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Timeline (ww i)

Timeline (ww i)






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    Timeline (ww i) Timeline (ww i) Document Transcript

    • Timeline Of World War I1914This timeline covers all the political and military events that spread across Europe and the rest ofthe world during 1914. The flames of war were fanned with the assassination of Arch DukeFerdinand in Sarajevo, plunging Europe into a war the like of which had never been seen before,although hope still remained as German and British soldiers celebrated a Christmas truce thatwinter. Archduke Francis Ferdinand heir to the Austria-Hungary throne and his wife are28/06/1914 assassinated by a Serbian Nationalist in Sarejevo.05/07/1914Kaiser William II promises German support for Austria against Serbia.28/07/1914Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia and Russia.29/07/1914Russia begins to mobilise her armed forces. Austria-Hungarian troops invade Serbia.01/08/1914Official outbreak of World War I. Germany declares war on Russia.02/08/1914Germany invades Luxembourg.03/08/1914Germany declares war on France. Germany declares war on neutral Belgium and invades in a right flanking move designed to defeat France quickly. This violates a treaty signed by Prussua04/08/1914respecting Belgian neutrality. As a result of this invasion, Britain declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary. Canada follows suit and joins the war. U.S President Woodrow Wilson declares policy of American neutrality. The British Expeditionary Force lands in France to assist the French and Belgians in07/08/1914 stopping the German offensive.14/08/1914The Battle of the Frontiers begins.17/08/1914Russia invades East Prussia. U.S President Wilson appeals for neutrality. The Canadian Parliament authorises the19/08/1914raising of an expeditionary force to send overseas and constructs Valcartier Camp to give basic training to new recruits. 27,000 French soldiers are killed on this single day in an offensive thrust to the east22/08/1914 of Paris, towards the German borders. The BEF started to retreat from Mons. Austria-Hungary launches an invasion of23/08/1914Russian Poland. Japan declares war on Germany and attacks the German colony of Tsingtau in China.26/08/1914Battle of Tannenberg begins. The Battle of Tannenberg ends in total Russian defeat. This becomes Germanys30/08/1914 greatest victory of the war inflicting over 250,000 casualties on the Russians. Battle of Togoland. The German Cruiser Goeben and Breslau are pursued by BritishAug 1914 warships into Turkish waters.
    • 05/09/1914First Battle of the Marne begins.09/09/1914First Battle of the Masurian Lakes begins. First Battle of the Marne ends in a French Victory, thus halting the German advance10/09/1914 towards Paris, which results in stalemate. Russia loses the First Battle of Masurian Lakes. First Battle of Aisne begins. Troops14/09/1914 starts to construct trenches across the entire length of the western front.17/09/1914Austro-German forces launch an attack into western PolandSep 1914 Battle of Lemberg begins. First Battle of Ypres begins. The Canadian Expeditionary Force of 32,000 men14/10/1914 lands at Plymouth, England, to prepare for fighting at the Front.29/10/1914Turkey enters the war on the side of the Central Powers.22/11/1914First Battle of Ypres ends.Nov 1914 Battle of Lodz begins.08/12/1914Battle of the Falkland Islands between British and German Naval units.21/12/1914First German air raid on Britain.25/12/1914An unofficial Christmas truce is declared by soldiers along the Western Front.1915This timeline covers all the political and military events that occurred across Europe and the restof the world during 1915. This is the year that sees unrestricted sinking of ships by German U-Boats and the defeat of British forces at Gallipoli.01/01/1915Allied offensive in Artois and Champagne begins.15/01/1915Japans makes 21 demands on China.19/01/1915First German zeppelin air raid on England. Germany declares a submarine blockade of Great Britain. Any ship approaching04/02/1915 England is considered a legitimate target.07/02/1915Second Battle of Masurian Lakes begins.19/02/1915British naval units bombard Turkish forts in the Dardenelles. Russians lose the Second Battle of Masurian Lakes, suffering heavy loses in the21/02/1915 process. American citizen die as the British liner Falaba, becomes the first passenger ship to01/03/1915 be sunk by U-boats. Captain George Van Horn Moseley of U.S. War College
