pal, PhD
suchitra@ximb.ac.in

1

SPAL

October 25, 2013
What is Motivation?


The extent to which an individual is engaged by the
work role he or she occupies.



Theories of m...
Motivation



3

A person’s behavior is the result of several
factors or motives.
A typical primary motivators of behavi...
Motivation


Murray (1938) developed a long list of human
motives and his work inspired further studies.



McClelland, ...
Basic Psychological Needs


5

Although McClelland’s study of achievement and
affiliation motives showed them to be rathe...
The role of Power as a Motive
According to him the desire (McClelland’s, 1975), the
desire for power contains three differ...
The Role of Power as a Motive
It is helpful to make clear distinctions between these
three. Control seems to focus on
keep...
Dependence as a Motive
Another motive that is relevant for the OB is
dependence.
Although it has been generally been regar...
Types of Motives
Kraur (1985) described the six primary needs or
motives, which are relevant for the understanding the
beh...
Types of Motives


Affiliation: Characterized by a concern for establishing
and maintain the close, personal relationship...
Types of Motives


Control: Characterized by concern for orderliness, a
desire to remain informed, and an urge to monitor...
Types of Motives




Dependence: Characterized by a desire for help for
other’s in one’s own self development, checking ...
Explaining these motives


All these motives we have discussed before can be used
to explain the behavior of people in or...
Approach and Avoidance aspects of Motives

Motive

Approach
(Hope of)

Avoidance
(Fear of)

Achievement

Success

Failure
...
Needs at Work


Motivational theories can be divided into two categories,
termed content and process.



Content theorie...
Needs at Work


These authors posit three basic needs:
all of which appeared in Murray’s original list,
needs for compete...
Content Theories of Motives


Content theories are based on the assumption that we
can attribute a similar set of needs t...
Maslow’s Believe on Motives
1.

Maslow believed that human needs are instinctive in
nature and have their basic in biogene...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-actualization needs
Needs to develop one’s full potential

Psychological growth

Self-est...
Process Theories


What all process theories have in common is an
emphasis on the role of cognitive process in determinin...
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Motivation

