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  • 1. Lijin Golden
  • 2. Major Aspects Causes of F.R- Economic, Social, Religious, Struggle for Survival, Rising of Middle class people and Role of Philosophers. Outbreak of F.R- Tennis court oath, Internal revolt. France constitutional monarchy- Structure of constitution and Declaration of Human Rights. Abolishment of Monarchy Reign of Terror Role of Women Abolishment of Slavery Laws related with everyday life- freedom of speech, expression and press Napoleon Bonaparte Influence of F.R in the world (Impacts)
  • 3. Economic causes of F.R Marriage of Louie 16 with Austrian prince He found that govt treasury were empty. Causes- Long years of war drained wealth. Cost of maintaining court in Versile He helped 13 American colonies to fought against Brattain. Added a Livre (unit of currency) already 2 Livre. Charged 10% interest from loans. For their regular expense, cost of maintain army, court, offices and universities. They need much more money to cater this needs. King imposed lot of tax to the people. Society was divided in to three part- last section of the people forced to pay all the tax.
  • 4. Social Causes of F.R Social system was part of Feudal system. Society was divided in to three estates- seen your text books. 90% population- peasants but very few of them occupied the land. 60% of land occupied nobles, rich members in third estate and church. The first two estate engaged lot of privileges. They were exempted from the tax. Peasants- forced to serve landlords house, fields, army and particular labour.
  • 5. Role of Religion (Christian churches) The churches acquired the land property. They imposed tax from the peasants- Tithes ( one tenth of the agricultural product). Taille another important direct tax imposed by state. Lot of indirect taxes. Imposed tax- utensils like salt and tobacco. These tax imposed only for the third estate.
  • 6. Shortage of Food (or) struggle for survival 1715-1789 population increased. Need much more food grains. The landlords paid very low fixed wages. But the price of the bread was too high. So the poor people failed to meet their needs. So gap between poor and rich increased. This led subsistence crisis (extreme situation). The bad harvest adds much more problems.
  • 7. Emergence of Middle class people The peasants and workers participated revolts against imposing of tax and food scarcity. But a group within the third estate they became prosperous and earned education. 18- emerged a new social group- middleclass. They earned wealth- overseas trade, engaged in the woolen and silk textile. Exporting. Merchants, manufactures, lawyers and administers, they got education and believed that no group in the society by birth noble or clergy.
  • 8. Role of Philosophers in F.R They put forward the idea of- Freedom, equal laws and opportunities. (Equality, Liberty and fraternity) John Locke, Jean Jacque Rousseau, Montesquieu and Voltaire. Locke- Two Treatise of Govt- refute the doctrine of divine and absolute monarchy. Rousseau- The Social Contract- form of govt based on social contract between the people and their representatives. Montesquieu- Spirit of Law- The division of power within the govt between Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.(mode of govt in USA) These ideas discussed- salons, coffeshop, newspapers and books. Read in loudly- helped the illiterate people. Louie 16- tried to impose the tax state protest this system
  • 9. Outbreak of the war Louie 16- decided to held Estate general. Estate General- Rep from three estate. But the king he can decide- last (1614) 1789- 300 from first two estate (sited) Third estate- 600 (stand) (educated people only with 40000 grievance and demand) Norms- one vote each estate. Third estate opposed- vote based on individual participation. Failed this they boycott the meeting and assembled indoor tennis court- Tennis court Oath.
  • 10.  Winter- Bad harvest. Price of bread was too high. Bakers tried to exploit this situation. Long queues. So woman burnt that shop and started internal revolt. Villages were captured by the peasants, looted grains, burned the documents, attacked the chateause (residence nobles). Nobles fled from home and migrated neighboring countries.
  • 11. Result of this attempts Louie 16 agreed the recommends of the third estate. Accepted their principles. Constitution- check the power of the king. 1789 Aug 4- national Assembly passed the constitution and abolished the feudal system and tax. Tithes abolished and church properties were confiscated.
  • 12. Constitution Structure of the constitution (plz seen the page number 10). Declaration of Rights of man (page number 11).
  • 13. Political Symbols Broken chain- Free Bundle of rods or fasces- Strength like unity. The eye within a triangle radiating light- Knowledge Sceptre- Symbol of royal power. Snake biting its tail to form a ring- no beginning and end. Red Phrygian cap- free from slave. Blue- White- red- national colours of France. The winged woman- personification of law. The law tablet- law is same for all and equal.
  • 14. France abolished monarchyand became republic Louie 16 Prussia and Austria (worried the dvpt) N.A declared war against. War between people and aristocrats in Europe. Men fought in front and woman at home. Political clubs; Jacobin club- find out the members of this party). Finally imprisoned the royal family and abolished monarchy. Louie 16 sentenced to death- and his wife After that a period of terror reign (seen the texts)
  • 15. Role of Woman Actively participated in the events. They brought changes in the French societies They believed that their involvement improve their lives. Third estate woman worked for living. Especially they were worked in- Plz seen the text book. No Edn and Job training. They were maintained their families also. Their wages was lower to compare with man. They were started own political club and Newspapers. 60 woman clubs. (The Society of revolution and Republican woman)
  • 16.  They demanded same political right of man. They were disappointed – constitution passes by national assembly in 1791- treated passive citizens. They demanded the right for vote and participation in the National assembly. Early years – national assembly introduced good things favour to the woman. Started schools and schooling became compulsory. Marriage- with their permission Divorce- legal for both man and woman. During the time of terror reign their political clubs were banned and prominent leaders were executed. 1946- they won the right for vote. Life of revolutionary woman- Olympe de Gouges
  • 17. Abolition of Slavery Page No 21.
  • 18. Napoleon Bonaparte 1804- crowned. Conquered the European countries and destroyed monarchy and created his kingdom. Modernised Europe. Many laws. Uniform weights and measures. Decimal system. Initially he was a Liberal leader- bring freedom for the people. He finally defeated- Waterloo in 1815. His ideas of liberty and modernity spread in all parts of Europe.
  • 19. Impacts of French Revolution The idea of liberty and democratic rights important legacy of F.R It spread in all parts of Europe. Feudal system abolished. Colonised people reworked the idea of freedom from bondages. It strengthened their movts to create a sovereign state. Tippu Sultan and Raja Ram Mohan Roy