    • Divison suggests a plan for universal military training to the Chief of Staff.11/03/1915Britain announces a blockade of all German ports.30/03/1915Allied offensive in Artois and Champagne ends.Mar 1915 Battle of Neuve-Chapelle. The Second Battle of Ypres begins. Poison gas is used for the first time by Germans22/04/1915 in an attack on the Canadian sector.23/04/1915Allied forces make landings an Gallipoli, Turkey.26/04/1915France, Russia, Italy and Britain conclude secret Treaty of London. The Germans, focusing on Eastern Front, launch an offensive against the RussiansApr 1915 breaking through Gorlice-Tarnow in Poland.02/05/1915Austro-German offensive begins into Russian Poland.05/05/1915Second Battle of Ypres ends. The British liner Lusitania is sunk by a U-Boat with the loss of 1,198 civilians,07/05/1915 including 128 American lives, creating a US-German diplomatic crisis.09/05/1915Second Battle of Artois begins. Ignoring treaty agreements with the Central Powers, Italy declares war on Austria-23/05/1915 Hungary. British Prime Minister Asquith reorganises his Liberal government as a coalition of25/05/1915 the parties. The Italians launch an unsuccessful attack against Austro-Hungary at what will be29/06/1915 called the 1st Battle of Isonzo. There will be 12 in total. President Wilson sends notes to Secretary of War Garrison and Secretary of Navy21/07/1915 Daniels directing them to draft a defense program.04/08/1915German troops capture Warsaw.19/08/1915Two Americans die in sinking of ship Arabic, off the coast Ireland by a U-boat. The Washington Post carries story that General Staff are planning to send a force of21/08/1915 1 million soldiers overseas. Another U.S paper, this time the Baltimore Sun carries the story that General Staff is planning to send a million soldiers overseas. The War College Division denies the allegations in Washington Post and Baltimore Sun. The American General Staff, in24/08/1915 response to request from Secretary of War Lindley M. Garrison, devotes much of the year to preparing the "Statement of a Proper Military Policy for the United States".30/08/1915Responding to American demands, Germany stops sinking ships without warning. The Germans end their offensive against the Russians having forced Russia out of31/08/1915much of Poland. The Gallipoli debacle ends, with the Turkish siege of the remaining Allied forces.
    • 05/09/1915Tsar Nicholas takes commands of Russian armies. British forces use gas in battle near Loos, but shifting winds cause 60,000 British15/09/1915 casualties.22/09/1915The Second Battle of Champagne begins.Sep 1915 Battles of Artois starts. Battle of Loos starts.03/10/1915Anglo-French force lands at Salonika in Greece. Battles of Artois & Champagne ends. Battle of Loos ends. Austro-German-Oct 1915 Bulgarian forces invade Serbia, expelling the Serbian army from the country04/11/1915Henry Fords peace ship, Oskar II, begins its voyage to Europe. General Sir Douglas Haig takes Field Marshal Sir John Frenchs position as15/12/1915Commander-in Chief of the British Forces in France. This also gave him control of the Canadian Forces in Europe.28/12/1915The Allies begin the withdrawal of troops from Gallipoli.1916This timeline covers all the political and military events that occurred across Europe and the restof the world during 1916. In this year the name Verdun will be burned into French and Germanmilitary legend, whilst the USA will come ever closer to joining the war. President Wilson launches a nationwide whistle-stop campaign to generate support27/01/1916 for Preparedness and the Continental Army with three speeches in New York. The U.S War College Division warns its civilian employees "to engage in no31/01/1916 discussion whatever concerning the progress of the European War".03/02/1916President Wilson delivers his final speech of Preparedness in Saint Louis.10/02/1916British conscription law goes into effect. The Battle of Verdun begins as the Germans launch a massive attack against Verdun21/02/1916 in what will become the longest battle of the war. Acting Secretary of War Hugh L. Scott asks United States War College Division if24/02/1916 any plans exist in the event "of a complete rupture" with Germany.09/03/1916Pancho Villas raid on Columbus, New Mexico.15/03/1916Pershing starts pursuit of Villa into Mexico.24/03/1916The French passenger ship, Sussex is torpedoed.