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Motivation

  1. 1. Session-3 Motivation Suchitra Pal, PhD suchitra@ximb.ac.in 1 SPAL October 25, 2013
  2. 2. What is Motivation?  The extent to which an individual is engaged by the work role he or she occupies.  Theories of motivation suggest that motivated behavior occurs either because work fulfills psychological needs or because of more rational decision making processes where they appear to be a clear connection between effort and performance and performance and value outcomes. 2 SPAL October 25, 2013
  3. 3. Motivation   3 A person’s behavior is the result of several factors or motives. A typical primary motivators of behavior in a work settings can help managers and consultants to deal more effectively with people. SPAL October 25, 2013
  4. 4. Motivation  Murray (1938) developed a long list of human motives and his work inspired further studies.  McClelland, Atkinson, Clark and Lowell (1953) suggested three importance motives (achievement, affiliation and power) and elaborate methods for measuring them.  McClellend subsequently demonstrated the importance of the achievement motives for entrepreneurship and marketing and power as a motivation in management. 4 SPAL October 25, 2013
  5. 5. Basic Psychological Needs  5 Although McClelland’s study of achievement and affiliation motives showed them to be rather simple variables, he found the power motive to be complex one. SPAL October 25, 2013
  6. 6. The role of Power as a Motive According to him the desire (McClelland’s, 1975), the desire for power contains three different elements:     6 the need to control others (personalized power) the need to make an impact on others and the need to use power to do something for other people and groups. SPAL October 25, 2013
  7. 7. The Role of Power as a Motive It is helpful to make clear distinctions between these three. Control seems to focus on keeping track of developments according to the agreed plan and on being informed about how things are going.  7 SPAL October 25, 2013
  8. 8. Dependence as a Motive Another motive that is relevant for the OB is dependence. Although it has been generally been regarded as a negative force, Mcgregor (1996) recognized the positive values of dependence in management.  8 SPAL October 25, 2013
  9. 9. Types of Motives Kraur (1985) described the six primary needs or motives, which are relevant for the understanding the behaviour of people in organizations.These are as follows and called the primary needs or motives. Achievement: Characterized by the concern for excellence, competition with the standards of excellence set by others or oneself. 9 SPAL October 25, 2013
  10. 10. Types of Motives  Affiliation: Characterized by a concern for establishing and maintain the close, personal relationships, by values on friendship and the tendency to express ones emotions.  Influence: Characterized by a concern to make an impact on others, a desire to make people do what one thinks is right, and a urge to change matters and (develop) people. 10 SPAL October 25, 2013
  11. 11. Types of Motives  Control: Characterized by concern for orderliness, a desire to remain informed, and an urge to monitor and take corrective action when needed.  Extension: Characterized by concern for others, interest in superordinate goals and an urge to be relevant and useful to large groups, including society. 11 SPAL October 25, 2013
  12. 12. Types of Motives   Dependence: Characterized by a desire for help for other’s in one’s own self development, checking with significant others (those who are more knowledgeable or have higher status, experts, close associates etc). Submitting ideas or proposals for approval, having an urge to maintain an ‘approval’ relationship. 12 SPAL October 25, 2013
  13. 13. Explaining these motives  All these motives we have discussed before can be used to explain the behavior of people in organizations. However each of these motives can have two dimensions: approach and avoidance.  For example; the hope of success versus fear of failure (approach vs. avoidance) was the most important intervening variable in explaining who benefitted from achievement motivation training program as measured by an increase in entrepreneurial activity. 13 SPAL October 25, 2013
  14. 14. Approach and Avoidance aspects of Motives Motive Approach (Hope of) Avoidance (Fear of) Achievement Success Failure Expert Influence Impact Impotence Control Order Chaos Extension Relevance Irrelevance Dependence Growth Loneliness Affiliation Inclusion Exclusion 14 SPAL October 25, 2013
  15. 15. Needs at Work  Motivational theories can be divided into two categories, termed content and process.  Content theories assumes that all individuals possess the same set of needs.  Deci and Ryan (2000) have need constructs at the heart of their ‘self determination theory’ which explores the way individuals with little status or power fulfill psychological needs. 15 SPAL October 25, 2013
  16. 16. Needs at Work  These authors posit three basic needs: all of which appeared in Murray’s original list, needs for competence, relatedness (the desire to feel close to others), and autonomy (the desire to be self-organized and pursue activities which resonate with one’s sense of self.) 16 SPAL October 25, 2013
  17. 17. Content Theories of Motives  Content theories are based on the assumption that we can attribute a similar set of needs to all individuals. Abraham Maslow (1954) outlined what is perhaps the most influential of the content theories. 17 SPAL October 25, 2013
  18. 18. Maslow’s Believe on Motives 1. Maslow believed that human needs are instinctive in nature and have their basic in biogenetic and evolutionary heritage. 2. Motivation was largely an unconscious process. We are largely not aware of what motivates us and would find it difficult to describe our motivation in any straight forward way, such as by completing a questionnaire. 3. Then the hierarchy of needs. His argument was that once we satisfy needs at one level in the hierarchy, its impact on our behaviour diminishes. 18 SPAL October 25, 2013
  19. 19. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization needs Needs to develop one’s full potential Psychological growth Self-esteem needs Need for recognition and a belief in oneself Higher-order needs Social needs Need for satisfactory and supportive relationships with others Security needs Need for safety and freedom from fear Deficiency needs Physiological needs Needs for food, warmth, clothing, and shelter 19 SPAL October 25, 2013
  20. 20. Process Theories  What all process theories have in common is an emphasis on the role of cognitive process in determining his or her level of motivation.  One major process theory -equity theory- explores the impact of feeling poorly rewarded or indeed the opposite feeling, too well rewarded, on our behaviour at work 20 SPAL October 25, 2013

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