Major Aspects Causes of F.R- Economic, Social, Religious, Struggle for Survival, Rising of Middle class people and Role of Philosophers. Outbreak of F.R- Tennis court oath, Internal revolt. France constitutional monarchy- Structure of constitution and Declaration of Human Rights. Abolishment of Monarchy Reign of Terror Role of Women Abolishment of Slavery Laws related with everyday life- freedom of speech, expression and press Napoleon Bonaparte Influence of F.R in the world (Impacts)
Economic causes of F.R Marriage of Louie 16 with Austrian prince He found that govt treasury were empty. Causes- Long years of war drained wealth. Cost of maintaining court in Versile He helped 13 American colonies to fought against Brattain. Added a Livre (unit of currency) already 2 Livre. Charged 10% interest from loans. For their regular expense, cost of maintain army, court, offices and universities. They need much more money to cater this needs. King imposed lot of tax to the people. Society was divided in to three part- last section of the people forced to pay all the tax.
Social Causes of F.R Social system was part of Feudal system. Society was divided in to three estates- seen your text books. 90% population- peasants but very few of them occupied the land. 60% of land occupied nobles, rich members in third estate and church. The first two estate engaged lot of privileges. They were exempted from the tax. Peasants- forced to serve landlords house, fields, army and particular labour.
Role of Religion (Christian churches) The churches acquired the land property. They imposed tax from the peasants- Tithes ( one tenth of the agricultural product). Taille another important direct tax imposed by state. Lot of indirect taxes. Imposed tax- utensils like salt and tobacco. These tax imposed only for the third estate.
Shortage of Food (or) struggle for survival 1715-1789 population increased. Need much more food grains. The landlords paid very low fixed wages. But the price of the bread was too high. So the poor people failed to meet their needs. So gap between poor and rich increased. This led subsistence crisis (extreme situation). The bad harvest adds much more problems.
Emergence of Middle class people The peasants and workers participated revolts against imposing of tax and food scarcity. But a group within the third estate they became prosperous and earned education. 18- emerged a new social group- middleclass. They earned wealth- overseas trade, engaged in the woolen and silk textile. Exporting. Merchants, manufactures, lawyers and administers, they got education and believed that no group in the society by birth noble or clergy.
Role of Philosophers in F.R They put forward the idea of- Freedom, equal laws and opportunities. (Equality, Liberty and fraternity) John Locke, Jean Jacque Rousseau, Montesquieu and Voltaire. Locke- Two Treatise of Govt- refute the doctrine of divine and absolute monarchy. Rousseau- The Social Contract- form of govt based on social contract between the people and their representatives. Montesquieu- Spirit of Law- The division of power within the govt between Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.(mode of govt in USA) These ideas discussed- salons, coffeshop, newspapers and books. Read in loudly- helped the illiterate people. Louie 16- tried to impose the tax state protest this system
Outbreak of the war Louie 16- decided to held Estate general. Estate General- Rep from three estate. But the king he can decide- last (1614) 1789- 300 from first two estate (sited) Third estate- 600 (stand) (educated people only with 40000 grievance and demand) Norms- one vote each estate. Third estate opposed- vote based on individual participation. Failed this they boycott the meeting and assembled indoor tennis court- Tennis court Oath.
Winter- Bad harvest. Price of bread was too high. Bakers tried to exploit this situation. Long queues. So woman burnt that shop and started internal revolt. Villages were captured by the peasants, looted grains, burned the documents, attacked the chateause (residence nobles). Nobles fled from home and migrated neighboring countries.
Result of this attempts Louie 16 agreed the recommends of the third estate. Accepted their principles. Constitution- check the power of the king. 1789 Aug 4- national Assembly passed the constitution and abolished the feudal system and tax. Tithes abolished and church properties were confiscated.
Constitution Structure of the constitution (plz seen the page number 10). Declaration of Rights of man (page number 11).
Political Symbols Broken chain- Free Bundle of rods or fasces- Strength like unity. The eye within a triangle radiating light- Knowledge Sceptre- Symbol of royal power. Snake biting its tail to form a ring- no beginning and end. Red Phrygian cap- free from slave. Blue- White- red- national colours of France. The winged woman- personification of law. The law tablet- law is same for all and equal.
France abolished monarchyand became republic Louie 16 Prussia and Austria (worried the dvpt) N.A declared war against. War between people and aristocrats in Europe. Men fought in front and woman at home. Political clubs; Jacobin club- find out the members of this party). Finally imprisoned the royal family and abolished monarchy. Louie 16 sentenced to death- and his wife After that a period of terror reign (seen the texts)
Role of Woman Actively participated in the events. They brought changes in the French societies They believed that their involvement improve their lives. Third estate woman worked for living. Especially they were worked in- Plz seen the text book. No Edn and Job training. They were maintained their families also. Their wages was lower to compare with man. They were started own political club and Newspapers. 60 woman clubs. (The Society of revolution and Republican woman)
They demanded same political right of man. They were disappointed – constitution passes by national assembly in 1791- treated passive citizens. They demanded the right for vote and participation in the National assembly. Early years – national assembly introduced good things favour to the woman. Started schools and schooling became compulsory. Marriage- with their permission Divorce- legal for both man and woman. During the time of terror reign their political clubs were banned and prominent leaders were executed. 1946- they won the right for vote. Life of revolutionary woman- Olympe de Gouges
Abolition of Slavery Page No 21.
Napoleon Bonaparte 1804- crowned. Conquered the European countries and destroyed monarchy and created his kingdom. Modernised Europe. Many laws. Uniform weights and measures. Decimal system. Initially he was a Liberal leader- bring freedom for the people. He finally defeated- Waterloo in 1815. His ideas of liberty and modernity spread in all parts of Europe.
Impacts of French Revolution The idea of liberty and democratic rights important legacy of F.R It spread in all parts of Europe. Feudal system abolished. Colonised people reworked the idea of freedom from bondages. It strengthened their movts to create a sovereign state. Tippu Sultan and Raja Ram Mohan Roy