    • The American naval and military attaches in Paris and London draft a plan for04/04/1916mobilizing US shipping to carry an American army to Europe, but their plan is ignored. President Wilson, publicly calls for the Germans to stop their submarine policy of19/04/1916 sinking all ships in enemy waters without warning.24/04/1916The Easter rebellion starts in Ireland. Field Marshal Lord Kitchener, the British Secretary of State for War, asks for27/04/1916 American military participation in Europe.29/04/1916British forces surrender to Turkish forces at Kut in Mesopotamia.Apr 1916 British forces in Mesopotamia begin advance on Baghdad.04/05/1916Germany renounces submarine policy.15/05/1916Canadians troops capture Vimy Ridge.19/05/1916Britain and France conclude Sykes-Picot agreement.31/05/1916Battle of Jutland begins between British and German naval forces.May 1916 The Italians begin the Trentino Offensive. Having been the biggest naval battle in history, the battle of Jutland ends without a01/06/1916 clear victor. The National Defense Act authorizes a five-year expansion of US Army, but at the03/06/1916 same time drastically limits size and authority of US War Department General Staff.04/06/1916The Russians launch their Brusilov Offensive against Austro-Hungary in Carpathia. With British support (led by T.E. Lawrence), Hussein, grand sherif of Mecca, leads05/06/1916 an Arab revolt against the Turks in the Hejaz.Jun 1916 Trentino Offensive ends. Start of the Battle of the Somme, with the British military suffering its greatest01/07/1916 number of casualties in a single day, 60,000.29/07/1916US marines land in Haiti. The Black Tom Island munitions plant is destroyed by an explosion. It is suspected30/07/1916 that it was German sabotage.Aug 1916 Romania enters the war on the Allies side.31/08/1916Germany suspends U-boat attacks.15/09/1916Tanks introduced for the first time on the Somme battlefield by the British. Russias Brusilov offensive in Carpathia comes to an end, having nearly knocked20/09/1916 Austria-Hungary out of the war.15/10/1916Germany resumes U-boat attacks under search and destroy rules.
    • Woodrow Wilson is re-elected in the USA with a campaign slogan of "He kept us07/11/1916 out of the war".18/11/1916Battle of the Somme ends.28/11/1916The First German airplane (as opposed to zeppelin) air-raid is conducted on Britain29/11/1916US occupation of Santa Domingo proclaimed.07/12/1916David Lloyd George replaces Asquith as British Prime Minister.12/12/1916Germany issues peace note suggesting a compromise peace. German attack on Verdun ends, with the French holding their positions, with great18/12/1916losses to both sides. US President Woodrow Wilson requests statements of war objectives from warring nations in peace note. Rasputin the self-avowed holy man and confidant to the Russian Tsarina, is31/12/1916 murdered by relatives of the Tsar.1917This timeline covers all the political and military events that occurred across Europe and the restof the world during 1917. In this year the USA will enter the war, tanks will start to be seen onthe Wesetrn front in large numbers and the Germans force Russia to withdraw from the war.09/01/1917German leaders decide to launch unrestricted U-boat warfare. Allies state peace objectives in response to US President Woodrow Wilsons10/01/1917 December 1916 peace note. Reich Foreign Secretary Zimmermanns telegram to Mexico urging her entry into19/01/1917 war against the United States is discovered and translated by the British.22/01/1917"Peace without Victory." speech is made by President Wilson. Germany announces that it will resume unrestricted U-boat warfare from the 1st31/01/1917 February.01/02/1917Germany resumes unrestricted U-boat warfare.03/02/1917US severs diplomatic ties with Germany. The British General Staff estimates that no more than 250,000 American soldiers05/02/1917 could be in Europe even after a year. The Chief of British Imperial General Staff Sir William Roberston expresses grave13/02/1917 doubts about American fighting capabilities.23/02/1917German forces begin withdrawal to strong positions on the Hindenburg Line. The Sinking of the Laconia. The Zimmermann Telegram is passed to the US by24/02/1917Britain, detailing alleged German proposal of an alliance with Mexico against the US.26/02/1917US President Woodrow Wilson requests permission from Congress to arm US
    • merchantmen. Zimmermann Telegram is released to press by US State Department. The Armed01/03/1917 Ship Bill is passed by Congress. The US Senate adjourns without passing Armed Ship Bill, after a successful04/03/1917 filibuster.11/03/1917British troops capture Baghdad. US President Woodrow Wilson announces arming of US merchantmen by executive12/03/1917 order after failing to win approval.15/03/1917Tsar Nicholas II of Russia abdicates as a consequence of Russian Revolution. US President Woodrow Wilsons war cabinet votes unanimously in favour of20/03/1917 declaring war on Germany. War College Division issues a report: Calling for a large force of between 500,000 and 1,000,000, and optimistically estimates that at least ten months would be required to ship a force of 500,000 to Europe once it was raised and trained, putting the earliest effects of US involvement in mid- to late-1918. The War College29/03/1917 Division openly plans to send US forces overseas, but argues against offensives through Macedonia or Holland and repeats its opposition to sending an untrained American army overseas. Wilson publicly calls for a national army to be "raised and maintained exclusively by selective draft". President Woodrow Wilson delivers war address to Congress at 8:32 pm and asks02/04/1917 the House of Representatives to declare war on Germany.05/04/1917German forces finish their withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line. United States comes out of neutrality and declares war on Germany, thus entering06/04/1917 the First World War.09/04/1917The Nivelle Offensive begins. Sir William Robertson advocates to Haig the dispatch of immediate American10/04/1917expeditionary force "to get some Americans killed and so get the country to take a real interest in the war". Canadian troops take Vimy Ridge and the surrounding area in one of Canadas finest13/04/1917 battles of the war.16/04/1917Chemin des Dames Offensive begins. Lenin arrives in Russia. The Nivelle Offensive, which includes the Second Battle of Aisne and the Third20/04/1917 Battle of Champagne ends in French Failure. Chemin des Dames Offensive ends in disastrous failure for the French having29/04/1917advanced only 500 yards at the cost of 250,000 casualties. A month long series of mutinies break out amongst the French army. The German submarine campaign exacts its heaviest damage of war sinking 881,027Apr 1917 gross tons, 500,000 of which are British.12/05/1917The 10th battle of Isonzo begins.20/05/1917A month of sporadic mutinies in the French army finally fizzle out.28/05/1917U.S. Brigadier General Pershing leaves New York for France.
