Divesity in living organismPresentation Transcript
Science Project Work 2012-13 Dec
Science of classification is taronomy Importance :- classification makes the study of the organisms easy it helps in exploring the diversity of life . BASIC OF CLASSIFICATION Nature of the cell – prokaryotic and eukaryotic. No. of cells – single cell or multicellular.
Lack well defined nucleus and membrane bound all organelles.Mode of nutrition :- either autotrophic or hetrotrophic. Ex:- bacteria , blue-green algae.(gnobacteria)
Unicellular eukaryotic organism.Movement is done by cilia or whip like flagella. Ex :- algae , cliatoms protozoas.
they are non – green , hetrotrophic (particle or saprophyte).Cell wall is made up of complex sugar called chitin. Ex :- yeast and mushroom.
Those are multicellular eukaryotes with cell wall.These are autotrophic and use chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
These include all organisms which are multicellular eukaryotes.Without cell walls.These are hetrotrops.
Phylum - THALLOPHYTAThallophyta don’t have well differentiated body design fall in this group.The plant in this group are commonly called algae.These plants are aquatic.Ex :- spirogyra , cladophora and chara.
Phylum - BRYOPHYTABryophyta are called the amphibians of the plant kingdom.The plant body is commonly differentiated from stem and leaf like structure.There is no specialised tissue for the conduction of water and other substance from one part of the water plant body to another.Ex :- moss and marchantia.
Phylum - PTERIDOPHYTAThe body is differentiated into roots , stem and leaves.Pteridophyta has specialised tissue for the conduction of water other substance from one part of the plant body to another .Some examples are marcilia ferns horse-tails.
Phylum - CRYPTOGAMAEThallophyta , Bryophyta , Pteridophyta , these all three groups have hidden reproductive organ and hence they are called Cryptogamae.
Phylum - PHANAROGAMESThey are most advanced type of bearing seeds they have root , stem , leaves and flowers . They includes gymnosperm and angiosperm.
Seeds are enclosed in fruits.Productive organ are flowers which carry male and female sex organs.Ex :- pea , maize .
Plants bear naked seeds.They have productive organ cone which carry male and female sex organs.Ex :- pinus , cycus.
Leaves have parallel venation.They have fibrous roots.They have one cotyledon.Ex :- maize.Monocots
Leaves have reticulate venation.They have tap roots.They have two cotyledons.Ex :- pea , maize.Dicots
Phylum - PORIFERAThey have pores called Ostia all over the body; with a single large opening , known as Osculum on the top.Animals of this phylum are known as sponges. They have a characteristics canal system for water passage not found in any other kind of animals.Their skeleton is made up of calcareous and siliseous spicules of spongin fibres.Reproduction is both asexual by gemules and sexual reproduction through fertilizations.Ex :- Sycon , Spongilla , Euplectella.
Phylum – CNIDARIAThe body of this phylum is radially symmetrical.The body bears tentacles supplied with special stinging cells called cnibloblasts.There is a cavity in a body.The body is made up of two layers of cells.Some coelenterates live in colony (obelia) while others solitary (hydra).Animals of this phylum exists in two types known as zooids-polyps and medusae. Polyps are always fixed but medusae are free swimming.Reproduction is usually asexual (budding) in polyp form and sexual in medusae form.Ex :- Hydra (sea anemones) Obelia , Aurelia and Jelly fish.
Phylum - PLATYHELMINTHESTheir body is dorsiventrally flat and leaf-like or ribbon like.Body symmetry is bilateral.Body cavity is absent.There are three layers of cells from which differentiated tissues can be formed. So , animals of this phylla are triploblastic.Ex :- Dugesia (planaria) is free living , Fasciola (liver fluke) and Taenia solium (tape worm) are parasitic animals.
Phylum - NEMATODAMost of the Aschelminthes are small cylindrical or round worms.Body cavity is not a true coelom. A pseudocoelom is present.Body is bilaterally symetrical and triploblastic.Sexes are separate.Ascaris (round worms) ,Ancylostoma (hook worm) and Wuchereria (filarial worm) causes elephantiasis.
Phylum - ANNELIDAThey have elongated and segmented body.Body bears laterals appendages for locomotion in the form of chitinous setae or Parapodia.The body is bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic.Reproduction by sexual means. Sex may be separated or hermaphrodite (body sexes in the same individual).They are the first animals with true coelom (body cavity).Ex:- pheretima (earthworm) , hirudinaria (cattle leech)
Phylum - ARTHOPODAThey poses jointed legs/appendages.Aethropodes have chitinous exoskeleton.The body is segmented and may divisible into two regions-cephalothorax (head and thorax joined) and abdomen.Body cavity is reduced and is known as haemoceol (cavity filled with blood).These animals are bilaterally symmetrical.There is an open circulatory system i.e., the blood does not flow in definite blood vessels.Ex:- apis (honey bee) , musca , anopheles (mosquito) , palaemon (prawn) , crabs
Phylum - MULLUSCAThey have unsegmented soft body.The body is divided into three regions – head , dorsal visceral mass and ventral foot.Body is bilaterally symmetrical.The coelomic cavity is reduced.They have open circulatory system and kindly like organs for excretion.Some molluscs have hard calcareous shell , an outer covering of the body.Respiration is by gills called ctenidia.Ex:- pila (snail) , unio (fresh water mussel) and octopus.
Phylum - ECHINODERMATAThey are marine and free living.They triploblastic , and have a coelomic cavity.They are spiny skinned animals.Water driven tube system is present.Ex:- asterias , featherstar etc.
Phylum – PROTOCHODATAThey have motochord which runs up to the pasteorior and saparates the nervous tissue from the elementary canal.They live in sea water.They show bilateral symmetrical.They are tribloblastic and have coelom.
They have a notochord. They have a dorsol nerve card. They are triploblastic. They have paired gill pouchis. They are coelomak. They are:- pisces , amphibia , reptilia, aves , mammalia.
The binomial nomenclature makes for a uniform way of identification of the vast diversity of life around us. The binomial nomenclature is made up of two words :- a gernic name and a specific name.