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Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
Neuron
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Neuron

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  • 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Sensory NeuronsMotor Neurons Somatic Nervous System • voluntary movements via skeletal muscles Autonomic Nervous System • organs, smooth muscles Sympathetic - “Fight-or-Flight” responses Parasympathetic - maintenance The Nervous System The Nervous System
  • 2. WHAT PARTS DO YOU KNOW THAT ARE IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM? Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nerves
  • 3. How are neurons connected?  Synapses!!
  • 4. Why are neurons connected?
  • 5. More neuron connections!
  • 6. AXON The synapse - where the action happens The next cell’s plasma membrane What is this in the membrane? Transport protein Close up look at your synapse
  • 7. How does the Synapse carry the signal? 1. Electrical current travels down the axon. 2. Vesicles with chemicals move toward the membrane . 3. Chemicals are released and diffuse toward the next cell’s plasma membrane. 4.The chemicals open up the transport proteins and allow the signal to pass to the next cell.
  • 8. 1 2 3 4 The synapse carries a signal from cell to cell
  • 9. There are lots of proteins and chemicals in your body to do the work Why is it important that it is an electrical current?
  • 10. Are all neurons equal in size?  Brain vs spinal cord vs peripheral nerves? About how many neurons are in the human brain? 100 billion 1 billion around 15 feet About how many neurons are in the spinal cord? How long do you think the longest axon in the world is?
  • 11. How many synapses are in one neuron? 1,000 to 10,000!!
  • 12. This science is called Neurobiology  Looking at the actual cells - how do they work?  Looking at the connections - how and when do they work?  Looking at what can change normal cells and connections  Looking at diseases that occur in the brain  One of the largest areas still unknown  The you that is you is because of your neurons connecting!
  • 13. What do you think can change neurons and their connections?  Accidents  Drugs  Alcohol  Disease
  • 14. Accidents  Physical injury of your neurons
  • 15. Drugs and alcohol bind important receptors on neurons
  • 16. Repeated binding causes the neuron to die
  • 17. Drugs = Neuron Death
  • 18. Alcohol damages dendrites - can repair after abstinence Alcohol blocks receptors and slows down transmission
  • 19. What if neurons die here? or hereor here or here or here
  • 20. Divisions of the autonomic nervous system
  • 21. The Nervous System  A physical organ system like any other  2 main kinds of cells  Neurons  Glia
  • 22. Neurons  Basic units of the nervous system  Receive, integrate, and transmit information  Operate through electrical impulses  Communicate with other neurons through chemical signals  More about neurons and neuronal anatomy later
  • 23. Glial cells  100 billion neurons  10x more glial cells  Glial cells  Support neurons (literally, provide physical support, as well as nutrients)  Cover neurons with myelin  Clean up debris  “Housewives”
  • 24. Three main types of neurons Sensory Neurons Interneurons Motor Neurons
  • 25. Sensory (Afferent) vs. Motor (Efferent) e.g., skin e.g., muscle sensory (afferent) nerve motor (efferent) nerve Neurons that send signals from the senses, skin, muscles, and internal organs to the CNS Neurons that transmit commands from the CNS to the muscles, glands, and organs
  • 26. Neurons Axon of another neuron Cell BodyDendrites Axon Myelin Sheath Dendrites of another neuron
  • 27. Neural Anatomy  Dendrite The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body  Axon The extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands
  • 28. Specific Parts: The Neuron Function Neurons = 3 functions: Reception, Conduction, Transmission 1.3. 2.
  • 29. Action Potential When dendrites stimulated, the delicate balance is altered Membrane breaks down Positively charged ions rush in (depolarization) Charge = less negative Causes release of chemicals from terminal buttons
  • 30. Communication  Impulse releases neurotransmitter from vesicles  Neurotransmitter enters synaptic gap  Neurotransmitter binds to receptors on the receiving neuron
  • 31. Myelinization clip Myelin conduction clip
  • 32. More Neurotransmitters

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