    • 07/06/1917The British explode 19 large mines under the Messines Ridge.15/06/1917U.S. Espionage Act is passed. The first U.S. troops begin arriving in France. These are men of the U.S. 1st26/06/1917 Division.27/06/1917Greece enters the war on the side of the Allies.Jun 1917 Battle of Messines.02/07/1917U.S. Brigadier General Pershing makes his first request for army of 1,000,000 men.06/07/1917Aquaba captured by Arabs led by T.E.Lawrence. U.S. Brigadier General Pershing Pershing revises his army request figures upwards11/07/1917 to 3,000,000 men.16/07/1917Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) begins.31/07/1917Another major British offensive is launched at Ypres.06/08/1917Aleksander Fyodorovich Kerensky appointed Prime Minister of Russia. German troops break through the northernmost end of the Russian front during the01/09/1917 Riga offensive. The 12th battle of Isonzo ends in Italian failure. Austria-German forces24/10/1917 breakthrough at Caporetto on Italian front. The Bolshevik overthrow the Kerenskys government and install of a Communist07/11/1917 one under Lenin.10/11/1917British reach Passchendaele. Third Battle of Ypres ends.20/11/1917Battle of Cambrai begins with a surprise tank attack by the British. German-Russian armistice is signed by the new Russian government, represented by03/12/1917 Leon Trotsky.07/12/1917The United States declares war on Austro-Hungary.09/12/1917Jerusalem captured from the Turks by the British.22/12/1917Russia opens separate peace negotiations with Germany at Brest-Litovsk.1918This timeline covers all the political and military events that occurred across Europe and the restof the world during 1918. In this year the Germans launch a final desperate offensive on the
    • Western front designed to defeat the French and British. However, this is defeated which forcesthe Germans to seek an Armistice to end World War 1.08/01/1918President Woodrow Wilson delivers his fourteen points speech to the U.S. Congress.11/02/1918The U.S. President Woodrow Wilson makes "Four Principles" speech to Congress. A separate peace treaty is signed by Soviet Russia and the Central Powers03/03/1918 (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey) at Brest-Litovsk.15/03/1918Soviets ratify the Brest-Litovsk Treaty. The Ludendorff Offensive begins with Germany launching its Spring push with the21/03/1918Battle of Picardy against the British. This will eventually amount to five major offensives against Allied forces. Doullens Agreement gives General Ferdinand Foch "co-ordinating authority" over26/03/1918 the Western Front. Germany launches second Spring offensive, the Battle of the Lys, in the British09/04/1918 sector of Armentieres.14/04/1918Foch appointed Commander-in-Chief of Allied forces on Western Front.Apr 1918 Zeebruggge Raid.16/05/1918Espionage Act is passed.25/05/1918German U-boats appear in US waters for first time. Third German Spring offensive, Third Battle of the Aisne, begins in French sector27/05/1918 along Chemin des Dames. U.S. forces (28th Regiment of 1st Division) are victorious in their first major action,28/05/1918 Battle of Cantigny.06/06/1918US 3rd Division captures Bouresches and southern part of Belleau Wood. The Germans launch the fourth Spring offensive, Battle of the Matz, in French09/06/1918 sector between Noyan and Montdider.15/06/1918The Italians prevail against Austro-Hungarian forces at the Battle of Piave.06/07/1918US President Woodrow Wilson agrees to US intervention in Siberia. The final phase of great German Spring push, the Second Battle of the Marne,15/07/1918 begins. This was to be the last major German offensive on the Western Front.16/07/1918Former Tsar Nicholas II, his wife, and children, are murdered by the Bolsheviks.17/07/1918Archangel expedition A French led counterattack smashes into weakened German forces on the Marne,18/07/1918 halting the German forward momentum during the Second Battle of the Marne and
    • seizing the initiative for the Allies on the Western Front.Jul 1918 The Italian Piave Offensive ends.03/08/1918Allied intervention begins at Vladivostok in Siberia. Haig directs the start of a successful Amiens offensive, forcing all German troops08/08/1918back to the Hindenburg Line. Ludendorff calls it a "black day" for the German Army. American forces attack the Germans as they are in the process of retreating from the St.-Mihiel salient. This was part of a plan designed by General Pershing in which12/09/1918 the Americans would break through the German lines and capture the fortified city of Metz. The British begin an offensive against Turkish forces in Palestine, the Battle of19/09/1918 Megiddo. The Battle of the Vardar is fought against the Bugarians by Serb, Czech, Italian,26/09/1918French and British forces. The Meuse-Argonne offensive begins. this wll be the final Franco-American offensive of the war.27/09/1918Haigs forces storm the Hindenburg Line, breaking through at several points.28/09/1918Belgian forces launch an offensive at Ypres.29/09/1918Bulgaria concludes armistice negotiations with the Allies. Germany and Austria send peace notes to US President Woodrow Wilson requesting03/10/1918 an armistice. The British begin their advance to the Sambre and Schledt rivers, taking many17/10/1918 German prisoners.21/10/1918Germany ceases unrestricted submarine warfare.27/10/1918Ludendorff resigns.30/10/1918Turkey concludes an armistice with the Allies. The German fleet mutinies at Kiel. Trieste falls to the Allies as Austro-Hungary03/11/1918 concludes an armistice.05/11/1918Allies accept the fourteen points. Germany begins negotiations for an armistice with the Allies in Ferdinand Fochs07/11/1918 railway carriage headquarters at Compiegne.09/11/1918Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates.10/11/1918German republic founded as Kaiser Wilhelm II flees to Holland. Armistice day as fighting ceases at 11am - World War I ends. Central Powers are11/11/1918 forced to annul the Brest-Litovsk Treaty.1919
    • This timeline covers all the political and military events that occurred across Europe and the restof the world during 1919. With World War 1 over, the Allies squable between themselves overthe terms of the treaty of versailles, whilst Germany sinks into violence and chaos as theFreikorps puts down various Communists attempts to seize power.10/01/1919Communists begin a revolt in Berlin. The revolt by Communists in Berlin is crushed. German socialist rebels Karl15/01/1919 Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg are murdered.18/01/1919Start of peace negotiations in Paris.25/01/1919Peace conference accepts principle of a League of Nations.06/02/1919German National Assembly meets in Weimar.14/02/1919Draft covenant of League of Nations completed.24/02/1919President Wilson arrives at Boston aboard the George Washington28/02/1919The campaign against the League of Nations starts in the US.Feb 1919 The Allies secretly agree to military intervention in the Russian Civil War.04/03/1919Founding of Comintern (Third International) at Moscow.13/03/1919Admiral Kolchak begins his offensive against Bolsheviks in Russian Civil War.14/03/1919Wilson returns to Paris after a months absence.03/04/1919Wilson becomes sick with influenza.07/04/1919The Allies evacuate Odessa. Wilson appeals directly to the Italians in an effort to gain their support for his views23/04/1919 on the peace settlement.24/04/1919The Italian Premier Orlando walks out of peace conference over the Fiume issue.28/04/1919The League of Nations is founded.06/05/1919Peace conference disposes of German colonies.07/05/1919Treaty of Versailles is drafted and submitted to the German delegation. The German High Seas Fleet is scuttled at Scapa Flow after Rear Admiral Ludvig von Reuter, the officer in command of the 74 interned German Navy ships gives the21/06/1919 order, in an attempt to prevent them from from falling into British hands. Nine German sailors are shot dead by the british whilst attempting to scuttle their ships. Five years after the assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian Nationalist in Sarejevo, the Treaty of Versailles is signed between the Allies and Germany in Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, officially ending the Great War. The28/06/1919 treaty was very harsh on Germany forcing her to accept full responsibility for the the war and pay reparations, give up territories and reduce the army size to just 100,000 men.
    • 19/07/1919The Cenotaph is unveiled in London.10/09/1919The peace Treaty of St Germain-en-Laye is signed between the Allies and Austria. President Woodrow Wilsons campaign for the ratification of the Treaty of25/09/1919Versailles and the League of Nations ends as he collapses during whistle-stop tour of the country.